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Overview of global long-distance road Transportation of industrial roundwood
Kärhä Kalle, Milla Seuri, Patricio Miguel Mac Donagh, Mauricio Acuna, Christian Kanzian, Vladimir Petković, Robert Renato Cesar Gonçalves, Costa Luis Henrique Suppi, da Cruz Rodrigo Coelho, Tihomir Krumov, Matevž Triplat, 2024, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The aim of the study was to provide a comprehensive overview of global long-distance road transportation of industrial roundwood. The study focused on the maximum gross vehicle weight (GVW) limits allowed with different timber truck configurations, typical payloads in timber trucking, the road transportation share of the total industrial roundwood longdistance transportation volume, and the average long-distance transportation distances and costs of industrial roundwood. The study was carried out as a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was sent to timber transportation logistics experts and research scientists in the 30 countries with the largest industrial roundwood removals in Europe, as well as selected major forestry countries in the world (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Türkiye, the United States of America and Uruguay) in February 2022, and closed in May 2022. A total of 31 countries took part in the survey. The survey illustrated that timber trucking was the main long-distance transportation method of industrial roundwood in almost every country surveyed. Road transportation averaged 89% of the total industrial roundwood long-distance transportation volume. Timber truck configurations of 4 to 9 axles with GVW limits of around 30 tonnes to over 70 tonnes were most commonly used. The results indicated that higher GVW limits allowed significantly higher payloads in timber trucking, with the lowest payloads at less than 25 tonnes, and the highest payloads more than 45 tonnes. The average road transportation distance with industrial roundwood was 128 km, and the average long-distance transportation cost in timber trucking was €11.1 per tonne of timber transported. In the entire survey material, there was a direct relationship between transportation distance and transportation costs and an inverse relationship between maximum GVW limits and transportation costs. Consequently, in order to reduce transportation costs, it is essential to maximise payloads (within legal limits) and minimise haul distances. Several measures to increase cost- and energy-efficiency, and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in road transportation logistics, are discussed in the paper. On the basis of the survey, it is recommended that upto-date statistical data and novel research studies on the long-distance transportation of industrial roundwood be conducted in some countries in the future.
Ključne besede: timber logistics, timber hauling, timber trucking, gross vehicle weight, payload, transportation distance, transportation cost, cost efficiency, limit payload
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.02.2024; Ogledov: 64; Prenosov: 25
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,77 MB)
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The genus Fomitopsis (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) reconsidered
Viacheslav Spirin, K. Runnel, J. Vlasák, I. Viner, M.D. Barrett, L. Ryvarden, Annarosa Bernicchia, B. Rivoire, A.M. Ainsworth, Tine Grebenc, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Based on seven- and three-gene datasets, we discuss four alternative approaches for a reclassification of Fomitopsidaceae (Polyporales, Basidiomycota). After taking into account morphological diversity in the family, we argue in favour of distinguishing three genera only, viz. Anthoporia, Antrodia and Fomitopsis. Fomitopsis becomes a large genus with 128 accepted species, containing almost all former Fomitopsis spp. and most species formerly placed in Antrodia, Daedalea and Laccocephalum. Genera Buglossoporus, Cartilosoma, Daedalea, Melanoporia, Neolentiporus, alongside twenty others, are treated as synonyms of Fomitopsis. This generic scheme allows for morphologically distinct genera in Fomitopsidaceae, unlike other schemes we considered. We provide arguments for retaining Fomitopsis and suppressing earlier (Daedalea, Caloporus) or simultaneously published generic names (Piptoporus) considered here as its synonyms. Taxonomy of nine species complexes in the genus is revised based on ITS, ITS + TEF1, ITS + TEF1 + RPB1 and ITS + TEF1 + RPB2 datasets. In total, 17 species are described as new to science, 26 older species are reinstated and 26 currently accepted species names are relegated to synonymy. A condensed identification key for all accepted species in the genus is provided.
Ključne besede: brown-rot fungi, new taxa, phylogeny, polypores, taxonomy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.02.2024; Ogledov: 64; Prenosov: 30
.pdf Celotno besedilo (12,89 MB)
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Extreme environments simplify reassembly of communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Nataša Šibanc, Dave R. Clark, Thorunn Helgason, Alex J. Dumbrell, Irena Maček, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The ecological impacts of long-term (press) disturbance on mechanisms regulating the relative abundance (i.e., commonness or rarity) and temporal dynamics of species within a community remain largely unknown. This is particularly true for the functionally important arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi; obligate plant-root endosymbionts that colonize more than two-thirds of terrestrial plant species. Here, we use high-resolution amplicon sequencing to examine how AM fungal communities in a specific extreme ecosystem—mofettes or natural CO2 springs caused by geological CO2 exhalations—are affected by long-term stress. We found that in mofettes, specific and temporally stable communities form as a subset of the local metacommunity. These communities are less diverse and dominated by adapted, “stress tolerant” taxa. Those taxa are rare in control locations and more benign environments worldwide, but show a stable temporal pattern in the extreme sites, consistently dominating the communities in grassland mofettes. This pattern of lower diversity and high dominance of specific taxa has been confirmed as relatively stable over several sampling years and is independently observed across multiple geographic locations (mofettes in different countries). This study implies that the response of soil microbial community composition to long-term stress is relatively predictable, which can also reflect the community response to other anthropogenic stressors (e.g., heavy metal pollution or land use change). Moreover, as AM fungi are functionally differentiated, with different taxa providing different benefits to host plants, changes in community structure in response to long-term environmental change have the potential to impact terrestrial plant communities and their productivity
Ključne besede: arbuscular mycorrhiza, elevated CO2, long-term experiments, soil biodiversity, soil hypoxia, next-generation sequencing, NGS
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.02.2024; Ogledov: 69; Prenosov: 33
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,45 MB)
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An outbreak of Verticillium dahliae on sycamore maple in a forest stand in Slovenia
Ana Brglez, Zina Devetak, Nikica Ogris, Sebastjan Radišek, Barbara Piškur, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Verticillium dahliae Kleb., the causal agent of Verticillium wilts, is a devastating plant disease affecting many plant species. Fungus V. dahliae was detected in a partially artificially established Acer pseudoplatanus L. forest stand in central Slovenia. This finding incited further study about the risk of different sources of V. dahliae isolates for maples in forests and the pathogenicity of three V. dahliae isolates of different origins was tested on saplings of A. pseudoplatanus, A. platanoides L., and A. campestre L. The inoculated saplings exhibited disease symptoms, i.e., leaf necrosis and wilting. At the end of the pathogenicity test, typical xylem browning was visible on the cross-sections, and the pathogen was successfully re-isolated. The isolates showed significant differences in their pathogenicity to specific maple hosts, with the agricultural isolate (originated from bell pepper) being the most aggressive on all three maple species. The disease severity index (DSI) and relative area under the disease progress curve (rAUDPC), as well as the success of re-isolation, indicate that A. platanoides is the most susceptible to inoculation with V. dahliae. In addition, significant differences in sapling biomass were observed between treated and control plants. These results suggest that maples in forest stands are threatened by V. dahliae, and biosecurity measures should be considered and implemented in forest management to reduce the transmission and potential spread of the pathogen.
Ključne besede: Verticillium wilt, Acer spp., pathogenicity test, Disease severity index, DSI, Area under the disease progress curve, AUDPC, biosecurity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 07.02.2024; Ogledov: 104; Prenosov: 47
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,75 MB)
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The influence of storage conditions and DNA extraction protocol on the results of molecular analysis of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.)
Zina Devetak, Andreja Kavčič, Maarten De Groot, Barbara Piškur, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: One of the key steps of the molecular identification of bark beetles is obtaining a sufficient quantity of high-quality DNA extract. In this study, we investigated the influence of different storage procedures for Ips typographus (L.) specimens and various DNA extraction protocols on the quantity and quality of DNA intended for use in molecular diagnostics. Adult beetles were frozen at -20 °C, either dry or in ethanol. We tested four different protocols for DNA extraction. We compared the quantity of extracted DNA and assessed its quality with PCR and Sanger sequencing. Different storage protocols had no significant effect on the quantity of DNA extracted. However, freezing specimens in ethanol provided higher-quality DNA for molecular applications. Only two of the extraction protocols produced sequenceable amplicons, and the difference in the amount of extracted DNA between them was not significant. We propose the optimal combination of storing specimens in ethanol at -20°C and using the Nucleospin Insect DNA extraction kit from Macherey Nagel, enabling a timeefficient identification process.
Ključne besede: early detection, specimen storage, total DNA extraction, PCR, polymerase chain reaction, Sanger sequencing, molecular diagnostics
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 02.02.2024; Ogledov: 244; Prenosov: 75
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,17 MB)
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Patogenost izolatov izbranih vrst gliv na Pinus sylvestris L. IN P. nigra Arnold
Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, Nikica Ogris, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Na sadikah rdečega in črnega bora smo testirali patogenost osmih izbranih izolatov gliv (Corinectria fuckeliana, Diaporthe eres, Diplodia pinea, Fusarium sp. 1 in 2, Fusicolla sp., Nectria dematiosa in Tympanis sp.), ki smo jih izolirali iz obolelih borovih dreves v Sloveniji v letih 2020 in 2021. Inokulirali smo skupno 115 sadik borov (vključno s kontrolo), periodično smo preverjali njihovo zdravstveno stanje in ob prvih znakih sušenja opravili reizolacije iz robov nastalih nekroz. Reizolacije so bile uspešne le v primeru inokulacije z vrstami gliv Diplodia pinea, Diaporthe eres in Fusarium sp. 2. Povprečna dolžina nekroz sadik rdečega bora, inokuliranih z D. pinea, Di. eres in Tympanis sp., se je statistično značilno razlikovala od kontrolnih sadik (p < 0,05). Pri sadikah črnega bora pa so se za statistično značilne izkazale povprečne dolžine nekroz pri kontroli in inokulacijah z glivama D. pinea in Tympanis sp. (p < 0,05).
Ključne besede: test patogenosti, reizolacije, Pinus sylvestris, rdeči bor, Pinus nigra, črni bor
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 257; Prenosov: 101
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,17 MB)
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Ocenjevanje kakovosti zraka na izbranih lokacijah v Mežiški dolini z uporabo epifitskih lišajev
Samar Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Teja Sterže, Helena Poličnik, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Na 12 izbranih lokacijah v Mežiški dolini smo spomladi leta 2022 opravili popis epifitskih lišajev z uporabo slovenske metode SI in nemške metode VDI. Z obema metodama se ocenjuje kakovost zraka na podlagi obstoječih rastnih tipov steljk in vrst epifitskih lišajev, na katere vplivajo predvsem plinasta onesnažila v zraku. Dodatno smo določali tudi indekse toksitolerance. Skupaj smo na prostostoječem drevju evidentirali 34 vrst epifitskih lišajev; 25 v Zgornji Mežiški dolini in 27 vrst epifitskih lišajev v Spodnji Mežiški dolini. Na podlagi izračuna povprečnega indeksa toksitolerance za posamezno lokacijo smo ugotovili, da na vseh lokacijah prevladujejo vrste, ki so manj občutljive za onesnaževanje. Največji indeks zračne čistosti, določen po metodi VDI, je bil izračunan za lokacijo Lom, sledita lokaciji Žerjav in Tolsti vrh, kjer smo evidentirali tudi največje število vrst lišajev. Stanje lišajske vegetacije na vseh obravnavanih lokacijah je primerljivo in kaže, da so lokacije srednje obremenjene s plinastimi onesnažili. V ospredje lahko postavimo lokaciji Dolgo Brdo in Preški vrh, kjer je izpostavljenost plinastim onesnažilom velika do zmerna; na lokaciji Dolgo Brdo pa je bila tudi obrast lišajev revna. Izračunani indeksi zračne čistosti so sicer pokazali, da je kakovost zraka v Zgornji Mežiški dolini nekoliko boljša kot v Spodnji Mežiški dolini, vendar razlike niso statistično značilne.
Ključne besede: epifitski lišaji, kartiranje, bioindikatorji, onesnažen zrak, Mežiška dolina
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 459; Prenosov: 122
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,79 MB)
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Citizen science is a vital partnership for invasive alien species management and research
Michael J.O. Pocock, Tim Adriaens, Sandro Bertolino, René Eschen, Franz Essl, Philip E. Hulme, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Helen E. Roy, Heliana Teixeira, Maarten De Groot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Invasive alien species (IAS) adversely impact biodiversity, ecosystem functions and socio-economics. Citizen science can be an effective tool for IAS surveillance, management and research, providing large datasets over wide spatial extents and long time periods, with public participants generating knowledge that supports action. We demonstrate how citizen science has contributed knowledge across the biological invasion process, especially for early detection and distribution mapping. However, we recommend that citizen science could be used more for assessing impacts and evaluating the success of IAS management. Citizen science does have limitations and we explore solutions to two key challenges: ensuring data accuracy and dealing with uneven spatial coverage of potential recorders (which limits the dataset’s ‘fit for purpose’). Greater co-development of citizen science with public stakeholders will help us better realise its potential across the biological invasion process and across ecosystems globally while meeting the needs of participants, local communities, scientists and decision-makers.
Ključne besede: biosecurity, community science, invasion continuum, invasive alien species, monitoring, volunteers
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 142; Prenosov: 85
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,81 MB)
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Description, identification, and growth of Tuber borchii Vittad. mycorrhized Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings on different lime contents
Tanja Mrak, Tine Grebenc, Silke Friedrich, Babette Münzenberger, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tuber borchii forms ectomycorrhiza with oaks, hazel, and pines, including Pinus sylvestris. However, its ectomycorrhiza morphotype with P. sylvestris was not comprehensively described so far, and molecular analyses are missing despite a high danger of misidentification of T. borchii ectomycorrhiza with other closely related and less valuable truffle species. We described for the first time the morphology and anatomy of T. borchii-P. sylvestris ectomycorrhiza using differential interference contrast technique and semi-thin sections in combination with molecular confirmation of identity. Color of ectomycorrhiza is reddish to dark brown, and morphotypes are unevenly but densely covered by warts-bearing pin-like cystidia. All layers of the hyphal mantle are pseudoparenchymatous with outer mantle layer formed of epidermoid cells. T. borchii ectomycorrhiza was identified by a molecular comparison with fruitbodies used for inoculation and its respective ectomycorrhizae. T. borchii has a wide ecological amplitude. To get a better insight in mycorrhization requirements, we investigated growth of P. sylvestris and its ectomycorrhiza infection rate with T. borchii in substrate with different lime content. The mycorrhization of P. sylvestris with T. borchii in the mycorrhization substrate and cultivation in greenhouse conditions was successful, with colonization of P. sylvestris varying between 36.5 and 48.1%. There was no significant correlation of mycorrhization to applied lime contents, and consequently to pH in substrate, while the increased levels of lime improved growth of the P. sylvestris seedlings.
Ključne besede: root anatomy, ectomycorrhiza, Limestone content, molecular identification, Pinus sylvestris, Tuber borchii
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 138; Prenosov: 65
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,30 MB)
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