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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (risk management) .

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1.
Consistency of impact assessment protocols for non-native species
Pablo González-Moreno, Lorenzo Lazzaro, Montserrat Vila, Cristina Preda, Tim Adriaens, Sven Bacher, Giuseppe Brundu, Gordon H. Copp, Franz Essl, Nikica Ogris, 2019

Povzetek: Standardized tools are needed to identify and prioritize the most harmful non-native species (NNS). A plethora of assessment protocols have been developed to evaluate the current and potential impacts of non-native species, but consistency among them has received limited attention. To estimate the consistency across impact assessment protocols, 89 specialists in biological invasions used 11 protocols to screen 57 NNS (2614 assessments). We tested if the consistency in the impact scoring across assessors, quantified as the coefficient of variation (CV), was dependent on the characteristics of the protocol, the taxonomic group and the expertise of the assessor. Mean CV across assessors was 40%, with a maximum of 223%. CV was lower for protocols with a low number of score levels, which demanded high levels of expertise, and when the assessors had greater expertise on the assessed species. The similarity among protocols with respect to the final scores was higher when the protocols considered the same impact types. We conclude that all protocols led to considerable inconsistency among assessors. In order to improve consistency, we highlight the importance of selecting assessors with high expertise, providing clear guidelines and adequate training but also deriving final decisions collaboratively by consensus.
Ključne besede: environmental impact, expert judgement, invasive alien species policy, management prioritization, risk assessment, socio-economic impact
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 03.04.2019; Ogledov: 1672; Prenosov: 590
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

2.
Documenting metrological traceability as intended by ISO 15189:2012 : a consensus statement about the practice of the implementation and auditing of this norm element
Maria Lohmander, Christos Kroupis, Edward Barrett, Guilaine Boursier, Bernard Gouget, Pika Meško-Brguljan, Florent Vanstapel, Marc H. M. Thelen, Luděk Šprongl, Tatjana Vodnik, 2019

Povzetek: ISO15189:2012 requires medical laboratories to document metrological traceability of their results. While the ISO17511:2003 standard on metrological traceability in laboratory medicine requires the use of the highest available level in the traceability chain, it recognizes that for many measurands there is no reference above the manufacturer's selected measurement procedure and the manufacturer's working calibrator. Some immunoassays, although they intend to measure the same quantity and may even refer to the same reference material, unfortunately produce different results because of differences in analytical selectivity as manufacturers select different epitopes and antibodies for the same analyte. In other cases, the cause is the use of reference materials, which are not commutable. The uncertainty associated with the result is another important aspect in metrological traceability implementation. As the measurement uncertainty on the clinical samples is influenced by the uncertainty of all steps higher in the traceability chain, laboratories should be provided with adequate and appropriate information on the uncertainty of the value assignment to the commercial calibrators that they use. Although the between-lot variation in value assignment will manifest itself as part of the long-term imprecision as estimated by the end-user, information on worst-case to be expected lot-lot variation has to be communicated to the end-user by the IVD provider. When laboratories use ancillary equipment that potentially could have a critical contribution to the reported results, such equipment needs verification of its proper calibration and criticality to the result uncertainty could be assessed by an approach based on risk analysis, which is a key element of ISO15189:2012 anyway. This paper discusses how the requirement for metrological traceability as stated in ISO15189 should be met by the medical laboratory and how this should be assessed by accreditation bodies.
Ključne besede: laboratories, medical laboratory science, risk management, quality control, quality improvement, health care quality assurance, metrological traceability
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.10.2020; Ogledov: 690; Prenosov: 122

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