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62.
Farmers' preferences for result-based schemes for grassland conservation in Slovenia
Tanja Šumrada, Anže Japelj, Miroslav Verbič, Emil Erjavec, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Government-funded payments for ecosystem services (PES) have increasingly been used to facilitate transactions between users of environmental services and their providers. In order to improve the link between payments and the service provided, some countries in the EU have promoted result-based schemes (RBS), which remunerate farmers for ecological results, as part of their agricultural policy. Since PES programs are voluntary, it is important to understand farmers’ responses before more large-scale implementations of RBS are initiated. Using a choice experiment and a mixed logit model, we elicited the preferences of farmers in two Natura 2000 sites in Slovenia for different design elements of a hypothetical scheme for dry grassland conservation. We found that the majority of farmers preferred the result-based approach over the management-based scheme both in terms of payment conditions and monitoring; one group of farmers preferred the RBS very strongly (average WTA of more than 500 EUR/ha/yr) and another group less strongly (average WTA about 200 EUR/ha/yr). Farmers also showed a higher preference for on-farm advise and training in small groups than for lectures, which would be offered to a larger audience. A collective bonus, which would incentivise coordination and could potentially increase participation rates in the scheme, significantly influenced the farmers’ willingness to adopt the scheme. However, the estimated average WTA was comparable or lower than the 40 EUR/ha annual bonus payment. Older farmers and those who managed small and semi-subsistent farms were significantly more likely to be highly resistant to scheme adoption no matter its design.
Ključne besede: agrarna politika, kmetijstvo, subvencije, ekosistemske storitve, plačilo za ekosistemske storitve, agricultural policy, agriculture, subsidies, payments for ecosystem services, abiodiversity conservation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.02.2022; Ogledov: 250; Prenosov: 195
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,14 MB)
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63.
The era of reference genomes in conservation genomics
Giulio Formenti, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Progress in genome sequencing now enables the large-scale generation of reference genomes. Various international initiatives aim to generate reference genomes representing global biodiversity. These genomes provide unique insights into genomic diversity and architecture, thereby enabling comprehensive analyses of population and functional genomics, and are expected to revolutionize conservation genomics.
Ključne besede: conservation genetics, biodiversity conservation, European Reference Genome Atlas, ERGA
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.02.2022; Ogledov: 210; Prenosov: 132
.pdf Celotno besedilo (519,06 KB)
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64.
Using genomic information for management planning of an endangered perennial, Viola uliginosa
Kyung Min Lee, Pertti Ranta, Jarmo Saarikivi, Lado Kutnar, Branko Vreš, Maxim Dzhus, Marko Mutanen, Laura Kvist, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Species occupying habitats subjected to frequent natural and/or anthropogenic changes are a challenge for conservation management. We studied one such species, Viola uliginosa, an endangered perennial wetland species typically inhabiting sporadi-cally flooded meadows alongside rivers/lakes. In order to estimate genomic diversity, population structure, and history, we sampled five sites in Finland, three in Estonia, and one each in Slovenia, Belarus, and Poland using genomic SNP data with double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). We found mono-phyletic populations, high levels of inbreeding (mean population FSNP = 0.407-0.945), low effective population sizes (Ne = 0.8-50.9), indications of past demographic ex-pansion, and rare long-distance dispersal. Our results are important in implementing conservation strategies for V. uliginosa, which should include founding of seed banks, ex situ cultivations, and reintroductions with individuals of proper origin, combined with continuous population monitoring and habitat management.
Ključne besede: nature conservation, demography, genomic diversity, population genomics, RAD sequencing, Viola
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.01.2022; Ogledov: 318; Prenosov: 245
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,49 MB)
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65.
Latent preferences of residents regarding an urban forest recreation setting in Ljubljana, Slovenia
Anže Japelj, Robert Mavsar, Donald G. Hodges, Marko Kovač, Luka Juvančič, 2016, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The goal of this study is to assess residents' preferences for a set of attributes describing the recreation setting in an urban forest (outstanding trees, forest openings, waymarks and information boards, and paved walking trails) and to explore the heterogeneity of those preferences. It was captured by a four-class latent class model used to segment a sample of residents of Ljubljana (the capital of Slovenia), who responded to a choice experiment-based poll. The survey focused on the Rožnik urban forest, for which preferences (also willingness-to-pay) for hypothetical changes in the attributes were assessed. Respondents in class 1 were invariant to changes in the recreation setting. Those in class 2 and 4 stated positive preferences for having more outstanding trees. Class 3 and 4 were in favour of increasing the area of forest openings and enhancing the maintenance of waymarks and information boards. Those in class 4 expressed positive preferences for more walking trails, whereas class 3 valued this negatively. Class membership was affected by respondent age, number of adults in the household, frequency of forest visits, income, and purpose of the visit.
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 12.01.2022; Ogledov: 337; Prenosov: 269
.pdf Celotno besedilo (480,00 KB)
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66.
Empirical vs. light-use efficiency modelling for estimating carbon fluxes in a mid-succession ecosystem developed on abandoned karst grassland
Koffi Dodji Noumonvi, Mitja Ferlan, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Karst systems represent an important carbon sink worldwide. However, several phenomena such as the CO2 degassing and the exchange of cave air return a considerable amount of CO2 to the atmosphere. It is therefore of paramount importance to understand the contribution of the ecosystem to the carbon budget of karst areas. In this study conducted in a mid-succession ecosystem developed on abandoned karst grassland, two types of model were assessed, estimating the gross primary production (GPP) or the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) based on seven years of eddy covariance data (2013%2019): (1) a quadratic vegetation index-based empirical model with five alternative vegetation indices as proxies of GPP and NEE, and (2) the vegetation photosynthesis model (VPM) which is a light use efficiency model to estimate only GPP. The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was the best proxy for NEE whereas SAVI performed very similarly to EVI in the case of GPP in the empirical model setting. The empirical model performed better than the VPM model which tended to underestimate GPP. Therefore, for this ecosystem, we suggest the use of the empirical model provided that the quadratic relationship observed persists. However, the VPM model would be a good alternative under a changing climate, as it is rooted in the understanding of the photosynthesis process, if the scalars it involves could be improved to better estimate GPP.
Ključne besede: eddy covariance, carbon flux, GPP, NEE, vegetation indices, remote sensing, satellite data, GPP map
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 252; Prenosov: 201
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,07 MB)
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67.
COVID-19 related travel restrictions prevented numerous wildlife deaths on roads : ǂa ǂcomparative analysis of results from 11 countries
Michal Bíl, Richard Andrášik, Vojtěch Cícha, Amir Arnon, Maris Kruuse, Jochen Langbein, András Náhlik, Milla Niemig, Boštjan Pokorny, Victor J. Colino-Rabanal, Christer M. Rolandsen, Andreas Seiler, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Millions of wild animals are killed annually on roads worldwide. During spring 2020, the volume of road traffic was reduced globally as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. We gathered data on wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) from Czechia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Israel, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and for Scotland and England within the United Kingdom. In all studied countries WVC statistics tend to be dominated by large mammals (various deer species and wild boar), while information on smaller mammals as well as birds are less well recorded. The expected number of WVC for 2020 was predicted on the basis of 2015%2019 WVC time series representing expected WVC numbers under normal traffic conditions. Then, the forecasted and reported WVC data were compared. The results indicate varying levels of WVC decrease between countries during the COVID-19 related traffic flow reduction (CRTR). While no significant change was determined in Sweden, where the state-wide response to COVID-19 was the least intensive, a decrease as marked as 37.4% was identified in Estonia. The greatest WVC decrease, more than 40%, was determined during the first weeks of CRTR for Estonia, Spain, Israel, and Czechia. Measures taken during spring 2020 allowed the survival of large numbers of wild animals which would have been killed under normal traffic conditions. The significant effects of even just a few weeks of reduced traffic, help to highlight the negative impacts of roads on wildlife mortality and the need to boost global efforts of wildlife conservation, including systematic gathering of roadkill data.
Ključne besede: wildlife-vehicle collisions, wildlife crash reporting systems, traffic flow, ungulates, mesocarnivores, COVID-19 lockdown
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 337; Prenosov: 165
.pdf Celotno besedilo (976,24 KB)
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68.
A meta-analysis of global fungal distribution reveals climate-driven patterns
Tomáš Větrovský, Petr Kohout, Martin Kopecky, Antonin Machac, Matěj Man, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Vendula Brabcová, Jinlyung Choi, Lenka Mészárosová, Zander Rainier Human, Clémentine Lepinay, Rubén López-Mondéjar, Tijana Martinović, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The evolutionary and environmental factors that shape fungal biogeography are incompletely understood. Here, we assemble a large dataset consisting of previously generated mycobiome data linked to specific geographical locations across the world. We use this dataset to describe the distribution of fungal taxa and to look for correlations with different environmental factors such as climate, soil and vegetation variables. Our meta-study identifies climate as an important driver of different aspects of fungal biogeography, including the global distribution of common fungi as well as the composition and diversity of fungal communities. In our analysis, fungal diversity is concentrated at high latitudes, in contrast with the opposite pattern previously shown for plants and other organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi appear to have narrower climatic tolerances than pathogenic fungi. We speculate that climate change could affect ecosystem functioning because of the narrow climatic tolerances of key fungal taxa.
Ključne besede: fungi, global distribution, climate
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 244; Prenosov: 183
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,59 MB)
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69.
GlobalFungi, a global database of fungal occurrences from high-throughput-sequencing metabarcoding studies
Tomáš Větrovský, Daniel Morais, Petr Kohout, Clémentine Lepinay, Camelia Algora, Sandra Awokunle Hollá, Barbara Doreen Bahnmann, Květa Bílohnědá, Vendula Brabcová, Federica DʹAlò, Tijana Martinović, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Fungi are key players in vital ecosystem services, spanning carbon cycling, decomposition, symbiotic associations with cultivated and wild plants and pathogenicity. The high importance of fungi in ecosystem processes contrasts with the incompleteness of our understanding of the patterns of fungal biogeography and the environmental factors that drive those patterns. To reduce this gap of knowledge, we collected and validated data published on the composition of soil fungal communities in terrestrial environments including soil and plant-associated habitats and made them publicly accessible through a user interface at https://globalfungi.com. The GlobalFungi database contains over 600 million observations of fungal sequences across >17 000 samples with geographical locations and additional metadata contained in 178 original studies with millions of unique nucleotide sequences (sequence variants) of the fungal internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 representing fungal species and genera. The study represents the most comprehensive atlas of global fungal distribution, and it is framed in such a way that third-party data addition is possible.
Ključne besede: fungi, database, metabarcoading
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 254; Prenosov: 202
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,17 MB)
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70.
Morphologic variability of the Acer campestre L. populations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Stjepan Kvesić, Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Matjaž Čater, Dalibor Ballian, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Morphologic variability from 25 populations of Acer campestre L. in Bosnia and Herzegovina was analyzed. Morphometric structure of variability and between-population variability was performed based on 10 fruit-parameter characteristics and 19 leaf-parameter characteristics using multivariate statistical analysis. Results confirmed the separation of three submediterranean populations as a group in relation to other tested populations, from which the Banja Luka population is different. Measured leaf parameters were confirmed as a predominant carrier of the morphologic separation between populations. In other Acer species populations within A. monspessulanum and A. intermedium species are separated mainly by fruit and much less by leaf parameters. The southernmost submediterranean populations from Trebinje, Ljubuški, and Mostar regions have smaller leaf areas, which consequently places them within the same morphologic group; their variability is in tight connection with eco-geo-graphical factors, where the ecological distance is a much better predictor of morphological variability compared to geographical distance. The air temperature had the biggest influence on morphological variability regarding the highest in-between correlation. Achieved results may serve for the continuation of the research in other areas of Acer campestre to determine the interactive effect of ecological, geographical, climatic, and migrational factors on their morphologic population plasticity.
Ključne besede: differentiation, field maple, fruit, leaf, morphologic variability
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Ogledov: 247; Prenosov: 159
.pdf Celotno besedilo (960,45 KB)
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