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Global homogenization of the structure and function in the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, David J. Eldridge, Yu-Rong Liu, Blessing Sokoya, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He, Felipe Bastida, José L. Moreno, Adebola R. Bamigboye, Tine Grebenc, Tina Unuk, 2021

Povzetek: The structure and function of the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces remain largely undetermined. We conducted a global field survey in urban greenspaces and neighboring natural ecosystems across 56 cities from six continents, and found that urban soils are important hotspots for soil bacterial, protist and functional gene diversity, but support highly homogenized microbial communities worldwide. Urban greenspaces had a greater proportion of fast-growing bacteria, algae, amoebae, and fungal pathogens, but a lower proportion of ectomycorrhizal fungi than natural ecosystems. These urban ecosystems also showed higher proportions of genes associated with human pathogens, greenhouse gas emissions, faster nutrient cycling, and more intense abiotic stress than natural environments. City affluence, management practices, and climate were fundamental drivers of urban soil communities. Our work paves the way toward a more comprehensive global-scale perspective on urban greenspaces, which is integral to managing the health of these ecosystems and the well-being of human populations.
Ključne besede: soil biodiversity, structural diversity, functional diversity, urban soils
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 15.07.2021; Ogledov: 37; Prenosov: 33
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,34 MB)

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Contrasting resource dynamics in mast years for European Beech and Oak - a continental scale analysis
Anita Nussbaumer, Arthur Gessler, Sue Benham, B. De Cinti, Sophia Etzold, Morten Ingerslev, Frank Jacob, François Lebourgeois, Tom Levanič, Hrvoje Marjanović, 2021

Povzetek: Resource allocation to different plant tissues is likely to be affected by high investment into fruit production during mast years. However, there is a large knowledge gap concerning species-specific differences in resource dynamics. We investigated the influence of mast years on stem growth, leaf production, and leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations and contents in Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, and Q. robur at continental and climate region scales using long-term data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and similar datasets. We discussed the results in the light of opposing resource dynamics hypotheses: (i) resource accumulation before mast years and exhaustion after mast years (resource storage hypothesis), (ii) shifting resources from vegetative to generative compartments (resource switching hypothesis), and (iii) investing resources concurrently in both vegetative and generative compartments (resource matching hypothesis). Linear mixed-effects modelling (LMM) showed that both stem growth and leaf production were negatively influenced by weather conditions which simultaneously lead to high fruit production. Thus, the impact of generative on vegetative growth is intermixed with effects of environmental factors. Superposed epoch analyses and LMM showed that for mast behaviour in F. sylvatica, there are indicators supporting the resource storage and the resource switching hypotheses. Before mast years, resources were accumulated, while during mast years resources switched from vegetative to generative tissues with reduced stem and leaf growth. For the Quercus species, stem growth was reduced after mast years, which supports the resource storage hypothesis. LMM showed that leaf C concentrations did not change with increasing fruit production in neither species. Leaf N and P concentrations increased in F. sylvatica, but not in Quercus species. Leaf N and P contents decreased with increasing fruit production in all species, as did leaf C content in F. sylvatica. Overall, our findings suggest different resource dynamics strategies in F. sylvatica and Quercus species, which might lead to differences in their adaptive capacity to a changing climate.
Ključne besede: climate change, Fagus sylvatica, long-term monitoring, mast fruiting, Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, resource dynamics
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 15.07.2021; Ogledov: 31; Prenosov: 18
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,63 MB)

4.
Green space area and type affect bird communities in a South-eastern European city
Maarten De Groot, Katarina Flajšman, Tomaž Mihelič, Urša Vilhar, Primož Simončič, Andrej Verlič, 2021

Povzetek: Urbanization decreases the species richness and results in the homogenization of bird communities. Bird species are important indicator species for biodiversity and reflect the habitat quality of urban forests and other green spaces. In this study we investigated the key drivers that influence bird communities in urban forests and green spaces in the Southeastern European city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. We were interested in how the number of species, species dissimilarity and indicator species are affected by the type of green space (urban forest vs park), area of green space and type of urbanization (urban vs peri-urban areas). We sampled birds twice in 2012 in 39 standardized point counts across Ljubljana. We found that the abundance was influenced by the area of the green space. Species dissimilarity and species turnover are affected by the area and type of green space. Interestingly, the analysis showed that the species composition of peri-urban areas was similar to that of urban areas. Indicator species were found for all environmental variables. On the basis of the results, we suggest the strategy that would increase the diversity of birds and increase the stability of their populations in urban areas. Urban planners should encourage 1) both forests and parks since they harbour different species of birds, 2) larger green spaces since larger areas have species that are more typical of larger areas and 3) a mosaic of a larger number of smaller forest remnants combined with larger forest complex serving as source areas.
Ključne besede: urban forest, bird species composition, forest remnant, urbanization, peri-urban forest, bird monitoring, species richness
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 14.06.2021; Ogledov: 95; Prenosov: 71
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Microsites influence the light response of young douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)
Matjaž Čater, 2021

Povzetek: Two comparable sites with uneven-aged mixed forest stands with more than 20% Douglas-fir in the growing stock at an altitude of 650 m a.s.l. were selected. The physiological response of young trees to different light intensities was measured during the main growing season in three consecutive years, and four different light categories, which were determined from hemispherical photographs. The four light intensity categories were defined according to Indirect Site Factor (ISF%): in the open (A-ISF > 35%), at the outer forest edge (B-25% < ISF < 35%), at the inner forest edge (C-15% < ISF < 25%), and under complete canopy under mature forest stand (D-ISF < 15%). Climate data were obtained from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute %Climate Explorer% website. For the intensive micrometeorological observations, four monitoring sites were established along the elevation gradient at each site during summer and late fall to record relative humidity (RH%) and temperature (°C) with a 30 min recording interval sequence. Measured assimilation responses (A) and light use efficiency (%) at one site followed the expected pattern, while humidity combined with microsite conditions proved significant in explaining the specific response of young Douglas-fir to the different light intensity at the other site. For higher survival and optimal future development of Douglas-fir in the changing environment, microsites with higher capacity for storage moisture and favorable microclimate should generally be preferred to exposed and dry sites.
Ključne besede: Douglas-fir, light response, photosynthesis, light use efficiency, silviculture
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.05.2021; Ogledov: 147; Prenosov: 89
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1023,09 KB)

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Short-term impacts of harvesting intensity on the upper soil layers in high karst Dinaric fir-beech forests
Emira Hukić, Matjaž Čater, Aleksander Marinšek, Mitja Ferlan, Milan Kobal, Daniel Žlindra, Hamid Čustović, Primož Simončič, 2021

Povzetek: The present study addresses the short-term effects of different harvest intensities under close-to-nature selective management on the upper soil layers in Slovenian and Bosnian Dinaric karst fir-beech forests. The different harvest intensities coincided with the single-tree and irregular shelterwood management, common in the region. The effect of harvesting intensity on the upper soil layers (Ol, Of, Ol and 0%10 cm mineral soil) was investigated by a repeated measurements experiment in Slovenia on 27 research plots in close-to nature managed forests. The properties of the upper layers (concentration of SOC and TN, C/N ratio, weights, BD and SOC stocks) were analyzed twice, before (2011) and after (2014) treatment of 50% and 100% harvest intensity in relation to the total standing growing stock of trees. As a control, we used no-treatment <20% harvesting intensity plots. To extend this experiment, we added three comparable plots from the Bosnian site: one in an old-growth forest with 0% harvest intensity and two in the managed forest with <20% harvest intensity. The results of the assessment of mean differences indicated a significant influence of harvesting intensity on the decrease in SOC, TN concentrations, weights and SOC stocks in the organic layers and the increase in BD and SOC stocks in the 0%10 cm mineral soil. The highest relative decreases in Ol, Of and Oh SOC stocks occurred in 50% (%10 and %38%) and 100% (%16 and %49%) harvest intensities. Negligible relative differences in both organic and 0%10 cm mineral layers were found for the <20% harvest intensity in the region. The change in forest light conditions resulting from differences in canopy openness as a function of applied harvest intensity explained the significant difference in the properties of the upper soil layers. The impact of the short-term losses in SOC stocks, in terms of overall soil productivity, may depend on the regeneration dynamics and melioration methods.
Ključne besede: close-to-nature forest management, harvest intensity, Calcic Cambisol, forest soil, soil organic carbon
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 10.05.2021; Ogledov: 178; Prenosov: 109
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,42 MB)

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Can we use dendrogeomorphology for the spatial and temporal analysis of less intensive mass movement processes?: Acase study of three debris flows in NW and W Slovenia
Matevž Konjar, Tom Levanič, Thomas Andrew Nagel, Milan Kobal, 2021

Povzetek: Debris flows can transport large amounts of material and therefore present a significant threat to infrastructure and human life. In this research, we used tree-ring width analyses to quantify the response of trees to three debris flow events in NW Slovenia (Javoršček, Srpenica) and W Slovenia (Nikova) for which we know the time of origin. We attempted to date these and similar tree responses in the past and compared the patterns between different tree species. Altogether, we sampled 147 trees across a range of tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris, Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus ornus, Acer pseudoplatanus, Picea abies, Juglans regia, Acer campestre, Tilia cordata and Ostrya carpinifolia), including reference trees that were outside the debris flow fan. For 91 trees, we constructed tree-ring chronologies and used pointer-year analysis to identify years that had abnormal growth. For the remaining trees (mostly Ostrya carpinifolia, Tilia cordata and Acer pseudoplatanus), we either could not accurately distinguish tree rings or two samples from a single tree showed significantly different growth patterns. The growth patterns of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies following debris flow events showed a weak response at the Javoršček site and no clear responses at the other two sites. Tree species responded similarly at the same locations. Due to the lack of a clear response pattern, we were not able to reconstruct past debris flows.
Ključne besede: debris flows, tree rings, dendrogeomorphology, slope processes
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 30.03.2021; Ogledov: 478; Prenosov: 187
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,49 MB)

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Usklajena merila sprejemljive poškodovanosti gozdnih tal - preverjanje ustreznosti med gozdarskimi strokovnjaki
Anton Poje, Matevž Mihelič, Vasja Leban, 2021

Povzetek: Splošno veljavna, predvsem pa v stroki sprejeta merila sprejemljive poškodovanosti tal po gozdni proizvodnji so predpogoj za učinkovito varovanje gozdnih tal in objektiven nadzor nad kakovostjo izvedbe gozdnih del. V raziskavi znotraj gozdarske stroke smo preverili sprejemljivost meril, ki so jih na osnovi dosedanjih raziskav predlagali Poje in sodelavci (2019). Anketiranje je bilo opravljeno na 35. Gozdarskih študijskih dnevih, kjer je na anketo odgovorilo 62 udeležencev iz različnih ustanov. Rezultati ankete so pokazali, da so usklajena merila strožja od predlaganih ter da se ocene po posameznih kazalnikih znotraj meril razlikujejo med deležniki. Po predlogu usklajenih meril je dopustna odprtost z vlakami 192 m/ha, s sečnimi potmi pa dodatnih 193 m/ha. Največja globina kolesnic na vlakah ne sme presegati 30 cm, na sečnih poteh pa 20 cm. Največja globina kolesnic na 90 % dolžine vseh sečnih poti na delovišču naj ne presega 10 cm. Tudi na osnovi rezultatov drugih študij se zdi predlog usklajenih meril smiseln in primeren s tehnološkega, ekonomskega in ekološkega vidika. Pred uvajanjem usklajenih meril v prakso je poleg njihovega preverjanja na terenu in morebitnega ponovnega usklajevanja treba nujno razviti metodo za ocenjevanje poškodovanosti.
Ključne besede: pridobivanje lesa, anketa, merila sprejemljive poškodovanosti tal, poškodba tal
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.03.2021; Ogledov: 427; Prenosov: 260
.pdf Celotno besedilo (970,42 KB)

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Reconstruction of brown bear population dynamics in Slovenia in the period 1998-2019 : ǂa ǂnew approach combining genetics and long-term mortality data
Klemen Jerina, Andrés Ordiz, 2021

Povzetek: Reliable data and methods for assessing changes in wildlife population size over time are necessary for management and conservation. For most species, assessing abundance is an expensive and labor-intensive task that is not affordable on a frequent basis. We present a novel approach to reconstructing brown bear population dynamics in Slovenia in the period 1998-2019, based on the combination of two CMR non-invasive genetic estimates (in 2007 and 2015) and long-term mortality records, to show how the latter can help the study of population dynamics in combination with point-in-time estimates. The spring (i.e. including newborn cubs) population size estimate was 383 (CI: 336-432) bears in 1998 and 971 (CI: 825-1161) bears in 2019. In this period, the average annual population growth rate was 4.5 %. The predicted population size differed by just 7 % from the non-invasive genetic size estimate after eight years, suggesting that the method is reliable. It can predict the evolution of the population size under different management scenarios and provide information on key parameters, e.g. background mortality and the sex- and age-structure of the population. Our approach can be used for several other wildlife species, but it requires reliable mortality data over time.
Ključne besede: genetic estimates of population size, mortality records, population monitoring, population size, predictive modelling, brown bear
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 28.03.2021; Ogledov: 445; Prenosov: 248
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1005,41 KB)

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