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Iskalni niz: "avtor" (Tom Levanič) .

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How beech provenance affects the structure of secondary xylem, leaf traits, and the ectomycorrhizal community under optimal growth conditions
Tanja Mrak, Jožica Gričar, Tina Unuk Nahberger, Gregor Božič, Luka Krajnc, Peter Prislan, Domen Arnič, Tom Levanič, Hojka Kraigher, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Beyond growth parameters and drought tolerance, comparatively little is known about the functioning of different beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances. We investigated properties of leaves, stem secondary xylem, and ectomycorrhiza (ECM), and explored their interdependencies to identify the best performing beech provenance in optimal growth conditions. The study was conducted on 23-year-old trees in a provenance trial. The investigated provenances originated from Atlantic (Belgium—BE), Alpine (Italy—IT, Slovenia—SI), and continental climates (the Czech Republic—CZ). A significant effect of provenance was observed for stem vessel diameters and conductive area, as well as for foliar %C, δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O. δ13C as a proxy of intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) showed that the highest iWUE was achieved in BE provenance. Individuals with a better iWUE had wider growth rings regardless of provenance. Better iWUE was associated with lower specific leaf area (SLA). ECM community composition and diversity indices did not differ significantly among the provenances. Specific ECM taxa were associated with individuals with high SLA, δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O. In optimal growth conditions with no stress events, BE is a promising provenance due to an efficient water conducting system with high vessel diameters and conductive area, and high iWUE, while Alpine provenances showed an adaptation of their water conducting system to freezing conditions at their original locations. Integrating findings from different compartments improves our understanding of functioning of different beech provenances.
Ključne besede: Fagus sylvatica, provenance trial, stable isotopes, specific leaf area, xylem vessels, ectomycorrhizal fungi
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.04.2024; Ogledov: 212; Prenosov: 683
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,11 MB)
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Osnove dendrokronologije : študijsko gradivo pri predmetu "Dendrokronologija UN BSc"
Tom Levanič, 2012, drugo učno gradivo

Ključne besede: dendrorkonologija, učbeniki
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.10.2023; Ogledov: 507; Prenosov: 136
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,09 MB)

Differences in ratio of carbon stable Isotopes among barley grain milling fractions with various concentrations of beta-glucans
Tom Levanič, Blaž Cigić, Mateja Germ, Ivana Polišenská, Kateřina Vaculová, Igor Pravst, Darja Kocjan Ačko, Ivan Kreft, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The grains of three barley varieties were milled and sieved to obtain respective milling fractions with a content of beta-glucans (b-G) from 1.4 to 10.7%. The enriched fraction obtained by the extraction and precipitation contained 24.7% of b-G. The differences between the ratio of stable C carbon isotopes were established. Milling fractions with coarse particles had more beta-glucans and a more negative ratio of δ 13C isotope in comparison to the respective intact barley grain. However, the enriched fraction had a less negative isotope ratio. So, it is not expected that the deviation from the stable isotope ratio of grain in milling fractions is the result of the content of b-G, but it depends on other barley grain constituents. In different parts of barley grain, there are substances with different stable isotope ratios, and by milling and sieving, they are assorted to the same milling fraction with most of the b-G. The method for determining the ratio of a stable carbon isotope in diverse barley grain fractions, applied in this investigation, is potentially opening the possibility for an additional method of screening the concentration of bioactive constituents in barley grain.
Ključne besede: beta-glucans, starch, barley, stable isotopes, nutrition, milling
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 02.08.2023; Ogledov: 475; Prenosov: 223
.pdf Celotno besedilo (893,76 KB)
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Radial increment of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Is under a strong impact of climate in the continental biogeographical region of Croatia
Tom Levanič, Damir Ugarković, Ivan Seletković, Mladen Ognjenović, Mia Marušić, Robert Bogdanić, Nenad Potočić, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is an important component of forests in the alpine and continental biogeographical regions of Croatia. This study aimed to (1) analyze the long-term response of beech to climate, (2) identify potentially critical climatic conditions that could negatively affect the radial increment (RI) and vitality of beech, and (3) evaluate differences in the response of beech between the two biogeographical regions in Croatia. We used the 16 × 16 km Croatian ICP Forests Level 1 network. On a total of 25 plots, we cored between 5 and 24 trees for dendrochronological analysis. Tree-ring widths (TRW) were measured and standardized using cubic spline. TRW chronologies for the two regions were calculated and correlated to the temperature and precipitation data and Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) using bootstrapped correlations. Continental region precipitation from April to August and alpine region precipitation from June to August were significantly important for RI. Temperature was less important for RI than precipitation in both regions, but the importance of the negative impact of above-average temperatures in the continental region and the positive impact of above-average precipitation in the alpine region has increased over the last two decades. A comparison with the 3-month SPEI confirmed the significant influence of high temperatures and the lack of precipitation in August on the RI of beech trees in both regions.
Ključne besede: climate change, tree growth, forest productivity, drought, European beech
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.06.2023; Ogledov: 533; Prenosov: 268
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,96 MB)
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Growth response of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.) to climate factors along the Carpathian massive
Pia Caroline Adamič, Tom Levanič, Mihail Hanzu, Matjaž Čater, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: European forests are becoming increasingly threatened by climate change and more frequent droughts. The likely responses of species to climate change will vary, affecting their competitiveness, their existence, and consequently, forest management decisions and measures. We determined the influence of climate on the radial growth of European beech and silver fir along the Carpathians to find similarities between the two species and the main differences. Along the Carpathian Mountains, seven sites with mature fir–beech stands above 800 m above sea level were selected and analyzed. Our study confirmed different responses depending on species and location. A more pronounced response of tree growth to climate was observed on the eastern side of the Carpathians, while it was less expressed or even absent on the southern sites. Both beech and fir show better radial growth with higher precipitation in July and slower growth with higher average and maximum temperatures in June of the current year. Fir demonstrates a positive correlation between radial growth and temperature in winter, while beech demonstrates a negative correlation between radial growth and temperature in summer. In the 1951–1960 decade, the average tree ring widths in fir and beech were largest at the southern sites compared to the other sites, but since 2011, the southern sites have had the lowest increase while northern sites have had the largest. Both species respond differently to climate and are likely to follow different competitive paths in the future.
Ključne besede: climate change, dendrochronology, radial growth response, meteorological parameters
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.06.2023; Ogledov: 558; Prenosov: 375
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,44 MB)
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Stable isotope composition in tree rings of Fagus sylvatica L. saplings reflects environmental variation induced by silviculture and microsite factors
Janez Kermavnar, Tom Levanič, Lado Kutnar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Natural regeneration of tree species is sensitive to silvicultural interventions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different cutting intensities and local topographic and soil conditions on the composition of stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes in wood of young beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Beech saplings in the regeneration layer were sampled in summer 2018 at three study sites in Dinaric fir-beech forests in the karst area of Slovenia. Three different cutting intensities were performed in 2012: i) no cutting (control), ii) 50% cutting of the stand’s growing stock creating thinned stands, and iii) 100% cutting of the stand’s growing stock creating 0.4 ha canopy gaps. We show that δ13C increased along the gradient of cutting intensity. On average, δ13C values in the tree rings were ∼ 2‰ increased in trees from canopy gaps than from closed control stands. Furthermore, δ13C was higher on south-facing slopes characterized by higher air temperatures and lower relative humidity compared to north-facing slopes of karst sinkholes. Additionally, the results suggest a dependence of δ18O on interannual and cross-site climatic variations, particularly in the case of summer precipitation amount. δ18O also responded to soil depth, with beech individuals exhibiting lower values on deeper soils, presumably characterized by higher soil water availability compared to shallow soils. The results are discussed in the context of future climate change, as many beech-dominated forests on karst terrain in the Dinaric Mountains are particularly affected by climate warming and drying due to prolonged and reoccurring summer droughts, intensified large-scale disturbances, and often shallow soils with low water storage capacity.
Ključne besede: stable carbon isotopes, stable oxygen isotopes, tree cutting, microclimate, drought stress, dinaric fir-beech forests
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Ogledov: 976; Prenosov: 305
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,95 MB)
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Podlaga za izdelavo usmeritev pri gospodarjenju z navadno smreko v Sloveniji
Luka Krajnc, Mitja Skudnik, Tom Levanič, Matjaž Čater, Aleksander Marinšek, Janez Zafran, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: V prispevku predstavimo podlago za izdelavo usmeritev pri gospodarjenju z navadno smreko v Sloveniji. Izvedli smo več ločenih analiz z istim ciljem: pripraviti strokovno utemeljene in s podatki podprte usmeritve za gospodarjenje z navadno smreko v Sloveniji v prihodnjih desetletjih. Tako smo v tem prispevku združili rezultate meritev nacionalne gozdne inventure, analizo priraščanja smreke, analize vrstne pestrosti ter pregled osnutkov načrtov za gozdnogospodarska območja. Namen tega prispevka je predstavitev rezultatov štirih ločenih sklopov analiz podatkov, ki so predstavljali osnovo za izdelavo usmeritev pri gospodarjenju z navadno smreko, objavljenih v naslednjem prispevku.
Ključne besede: navadna smreka, podnebne spremembe, gospodarjenje
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.02.2023; Ogledov: 673; Prenosov: 218
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,42 MB)

Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) is more drought tolerant and better reflects climate variations compared to pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in lowland mixed forests in northwestern Serbia : ǂa ǂstable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and radial growth approach
Saša Kostić, Tom Levanič, Saša Orlović, Bratislav Matović, Dejan Stojanović, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tree-ring width (TRW), stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) data set chronologies were built for the period 1961–2000 for two oak species (pedunculate oak – Quercus robur L. and Turkey oak – Quercus cerris L.) in northwestern Serbia (Vojvodina province). We focused on the response of the two oak species to measured meteorological data (temperature, precipitation and cloud cover), drought events expressed by six meteorological drought indices, and river water level to better understand their drought tolerance and stress and to assess the reliability of the species response to climate and drought indices when using TRW or δ13C. Turkey oak exhibited better drought tolerance (and less drought stress) compared to pedunculate oak, as manifested, respectively, by less negative δ13C and lower iWUE values. Based on a generalised additive mixed model (GAMM) among the six drought indices studied, the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index and the standardised precipitation index showed the best fit with both TRW and δ13C, while the Palmer drought severity index exerted a strong influence only on TRW. It was thus concluded that δ13C responds more strongly and rapidly to climate variations than TRW.
Ključne besede: dendrochronology, stable carbon isotope, tree ring, Quercus robur, Quercus cerris, drought, climate change
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.08.2022; Ogledov: 744; Prenosov: 549
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,19 MB)
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