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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (mechanical properties) .

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Particle size manipulation as an influential parameter in the development of mechanical properties in electric arc furnace slag-based AAM
Katja Traven, Mark Češnovar, Vilma Ducman, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated materials (AAM) have gained recognition as a promising alternative to technical ceramic and building materials owing to the lower energy demands for production and the potential to use slag as a precursor. In the present study, five sets of slag-based AAM pastes were prepared with different particle sizes (fractions d < 63, 63 < d < 90, and 90 < d < 125 μm in different mass ratios) under the same curing regime and using a fixed precursor to activator (water) mass ratio. Precursors and the hardened AAM are evaluated using BET, XRD, XRF, SEM, FTIR, reactivity of precursors by leaching, and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). Chemical analysis indicated only marginal differences among the different-sized fractions of input materials, whereas the BET surface area and reactivity among the precursors differed significantly-smaller particles had the largest surface area, and thus, higher reactivity. The mineralogical differences between the precursors and hardened AAM were negligible. The results revealed that compressive strength was significantly influenced by particle size, i.e., a threefold increase in strength when the particle size was halved. Microstructural evaluation using MIP confirmed that the porosity was the lowest in AAM with the smallest particle size. The low porosity and high reactivity of the fine fractions led to the highest compressive strength, confirming that manipulation of particle size can significantly influence the mechanical properties.
Ključne besede: alkalijsko aktivirani materiali, žlindra iz obločne peči, mehanska aktivacija, mehanske lastnosti, poroznost, alkali-activated materials (AAM), electric arc furnace steel slag, mechanical activation, mechanical properties, porosity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.11.2023; Ogledov: 42; Prenosov: 24
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,26 MB)
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RILEM TC 247-DTA round robin test : mix design and reproducibility of compressive strength of alkaliactivated concretes
John L. Provis, Kamel Arbi, Susana Bernal, Dali Bondar, Anja Buchwald, Arnaud Castel, Sundararaman Chithiraputhiran, Martin Cyr, Alireza Dehghan, Katja Dombrowski-Daube, Ashish Dubey, Vilma Ducman, Gregor J. G. Gluth, Sreejith Nanukuttan, Karl Peterson, Francisca Puertas, Arie van Riessen, Manuel Torres-Carrasco, Guang Ye, Yibing Zuo, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The aim of RILEM TC 247-DTA Durability Testing of Alkali-Activated Materials is to identify and validate methodologies for testing the durability of alkali-activated concretes. To underpin the durability testing work of this committee, five alkali-activated concrete mixes were developed based on blast furnace slag, fly ash, and flash-calcined metakaolin. The concretes were designed with different intended performance levels, aiming to assess the capability of test methods to discriminate between concretes on this basis. A total of fifteen laboratories worldwide participated in this round robin test programme, where all concretes were produced with the same mix designs, from single-source aluminosilicate precursors and locally available aggregates. This paper reports the mix designs tested, and the compressive strength results obtained, including critical insight into reasons for the observed variability in strength within and between laboratories.
Ključne besede: alkali-activated materials (AAM), mechanical properties, test method, Rilem TC, durability
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.09.2023; Ogledov: 106; Prenosov: 73
.pdf Celotno besedilo (431,19 KB)
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Environmentally friendly protection of European beech against fire and fungal decay using a combination of thermal modification and mineralisation
Rožle Repič, Andreja Pondelak, Davor Kržišnik, Miha Humar, Nataša Knez, Friderik Knez, Andrijana Sever Škapin, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The demand for construction timber is continuously increasing, due to its favourable characteristics. However, the adequate protection of wood is key to its successful use, as it is flammable and susceptible to biodegradation. Given that thermal modification enhances the durability of wood, and mineralisation with CaCO3 considerably improves its fire properties, it is worth considering the combined effects of the two methods. European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was selected to determine the effects of a) thermal modification, b) mineralisation through the in-situ formation of CaCO3, and c) a combination of the two procedures, on resistance to decay fungi, reaction to fire and the mechanical properties of the wood. Microscopic analysis and comparisons of the samples before and after exposure to fungi were also conducted. Mineralised wood generally had a slightly alkaline pH value and higher equilibrium moisture content, while thermal modification lowered the equilibrium moisture content. The present study demonstrated the combined effect of thermal modification and mineralisation: the best response to fire as well as resistance to fungi was achieved when the two treatments were combined. Results from the Brinell hardness and three-point bending tests indicate that both modification procedures can slightly impair the mechanical properties of the wood.
Ključne besede: wood, protection, durability, mechanical properties
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 12.07.2023; Ogledov: 164; Prenosov: 108
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,26 MB)
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Flame retardant behaviour and physical-mechanical properties of polymer synergistic systems in rigid polyurethane foams
Branka Mušič, Nataša Knez, Janez Bernard, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In the presented work, the influence of two flame retardants—ammonium polyphosphates and 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine on the polyurethane foam (PUR) systems were studied. In this paper, these interactive properties are studied by using the thermal analytical techniques, TGA and DTA, which enable the various thermal transitions and associated volatilization to be studied and enable the connection of the results with thermal and mechanical analysis, as are thermal conductivities, compression and bending behavior, hardness, flammability, and surface morphology. In this way, a greater understanding of what the addition of fire retardants to polyurethane foams means for system flammability itself and, on the other hand, how this addition affects the mechanical properties of PUR may be investigated. It was obtained that retardants significantly increase the fire resistance of the PURs systems while they do not affect the thermal conductivity and only slightly decrease the mechanical properties of the systems. Therefore, the presented systems seem to be applicable as thermal insulation where low heat conductivity coupled with high flame resistance is required.
Ključne besede: flammability, polyurethane polymer, foams, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, open access
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.06.2023; Ogledov: 192; Prenosov: 100
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,71 MB)
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In-plane seismic behaviour of ashlar three-leaf stone masonry walls : verifying performance limits
Meta Kržan, Vlatko Bosiljkov, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: In light of the forthcoming second generation Eurocodes (EC), the results of conducted systematic in-plane cyclic and compressive tests on three-leaf stone masonry walls are discussed following new requirements and provisions. The new proposal for EC8-3 for existing buildings is based on partial factors safety approach, though it considers different uncertainties in defining input parameters for effective seismic performance-based assessment. Prior to its application, massive calibration effort will be needed since there is no standardized method for shear testing of masonry walls. In this paper, the performance limit states damage, resistance, and displacement capacities from conducted test results were evaluated and assessed through comparison with analytical solutions and imposed limit values, as stated in existing codes. The test results provide a much higher deformation capacity than the limits provided in both existing and new proposal of EC8-3 as well as those in the ASCE code provisions. The reason for this lies in the soft, "ductile" mortar for which the presumed resistance according to code provisions should be significantly higher when considering good quality ashlar three-leaf stone masonry.
Ključne besede: historical masonry, multi-leaf stone masonry, mechanical properties, compression tests, in-plane shear tests, failure mechanisms, drift limits, boundary conditions
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.05.2023; Ogledov: 181; Prenosov: 98
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,47 MB)
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Improved synthetic route of incorporation of nanosilicon species into phenol-formaldehyde resin and preparation of novel ZnAl-layered double-hydroxide hybrid phenol-formaldehyde resin
Ana Dremelj, Romana Cerc Korošec, Andreja Pondelak, Branka Mušič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Hybrid phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins represent one of the most important niche groups of binding systems for composites. New industrial needs, environmental requirements, and price fluctuations have led to further research on materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The preparation of novel hybrid materials can be achieved by inclusion of various elements or functional groups in the organic polymer phenolic framework. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a PF-based hybrid material with different nanoscale silicone species and ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH). The main goals of this study were to improve the synthetic pathways of hybrid resin, as well as to prepare granulated composite materials and test samples and determine their characterization. Added inorganic species increased the glass-transition temperature by a minimum of 8 °C, which was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Rheological properties (melting viscosity and flow distance) of the hybrid resin were measured. The homogeneity of distribution of added species across the organic matrix was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With synthesized new hybrid-binding systems, we prepared different granulated composite materials and evaluated them with the measurements of rheological properties (flow curing characteristics). Tensile strength of samples, prepared from granulated composite material, improved by more than 5%.
Ključne besede: phenol-formaldehyde hybrid resins, nano-SiO2, ZnAl-LDH, composites, glass-transition temperature, mechanical properties
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.05.2023; Ogledov: 259; Prenosov: 102
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,92 MB)
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Residual compressive behavior of self-compacting concrete after high temperature exposure - influence of binder materials
Marija Jelčić Rukavina, Ivan Gabrijel, Ivanka Netinger Grubeša, Ana Mladenovič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper presents an experimental investigation of the compressive behavior of highstrength self-compacting concrete exposed to temperatures up to 600 C. Ten different concrete compositions were tested, in which part of the cement (by weight) was replaced by three different mineral additives (5–15% metakaolin, 20–40% fly ash and 5–15% limestone). The stress–strain curves, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and strain at peak stress were evaluated from uniaxial compression tests. Scanning electron microscope micrographs were also taken to evaluate the damage caused by the high temperatures. A sharp decrease in mechanical properties and an increase in peak strain were observed already after 200 C for all mixes tested. The different mineral additives used in this study affected the variations of residual compressive strength by 24% and peak strain by 38%, while the variations of residual modulus elasticity were 14%. Comparing the obtained results with the recommendations for compressive strength given in regulatory code EN 1992-1-2 for high strength concrete, it can be concluded that the strength loss observed in EN 1992-1-2 at temperatures up to 400 C is too conservative. The Popovics model for the relationship between stress and strain provided a good approximation for the experimentally determined stress–strain curves at different temperatures.
Ključne besede: self-compacting concrete, mineral additives, high temperatures, residual mechanical properties, open access
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.04.2023; Ogledov: 224; Prenosov: 124
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,67 MB)
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