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Environmental impacts of boom-corridor and selectively thinned small-diameter-tree forests
Teresa de la Fuente, Dan Bergström, Raul Fernandez-Lacruz, Teppo Hujala, Nike Krajnc, Ruben Laina, Tomas Nordfjell, Matevž Triplat, Eduardo Tolosana, 2022

Povzetek: European forest stands of small-diameter trees can provide industries with biomass as an alternative to fossil use. Small-tree harvesting is costly using conventional methods but using accumulating felling heads (AFH) in combination with a novel boom-corridor thinning (BCT) technique can increase harvester productivity and supply cost efficiency. This method has great potential to reduce costs, but its environmental impact compared with selective thinning (ST) needs to be determined. The objectives of this study were therefore to quantify and compare tree and soil damage as well as air, water and soil emissions for both BCT and ST in various European small-diameter-tree forests. Trials were performed in 84 study units (42 replications per thinning technique) across four countries. Damaged trees (with a diameter at breast height ≥ 7 cm) were measured after thinning and after forwarding. Harvesting emissions were calculated from a life cycle assessment. The percentage of remaining trees that had been damaged by the harvesting processes was 13% and 19% for BCT and ST, respectively, and the difference was significant. BCT exhibited the lowest emissions in all environmental impact categories considered, in all countries. Greenhouse gas emissions were on average 17% lower for BCT. BCT in small-diameter-tree stands therefore reduces the environmental impact of thinning operations compared with conventional methods, and results in less damage to the remaining trees.
Ključne besede: first thinning, harvesting damages, GHG emissions, forest biomass, forest operations
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.05.2022; Ogledov: 34; Prenosov: 33
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,67 MB)

Population differentiation in Acer platanoides L. at the regional scale—laying the basis for effective conservation of its genetic resources in Austria
Desanka Lazarević, Jan-Peter George, Mari Rusanen, Dalibor Ballian, Stefanie Pfattner, Konrad Heino, 2022

Povzetek: Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) is a widespread forest tree species in Central and Northern Europe but with a scattered distribution. In the debate on climate change driven changes in species selection in the forest, Norway maple has recently received raised interest because of its comparatively high drought resistance (higher than in sycamore maple). Therefore, it is an interesting species for sites high in carbonates and where other native tree species have become devastated by pathogens (e.g., elm, ash). In Austria, the demand on saplings is currently rising, while there is only very little domestic reproductive material available (on average more than 95% of saplings are imported from neighboring countries). This study was undertaken to identify genetic diversity and population structure of Norway maple in Austria to lay the foundation for the establishment of respective in situ and ex situ conservation measures. In addition, samples from planted stands and imported reproductive material from other countries were included to study the anthropogenic influence on the species in managed forests. We used 11 novel microsatellites to genotype 756 samples from 27 putatively natural Austrian populations, and 186 samples derived from two planted stands and five lots of forest reproductive material; in addition, 106 samples from other European populations were also genotyped. Cross species amplification of the new markers was tested in 19 Acer species from around the world. Population clustering by STRUCTURE analysis revealed a distinct pattern of population structure in Austria and Europe, but overall moderate differentiation. Sibship analysis identifies several populations with severe founding effects, highlighting the need for proper selection of seed sources of sufficient genetic diversity in the species.
Ključne besede: Norway maple, genetic structure, genetic differentiation, gene pool, seed orchard
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.04.2022; Ogledov: 83; Prenosov: 36
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,20 MB)

Private forest owner's cooperation in the machinery ring : is it a solution for wood mobilization from small-scale private forests?
Špela Pezdevšek Malovrh, Nike Krajnc, Matevž Triplat, 2022

Povzetek: Legislation and policy makers have recognized private forest owners cooperation in machinery ring as an instrument to support wood mobilization through efficient use of machinery. The study analyzes private forest owner’s cooperation in the machinery ring in Slovenia and determines whether this cooperation contributes to wood mobilization from small-scale private forests. The research was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the survey was conducted among the members of machinery rings at their annual general meetings (24 machinery rings participated in the survey, representing 64.9% of the total number of machinery rings). The questionnaire was distributed to all members present at the annual general meetings (n=529) and only those who were private forest owner or provided services within machinery rings were eligible to complete the questionnaire (n=438). In the second phase, data on the amount of service provided by machinery ring members were compared with the amount of felling in private forests for 2019 to gain insight into the extend of forestry work (timber harvesting) carried out in a private forest under neighbourhood assistance.The results show that machinery rings members are predominantly male, on average 50 years old, mainly with high school education and occupation in agriculture, owning on average 15.2 ha of forest. Regardless of forest management activities, machinery ring members perform forest management activities in their forest by themselves or with the help of family members. Only a small proportion of members use neighbourhood assistance to carry out the work. This most often occurs in the transport of timber. A very small proportion of members provide forest services through the machinery ring, but their scope of services is not insignificant. In 2019, machinery ring members most often performed harvesting activities with the chain saw, followed by timber skidding as a service. Equipment with machinery for providing services is good among members – about three quarters of them have a chainsaw and an adapted agricultural tractor, but this machinery is quite old, showing that machinery is insufficiently used for forestry operations. The results show that machinery rings are nowadays an essential part of strategic (operational) management in Slovenian agriculture and forestry, and provide important insights into the possibilities to improve forestry operations and the future development cooperation between private forest owners in machinery rings to support wood mobilization from small-scale private forests.
Ključne besede: private forest management, harvesting intensity, cooperation, machinery cooperation, neighbourhood assistance
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 25.04.2022; Ogledov: 77; Prenosov: 53
.pdf Celotno besedilo (611,91 KB)

Repository of drought event impacts across the danube catchment countries between 1981 and 2016 using publicly available sources
Jiří Jakubínský, Monika Bláhová, Lenka Bartošová, Klára Steinerová, Jan Balek, Petra Dížková, Daniela Semerádová, Daniel Alexandru, Galia Bardarska, Sabina Bokal, Gregor Gregorič, Gal Oblišar, Andreja Sušnik, 2019

Povzetek: Drought directly and indirectly affects human society in a number of ways. In many regions of the world climate change will exasperate the effects of droughts, affect national economies more intensely. The main aim of this article was to catalogue and analyze the drought impacts in the 11 Central and South Eastern European states located in the Danube river basin. The identification of dry episodes was based on information from publicly available sources, namely, newspaper and journal articles that reported drought impacts. Information on drought impact occurrences was classified into one of five defined categories in which the drought impact report was most clearly manifested (i.e., agriculture, forestry, soil systems, wildfires and hydrology). In terms of the spatial distribution of drought impacts, individual recorded events were analyzed at the level of EU NUTS regions (or their equivalent in non-EU countries). The analysis highlights country-specific vulnerability to drought. Furthermore, gradual increases in drought events and the number of reported impacts were identified, which was particularly evident in the agricultural sector.
Ključne besede: drought impact, Danube basin, agriculture, climate change, water stress
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 21.04.2022; Ogledov: 170; Prenosov: 57
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,24 MB)

Effects of boom-corridor thinning on harvester productivity and residual stand structure
Dan Bergström, Raul Fernandez-Lacruz, Teresa de la Fuente, Christian Höök, Nike Krajnc, Jukka Malinen, Yrjö Nuutinen, Matevž Triplat, Tomas Nordfjell, 2022

Povzetek: Biomass derived from small-diameter, dense, thinning stands is largely underutilized within the European Union, mainly because of in-effective harvesting methods and cutting technology, leading to high supply costs. Therefore, the efficacy of boom-corridor thinning (BCT) and selective thinning (ST) on harvester felling and bunching productivity was compared for the first thinning of whole tree biomass in small-diameter, dense stands. BCT working method is when trees are cut with linear movements of the harvester’s boom reach, along narrow corridors, instead of cutting each tree selectively (ST). Trials were performed in six forest stands, one in Sweden, two in Finland, and three in Slovenia, using the same harvester and operator. A time-and-motion study was carried out in 64 pre-marked study units (32 replications per method), across a variety of stand conditions. The biomass removal for both treatments averaged 40.2 dry t ha -1 and BCT productivity averaged 5.4 dry t PMh -1. For BCT, harvester work time consumption (sec tree -1) and productivity (dry t PMh -1) were on average 27% lower and 16% higher, respectively, compared with ST. The effectiveness of the accumulating felling head technology used could potentially be increased by implementing a feed-roller system when handling excessive tree lengths. Developing dedicated harvesting technology for BCT could further boost productivity, facilitating cost-effective and sustainable utilization of low-value small-diameter tree biomass and replacing fossil resources.
Ključne besede: bioenergy, accumulating felling head, multi-tree handling, silviculture, bioeconomy, forestry
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.04.2022; Ogledov: 84; Prenosov: 57
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,29 MB)

Jet stream position explains regional anomalies in European beech forest productivity and tree growth
Isabel Dorado Liñán, Blanca Ayarzagüena, Flurin Babst, Guobao Xu, Luis Gil, Giovanna Battipaglia, Allan Buras, Vojtěch Čada, Jesús J. Camarero, Liam Cavin, Tom Levanič, Peter Prislan, 2022

Povzetek: The mechanistic pathways connecting ocean-atmosphere variability and terrestrial productivity are well-established theoretically, but remain challenging to quantify empirically. Such quantification will greatly improve the assessment and prediction of changes in terrestrial carbon sequestration in response to dynamically induced climatic extremes. The jet stream latitude (JSL) over the North Atlantic-European domain provides a synthetic and robust physical framework that integrates climate variability not accounted for by atmospheric circulation patterns alone. Surface climate impacts of north-south summer JSL displacements are not uniform across Europe, but rather create a northwestern-southeastern dipole in forest productivity and radial-growth anomalies. Summer JSL variability over the eastern North Atlantic-European domain (5-40E) exerts the strongest impact on European beech, inducing anomalies of up to 30% in modelled gross primary productivity and 50% in radial tree growth. The net effects of JSL movements on terrestrial carbon fluxes depend on forest density, carbon stocks, and productivity imbalances across biogeographic regions.
Ključne besede: atmospheric dynamics, climate-change ecology, climate-change impacts, environmental impact
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.04.2022; Ogledov: 103; Prenosov: 75
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,68 MB)

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 8
Gordana Tomović, Marko S. Sabovljević, Marjan Niketić, Petya Boycheva, Predrag Lazarević, Eva Kabaš, Danijela Vidaković, Jelena Krizmanić, Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Milorad Veljković, Vladan Djordjević, Boris Assyov, Fuat Bozok, Simona Strgulc-Krajšek, Žan Lobnik Cimerman, Sorin Stefanut, Constantin-Ciprian Bîrsan, Alma Hajrudinović-Bogunić, Ante Begić, 2022

Povzetek: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: diatom alga Cylindrotheca gracilis, fungi Laccaria macrocystidiata, liverworts Riccia canaliculata, Riccia cavernosa, and Riccia frostii, mosses Dicranum viride, monocots Arundo donax, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipactis palustris, and Sternbergia colchiciflora and dicots Aconitum anthora and Cephalaria pastricensis are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.
Ključne besede: new report, Aconitum anthora, Arundo donax, Cephalanthera rubra, Cephalaria pastricensis, Cylindrotheca gracilis, Dicranum viride, Epipactis palustris, Laccaria macrocystidiata, Riccia canaliculata, Riccia cavernosa, Riccia frostii, Sternbergia colchiciflora, SE Europe
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.04.2022; Ogledov: 112; Prenosov: 61
.pdf Celotno besedilo (196,96 KB)

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 7
Marko S. Sabovljević, Gordana Tomović, Predrag Lazarević, Maja Lazarević, Snežana Vukojičić, Snežana Vukojičić, Ivana Trbojević, Jovana Pantović, Simona Strgulc-Krajšek, Darja Kopitar, Uroš Buzurović, Sanja Z. Djurović, Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Zbigniew Szeląg, Petya Boycheva, Dobri Ivanov, Milorad Veljković, Vladan Djordjević, Sorin Stefanut, Constantin-Ciprian Bîrsan, 2022

Povzetek: his paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: stonewort Chara intermedia, liverworts Fossombronia wondraczekii and Pseudomoerckia blyttii, mosses Hamatocaulis vernicosus and Hookeria lucens, monocots Gladiolus palustris, Neotinea tridentata, and Orchis militaris and dicots Cardamine serbica, Cardamine waldsteinii, Hieracium kotschyanum and Pilosella petraea are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.
Ključne besede: new report, Cardamine serbica, Cardamine waldsteinii, Chara intermedia, Gladiolus palustris, Fossombronia wondraczekii, Hamatocaulis vernicosus, Hieracium kotschyanum, Hookeria lucens, Neotinea tridentata, Orchis militaris, Pilosella petraea, Pseudomoerckia blyttii, SE Europe
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.04.2022; Ogledov: 61; Prenosov: 40
.pdf Celotno besedilo (176,40 KB)

Variation in floristic and trait composition along environmental gradients in the herb layer of temperate forests in the transition zone between Central and SE Europe
Janez Kermavnar, Lado Kutnar, Aleksander Marinšek, 2022

Povzetek: Species- and trait-environment linkages in forest plant communities continue to be a frequent topic in ecological research. We studied the dependence of floristic and functional trait composition on environmental factors, namely local soil properties, overstory characteristics, climatic parameters and other abiotic and biotic variables. The study area comprised 50 monitoring plots across Slovenia, belonging to the EU ICP Forests monitoring network. Vegetation was surveyed in accordance with harmonized protocols, and environmental variables were either measured or estimated during vegetation sampling. Significant predictors of species composition were identified by canonical correspondence analysis. Correlations between plant traits, i.e. plant growth habit, life form, flowering features and CSR signature, were examined with fourth-corner analysis and linear regressions. Our results show that variation in floristic composition was mainly explained by climatic parameters (mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation), soil properties (pH) and tree layer-dependent light conditions. Trait composition was most closely related with tree layer characteristics, such as shade-casting ability (SCA, a proxy for light availability in the understory layer), tree species richness and tree species composition. Amongst soil properties, total nitrogen content and soil texture (proportion of clay) were most frequently correlated with different species traits or trait states. The CSR signature of herb communities was associated with tree layer SCA, soil pH and mean annual temperature. The floristic composition of the studied herb-layer vegetation depended on temperature and precipitation, which are likely to be influenced by ongoing climate change (warming and drying). Trait composition exhibited significant links to tree layer characteristics and soil conditions, which are in turn directly modified by forest management interventions.
Ključne besede: vegetation–environment relationship, floristic composition, life-history traits, herbaceous species, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 15.04.2022; Ogledov: 74; Prenosov: 63
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,43 MB)
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