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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (additive manufacturing) .

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Corrosion behaviour of additively manufactured metallic materials
Aleksandra Kocijan, 2024, pregledni znanstveni članek

Ključne besede: additive manufacturing, corrosion, steel, Inconel 625, FeMn alloy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.04.2024; Ogledov: 153; Prenosov: 82
.pdf Celotno besedilo (579,23 KB)
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The effect of heat treatment on the interface of 155 PH martensitic stainless steel and SAF 2507 duplex steel in functionally graded AM components
Martina Koukolíková, Pavel Podaný, Sylwia Rzepa, Michal Brázda, Aleksandra Kocijan, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Multi-material components, also known as functionally graded materials (FGMs), are innovative materials that possess unique properties due to their composition and have many potential applications in engineering and science. The effect of the heat treatment (HT) of functionally graded materials 15–5 precipitation-hardened (PH) martensitic steel and SAF 2507 duplex stainless steel (and the opposite order of deposition, i.e. SAF 2507 first followed by 15–5 PH stainless steel) on the interface microstructures was systematically investigated in the presented research. The choice of HT followed the trend of optimum post-processing for the individual alloys. A significant modification in the interface microstructure, characterized in the microstructural transition zone (MTZ) formed above the fusion line. Mechanical properties by miniaturized testing method including hardness measurement characterized both types of interfaces. The sequence of the materials’ application did not have a significant effect on their final mechanical tensile properties in the heat-treated states. Nevertheless, the microstructural change at the MTZ led to drop in the hardness at the interface. The research presents heat-treated FGMs in a horizontal configuration to form a high-quality metallurgical joint between heterogeneous materials manufactured by powder-based directed energy deposition method.
Ključne besede: heat treatment, additive manufacturing, martensitic stainless steel, duplex steel, microstructure, mechanical properties
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.04.2024; Ogledov: 131; Prenosov: 25
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Improving the surface properties of additive-manufactured Inconel 625 by plasma nitriding
Danijela Anica Skobir Balantič, Črtomir Donik, Bojan Podgornik, Aleksandra Kocijan, Matjaž Godec, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: As a surface-hardening technique, plasma nitriding is a common procedure for improving the properties of conventional Ni-based alloys. The diffusion of nitrogen hardens a layer on the surface of the alloy, leading to better wear resistance and a higher coefficient of friction, as well as a higher surface hardness. This study reports the effect of plasma nitriding on additive-manufactured (AM) Inconel 625 (IN625) compared to its conventional manufactured and nitrided counterparts. The samples produced with the laser powder-bed fusion (LPBF) process were subsequently plasma nitrided in the as-built condition, stress-relief annealed at 870 °C and solution treated at 1050 °C. The plasma nitridings were carried out at 430 °C and 500 °C for 15 h. The growth kinetics of the nitride layer of the AM samples depends on the prior heat treatments and is faster in the as-built state due to the specific cellular structure. The lower nitriding temperature leads to the formation of expanded austenite in the nitride layer, while at the higher nitriding temperature, the expanded austenite decomposes and CrN precipitation occurs. The XRD and SEM analyses confirmed the presence of two layers: the surface layer and the diffusion layer beneath. The lower nitriding temperature caused the formation of expanded austenite or a combination of expanded austenite and CrN. The higher nitriding temperature led to the decomposition of the expanded austenite and to the formation/precipitation of CrN. The higher nitriding temperature also decreased the corrosion resistance slightly due to the increased number of precipitated Cr-nitrides. On the other hand, the wear resistance was significantly improved after plasma nitriding and was much less influenced by the nitriding temperature.
Ključne besede: additive manufacturing, powder-bed fusion, plasma nitriding, expanded austenite, wear and corrosion resistance, Ni-based alloy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.01.2024; Ogledov: 222; Prenosov: 89
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,98 MB)
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Temperature pre-treatment of gypsum for powder based 3D printing technology
Vesna Zalar Serjun, Lidija Korat, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: In recent years many researchers have been involved in studies in the field of pre-treatment of various raw materials. Temperature treatment of materials results in several advantages, which have been already recognised and successfully applied in various fields of applications. Where at the same time, the practices has been adopted also in the field of 3D printing. Enhanced strength and stiffness, assuring desirable performance criteria of the 3D printed models, reflect the most important characteristics. 3D printing binder jetting technology is based on the application of liquid binders onto powdered material, where gypsum powders have been commercially used as a base raw material. As natural raw materials can be replaced by other materials, such as recycled industrial by products, the aim of this research work was to evaluate the potential usage of three synthetic gypsum powders from different industrial processes for 3D printing. The investigation covered (a) mineralogical and microstructural characteristics of gypsums from different origin and (b) the effect of pre-treatment of gypsum powders at different temperatures (up to 500 °C). On the basis of the results, the most promising temperature regime for each different waste gypsum powder treatment, reflecting in the most optimal setting time, was defined. Synthetic gypsums were characterized by X-ray diffraction (QXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The results showed that all three synthetic gypsums (calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO 4∙2H2O) thermally degrade into calcium sulfate anhydrite (CaSO 4) via an intermediate calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO 4∙ ½H2 O, bassanite) phase. Microstructural and mineralogical differences were observed when temperature treated gypsums from different origins were compared. The detailed knowledge of gypsum powder properties at different temperature regime is important parameter for the assurance of 3D printing key parameters such as flowability, roughness and wettability, especially for determination of saturation levels and setting time. After all, these parameters define final mechanical properties of 3D printed structures. By using such approach, the understanding of material compatibility for 3D printing technology can be defined and improved if necessary.
Ključne besede: 3D print, additive manufacturing, gypsum, temperature
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 209; Prenosov: 135
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,29 MB)
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The microstructure, mechanical and electrochemical properties of 3D printed alloys with reusing powders
Mirjam Bajt Leban, Miha Hren, Tadeja Kosec, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V are widely used in medical, dental and 3D printing technology, allowing the accurate fabrication of geometrically complicated structures. In order to reduce the costs of printed objects, the reuse of powder is common daily practice. AQ1 When using 3D printing technology, the direct impact of elevated temperatures and the influence of the laser beam may change the properties of the powder when it is reused, thus affecting the final properties of the printed object. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of reused powder on the mechanical, microstructural and electrochemical properties of 3D printed objects. 3D printed objects fabricated from virgin and reused powder of both alloys were analyzed by metallographic observation, computed tomography, XRD and electrochemical methods. The main finding of the study was that the use of reused powder (recycled 3 times) does not detrimentally affect the mechanical and corrosion integrity of 3D printed CoCr and Ti6Al4V alloys, especially for the purpose of applications in dentistry.
Ključne besede: additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, virgin powder, reused powder, microtomography
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.01.2024; Ogledov: 248; Prenosov: 112
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,93 MB)
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