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Assessment of atmospheric deposition of potentially toxic elements in Macedonia using a moss biomonitoring technique
Lambe Barandovski, Trajče Stafilov, Robert Šajn, Katerina Bačeva Andronovska, Marina V. Frontasyeva, Inga Zinicovscaia, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This study aims to investigate the changes in atmospheric deposition trends in Macedonia, using a moss biomonitoring technique. This technique has been used to assess the content of potentially toxic elements in Macedonia in 2002, 2005, 2010, and 2015, within the framework of the International Cooperative Program on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops. The content of 42 elements was analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), on 72 moss samples collected in the summer of 2015. The median values of the elements studied were compared with data from previous years and with median values obtained from comparable studies in Norway and the neighboring countries. Through factor and cluster analysis, three geogenic factors were identified: Factor 1, which includes the elements Al, Ce, Fe, Hf, La, Li, Na, Sc, Sm, Tb, Ti, Th, V, and U; Factor 4, which includes As, Cl, and I; and Factor 5, which includes the elements Ba and Sr. In addition, one geogenic-anthropogenic factor containing Co, Cr, and Ni (Factor 2), was identified, and one anthropogenic factor containing Cd, Pb, Sb, and Zn (Factor 3). The lead and zinc mines near the towns of Kriva Palanka, Probištip, and Makedonska Kamenica in the eastern region of the country, the former lead and zinc smelter in the town of Veles, and the ferronickel smelter near Kavadarci, have continuously had the greatest anthropogenic impact on the atmospheric deposition of potentially toxic elements during the time period of the study. In addition to the human influences, the lithology and the composition of the soil continue to play a significant role in the distribution of the elements.
Ključne besede: moss, biomonitoring, air pollution, potentially toxic elements, Macedonia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.02.2024; Ogledov: 88; Prenosov: 28
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,82 MB)

Secondary deposits as a potential REEs source in South-Eastern Europe
Robert Šajn, Jasminka Alijagić, Ivica Ristović, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The main objective of this manuscript is to collect, classify, and compile all available data about secondary mineral sources of REEs in the South-Eastern Europe (SEE). The material is generated from the extracting and processing sector, that might be possibly transformed in the business process becoming an important raw material for another industry. The management inventory guide will strengthen communication and dissemination efforts and simultaneously contribute to Europe’s self-sufficiency and support transitioning to green and digital technology. Identification of the knowledge gaps associated with secondary sources of REEs in SEE will contribute to connections between all partners being involved at the beginning, during the lifetime of products and at the end of the life cycle, represented with deposit owners, technology developers and potential processors, producers, and potential users. At the investigated area it was found 1835 individual landfills, most of them belonging to waste rocks. The total quantity of all material in SRM is about 3.2 billion tons on an area of about 100 km2. The largest 95 individual landfills were selected as potential prospective landfills, containing about 1600 million tons of material. The estimated total potential of REEs (ΣREE) is more than 200 Kt. The largest quantities are found in landfills for coal fly ash and Cu flotation, which correspond to more than 80% of the ΣREE. Most of the promising sites are located in Serbia and North Macedonia. It has been calculated that the valorisation potential and perspectivity of REE2O3 is about 32.5 billion USD (prices from December 2022). According to the average concentrations of REEs, the most prospective are the red mud dams but their total volume is limited compared to massive amounts of coal fly ash landfills. The REEs content in all type of investigated materials, especially in coal fly ash in North Macedonia is twice as high as in other countries.
Ključne besede: secondary raw materials, ESEE, rare elements, economic prospective
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.02.2024; Ogledov: 70; Prenosov: 21
.pdf Celotno besedilo (12,40 MB)

Hydrogeological characterization of karst springs of the white (Proteus anguinus anguinus) and black olm (Proteus anguinus parkelj) habitat in Bela krajina (SE Slovenia)
Katja Koren, Rok Brajkovič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The springs west of Črnomelj, in SE Slovenia, are the habitat of the black (Proteus anguinus parkelj) and the white olm (Proteus anguinus anguinus). Some of these springs are also the only known habitat in the world of endemic species of black olm. A steady decline in olm populations has been observed in this area over the past decades. Owing to the rapid runoff and groundwater flow high-resolution monitoring is essential in providing better insight into the hydrogeological characterization of the catchment area of springs. Specific factors and critical parameters of water behind said olm degradation have not yet been defined. Because the olm’s environment is largely aquatic, one potential critical parameter could be the higher water temperatures (>12 °C) or higher nitrate concentration (>9.2mg/l). The six-month observation of the springs (July – December 2021) point to water temperature as a potential critical parameter since the water temperature of the springs exceeded 12 °C in months July and August. Nitrate concentrations could also be a second critical parameter in the degradation of the olm’s habitat. Maximum nitrate concentrations above 9.2mg/l throughout much of the observation period (except for Dobličica spring). Due to less agricultural activity in December in the spring catchment area and a higher dilution rate due to reduced evapotranspiration and increased effective precipitation during this time of the year, the nitrate concentrations are decreased. The results of the measured parameters of groundwater could show the hydrogeological connection between the Otovski and Pački breg springs and between Šotor, Jamnice and Dobličica. The Obršec spring has an independent catchment area. A detailed estimation of the springs catchment area is possible due to a detailed geologic map. It is necessary to determine the origin of the nitrate (nitrate isotope analysis), to quantify the threshold values of the critical parameters, to define precisely all the causes of the olm deterioration, and to make proposals for appropriate measures to limit or even stop the decline of the olm population.
Ključne besede: hydrogeology, olm, ecology, nitrate, monitoring
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.01.2024; Ogledov: 102; Prenosov: 37
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,65 MB)

Impact assessment of the Gajke and Brstje landfills on groundwater status using stable and radioactive isotopes
Sonja Cerar, Luka Serianz, Polona Vreča, Marko Štrok, Tjaša Kanduč, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Waste disposal in landfills represents a severe threat to aquatic environments on the local, regional, and global levels. In Slovenia, there are 69 registered landfills where groundwater is regularly monitored. However, isotope techniques are not regularly employed. Therefore, we employed isotope analysis of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen in combination with total alkalinity to assess the impact of the selected landfill on groundwater and to evaluate the biogeochemical processes at work. The δ18O, δ2H, δ13CDIC, 3H activity and total alkalinity were determined in October 2020 at 12 sampling points from the surrounding area of the Gajke and Brstje landfills and leachate from the Gajke landfill. The δ18O (-9.24 ± 0.3 ‰) and δ2H (-64.9 ± 2.7 ‰) in groundwater indicate that the main water source consists in direct infiltration of precipitation, with no significant isotopic fractionation. Total alkalinity in the investigated area ranges from 5.45 to 73 mM and δ13CDIC from –14.9 to +6.1 ‰, respectively. Higher values of total alkalinity (up to 73 mM), δ13CDIC (up to +6.1 ‰), δ18O (-7.64 ‰) and 3H (209.8 TU) are detected in the leachate, indicating biogeochemical process related to CO2 reduction or methanogenesis. Methanogenesis could be present at locations GAP-10/13 (Brstje landfill) and G-2 (Gajke landfill) with δ13CDIC values ranging from –8.2 to –7.6 ‰ and with dissolved oxygen values around 0 % and elevated 3H values (from 16 to 18 TU). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of isotopic analysis as a valuable tool for monitoring landfills, revealing shifts in biogeochemical processes within the groundwater there.
Ključne besede: groundwater, monitoring, landfill, stable isotopes, tritium, Gajke, Brstje
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.01.2024; Ogledov: 118; Prenosov: 44
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,52 MB)

Using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for detecting a crypt beneath a paved church floor
Marjana Zajc, Alojzij Grebenc, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: After the discovery of an archive document regarding an underground crypt beneath the f loors of the Church of St. Margaret (Sv. Marjeta) in Dol pri Ljubljani, Slovenia, further research was carried out to confirm its presence. An area filled with construction waste was discovered during a recent small-scale renovation of the church floor. This finding suggested the potential underground chamber may have been partly filled in during one of the previous restorations. A non-invasive GPR study was carried out along eight profiles inside the church to prove the existence of an underground crypt. Results show the presence of an air-filled chamber, confirmed later by a hole drilled in the floor. Additional findings in the church archive and pictures taken by a camera, lowered through a drilled hole, revealed three previously unknown caskets in the crypt. According to the archives, two of them belong to Baron Wolf Daniel Erberg and his wife who died in 1783 and 1774, respectively.
Ključne besede: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), church Sv. Marjeta, crypt, underground chamber, Baron Erberg, Dol pri Ljubljani
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.01.2024; Ogledov: 102; Prenosov: 31
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,91 MB)

Ocena količinskega stanja podzemnih voda za Načrt upravljanja voda 2022–2027 (NUV III)
Petra Souvent, Urška Pavlič, Mišo Andjelov, Nina Rman, Peter Frantar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Ocena količinskega stanja podzemnih voda je del Načrta upravljanja voda 2022–2027 (NUV III). Z njo po določenih kriterijih ovrednotimo količinsko stanje na 21 vodnih telesih podzemnih voda v Sloveniji kot »dobro« ali »slabo«. Ocena je izvedena s štirimi preizkusi, kjer analiziramo vpliv odvzemov (črpanih količin) podzemne vode na: količine podzemne vode in vodno bilanco, ekološko stanje površinskih vodnih teles, kopenske ekosisteme odvisne od podzemne vode in vdore slane vode ali vode slabše kakovosti v vodonosnik. Končno skupno oceno, na podlagi opravljenih preizkusov, določa kriterij najslabše ocene. Na podlagi rezultatov izvedenih preizkusov imamo 20 vodnih teles ocenjenih s skupno oceno »dobro«. Vodno telo Dravska kotlina pa je ocenjeno kot »slabo«, ker črpanje podzemne vode povzroča vdore vode slabše kakovosti v vodonosnik. Zadnja obdobna ocena količinskega stanja 1991–2020 razkriva, da imamo v plitvih vodonosnikih podzemnih vodnih teles letno na razpolago dobrih 4 milijarde m3 podzemne vode. Odvzemi podzemne vode (črpane količine) so v obdobju 2014–2019 v plitvih vodonosnikih dosegali povprečno 135 milijonov m3/leto. Na območju globokega geotermalnega vodonosnika v Murski kotlini so odvzemi v tem obdobju ocenjeni na 2,5 milijona m3/leto. Numerični modeli simulirajo omejeno napajanje, ki se kaže kot izcejanje iz okoliških kamnin v geotermalni vodonosnik v višini približno 2,3 milijona m3 termalne vode na leto.
Ključne besede: podzemna voda, vodno telo, preizkus količinskega stanja, vodna bilanca, ekosistemi, odvzemi
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.01.2024; Ogledov: 99; Prenosov: 40
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,22 MB)

Prospalax priscus jaw from the site of Węże 2 (southern Poland, Pliocene)
Michał Czernielewski, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The ecology and adaptations of the Anomalomyidae (Muroidea) have been long debated in the scientific literature. A jaw belonging to Prospalax priscus (Anomalomyidae) was found at the Late Pliocene site of Węże 2 in southern Poland. The presence of this species at the site agrees with the interpretation of P. priscus and the Anomalomyidae in general as adapted to forest environments.
Ključne besede: Pliocene, Rodentia, Muroidea, Anomalomyidae, Węże, paleontology
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.01.2024; Ogledov: 95; Prenosov: 35
.pdf Celotno besedilo (659,98 KB)

Pisma Johanna Jacoba Ferberja : geološki opisi Slovenije iz druge polovice 18. stoletja
Mihael Brenčič, 2023, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Obravnavana sta prevoda pisem Johanna Jacoba Ferberja (1743–1790), švedskega geologa in mineraloga, ki je septembra 1771 potoval preko Slovenije. Prvo pismo, naslovljeno na Ignaza von Borna, je bilo objavljeno v knjigi »Pisma iz Italije o naravnih čudesih te dežele, ki so bila poslana naslovniku Ignacu plemenitemu Bornu«, ki je izšla leta 1773 v Pragi, drugo pismo, poslano Giovanniju Arduinu, pa najdemo v knjigi »Zbirka razprav s področja kemije, mineralogije, metalurgije in oriktografije«, ki je izšla leta 1775 v Benetkah. Obe pismi vsebujeta razsvetljenski znanstveni opis geologije dela območja današnje Slovenije, ki temelji na takrat veljavnih geoloških teorijah. V članku smo podali kratke življenjepise akterjev, prevoda obeh pisem ter njun komentar in interpretacijo.
Ključne besede: mineralogija, razsvetljenska geologija, regionalna geologija, zgodovina geologije, Giovanni Arduino, Ignaz von Born
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.01.2024; Ogledov: 127; Prenosov: 32
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,19 MB)

Upper Triassic–to Lower Cretaceous Slovenian Basin successions in the northern margin of the Sava Folds
Benjamin Scherman, Boštjan Rožič, Ágnes Görög, Szilvia Kövér, László Fodor, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The evolution of the Slovenian Basin southern margin is currently interpreted based on the successions outcropping in the surroundings of Škofja Loka, on the Ponikve Plateau and in the foothills of the Julian Alps in western Slovenia, as well as from the valley of the Mirna River in south-eastern Slovenia. However, no extensive research on this paleogeographic unit has been carried out in the northern part of the Sava Folds region. Recent field observations permitted the recognition of Upper Triassic to lowermost Cretaceous successions of the Slovenian Basin, including the recently described Middle Jurassic Ponikve Breccia Member of the Tolmin Formation. Based on reambulation-type geological mapping, macroscopic facies observations supported by microfacies analysis and biostratigraphy, three stratigraphic columns were constructed showcasing Slovenian Basin formations on the northern flank of the Trojane Anticline (Sava Folds region). These newly described successions encompass Upper Triassic (Bača Dolomite Formation) and Jurassic–lowermost Cretaceous resedimented limestones and pelagic formations, while the attribution of the Pseudozilian Formation is complex. Based on facies characteristics these successions are similar to those preserved in the Podmelec Nappe (lowermost thrust unit of the Tolmin Nappe) in western Slovenia. The connection between the western and the eastern Slovenian Basin during the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous interval could be thus recognised.
Ključne besede: Southern Alps, Sava Folds, Slovenian Basin, Jurassic, Ponikve Breccia, stratigraphy, foraminifera
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.01.2024; Ogledov: 132; Prenosov: 68
.pdf Celotno besedilo (27,89 MB)

Borers and epizoans on oyster shells from the upper Tortonian, Lower Chelif Basin, NW Algeria
Rachid Khalili, Linda Satour, Saci Mennad, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The three oyster lenses of the upper Tortonian of Djebel Touaka site which are described herein contain three species, Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim), Ostrea lamellosa (Brocchi) and Hyotissa squarrosa (De Serre). The density of shell packing between the lenses is dissimilar. Most of the specimens are disarticulated and poorly fragmented; they exhibit a random distribution and orientation, without any distinct sorting. Bioerosion and encrustation are featured on both surfaces of left and right valves. The identified ichnogenera are Entobia (Bronn), Gastrochaenolites (Leymarie, 1842), Caulostrepsis (Clarke, 1908), Trypanites (Mägdefrau, 1932) and Maeandropolydora (Voigt, 1965). Encrusters are scared, represented by juvenile oysters/other bivalves, bryozoans and barnacles. The coexistence of borings on both sides of valves means that they probably occur not only while alive, but they keep happening after death. The oyster beds were deposited in a foreshore to shoreface environment, from the combined action of wave currents and sedimentation rate.
Ključne besede: Miocene, borings, encrustation, Entobia, Gastrochaenolites, Caulostrepsis, Trypanites, Maeandropolydora, foreshore, shoreface
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.01.2024; Ogledov: 78; Prenosov: 22
.pdf Celotno besedilo (20,32 MB)

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