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1.
More losses than gains? : Distribution models predict species-specific shifts in climatic suitability for European beech forest herbs under climate change
Janez Kermavnar, Lado Kutnar, Aleksander Marinšek, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Introduction: Herbaceous plant species constitute an essential element of the flora of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. There is increasing evidence that rapidly changing climate is likely to modify the spatial distribution of plant species. However, we lack understanding of the impact that climate change might have on beech forest herbs across the European continent. We investigated the possible effects of predicted increasing rates of global warming and altered precipitation regimes on 71 forest herbs closely associated with beech forests, but with varying biogeographic and climatic niche attributes. Methods: By using a total of 394,502 occurrence records and an ensemble of species distribution models (SDMs), we quantified the potential current distribution and future (2061-2080) range shifts in climatic suitability (expressed as occurrence probability, OP) according to two climate change scenarios (moderate SSP2-4.5 and severe SSP5-8.5). Results: Overall, precipitation of the warmest quarter and temperature seasonality were the most influential predictors in shaping current distribution patterns. For SSP5-8.5 scenario, all studied species experienced significant reductions (52.9% on average) in the total size of highly suitable areas (OP >0.75). However, the magnitude and directions of changes in the climatic suitability were highly species-specific; few species might even increase OP in the future, particularly in case of SSP2-4.5 scenario. The SDMs revealed the most substantial decline of climatic suitability at the trailing edges in southern Europe. We found that climatic suitability is predicted to show unidirectional northward shift and to move toward higher elevations. The gain/loss ratio was generally higher for narrow-ranged species compared to widespread taxa. Discussion: Our findings are contextualized with regards to potential confounding factors (dispersal limitation, microclimatic buffering) that may mitigate or accelerate climate change impacts. Given the low long-distance migration ability, many beech forest herbs are unlikely to track the velocity with which macroclimatic isotherms are moving toward higher latitudes, making this species group particularly vulnerable to climate change.
Ključne besede: species distribution modelling, global warming, range shift, climatic niche, biogeography, Europe
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 29.11.2023; Ogledov: 56; Prenosov: 35
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,49 MB)
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Congruence between vascular plants and bryophytes in response to ecological conditions in sustainably managed temperate forests (taxonomic- and trait-based levels)
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Marko S. Sabovljević, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Vascular plant species (VP) and bryophytes (B) constitute a significant portion of forest biodiversity and respond to both management intensity and natural disturbances within forests. In this study, we investigated the cross-taxa congruence between understorey VP and B at both diversity and composition levels across a wide range of sustainably managed forests in Slovenia. The taxonomic and functional characteristics of the selected plant groups were studied, with a particular emphasis on ground-dwelling species. We employed a trait-based approach to examine the functional characteristics. On average, the species richness of B in sustainably managed temperate forests increased with the corresponding number of VP. Furthermore, a moderate positive correlation in species composition between the studied groups of ground-dwelling organisms was also observed. The ground-dwelling VP and B were congruent in terms of trait-based composition, which was influenced by soil reaction and nutrients and light availability, while trait-based diversity was only slightly similar in response to moisture. A negative correlation between the composition of stress-tolerant VP and B hemeroby was found, indicating forest environments with a low level of disturbance. This is likely due to the sustainable management of Slovenian forests, where climate change and natural disturbances have intensified in recent years. A cross-taxon comparison of the two groups at four different levels, namely taxonomic-based diversity and composition and trait-based diversity and composition, revealed varying degrees of congruence. It is therefore important to monitor the status and temporal trends of both groups from different aspects to draw reliable conclusions.
Ključne besede: understory, mosses, terricolous species, diversity, composition, taxonomy, life-history traits, environmental gradients, managed forest, ICP Forests program, Slovenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 10.10.2023; Ogledov: 213; Prenosov: 87
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The effects of large-scale forest disturbances on hydrology : an overview with special emphasis on karst aquifer systems
Urša Vilhar, Janez Kermavnar, Erika Kozamernik, Metka Petrič, Nataša Ravbar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Large-scale forest disturbances (LSFD) are an essential component of forest ecosystem dynamics. The effects of rapid loss of forest cover and other changes in forest ecosystems are inextricably linked to hydrologic processes such as evapotranspiration, soil and recharge processes. Among all hydrogeological systems, karst aquifers are important because of their exceptionally rich and unique biodiversity, biomass, and groundwater resources. At the same time, they are characterized by specific hydrological processes that make them highly vulnerable to environmental changes. Therefore, this study paid special attention to the effects of LSFD on karst hydrology. Using the PRISMA checklist, a thorough literature review of studies published between 2001 and 2020 was compiled into a comprehensive matrix dataset. In addition, an initial assessment of the global and regional distribution of forests on carbonate rocks was made based on publicly available geodatabases of forests and karst aquifers. The compiled information provides the first global overview of hydrological processes affected by LSFD, and identifies important knowledge gaps and future research challenges. The matrix dataset contained 117 full-text articles with a total of 160 case studies. Most publications were from 2011 to 2017, with more than half of the studies at the plot level and more than one-third at the catchment level. Studies on the effects of fires and pest and diseases infestations predominated. However, no articles were found on the effects of ice storms on hydrology in general or on the effects of pest and disease infestations on hydrology in karst areas. Of the 45.6 M km2 of forested land worldwide, 6.3 M km2 or 13.9% of all forests are underlain by carbonate rocks. Carbonate rocks cover about 15% of the land surface, which means that 31.3% of the world's karst aquifers are covered by forest. 29% of all case studies were conducted in karst areas, which is a high proportion compared to the proportion of forests in karst areas. However, these studies are unevenly distributed geographically. Most studies were conducted at the plot level, and only 21% of studies focused on natural LSFD, so forest management and land use change studies predominated. Although studies on the effects of LSFD on evapotranspiration processes between vegetation, air and soil are fairly well represented, infiltration and recharge processes in karst areas remain poorly understood and knowledge is lacking, particularly on groundwater flow and related hydrological processes. Regional studies and impacts on groundwater resources are also insufficient. The results indicate an urgent need for an integrated holistic interdisciplinary approach and a comprehensive understanding of the individual influencing factors, which would allow more accurate modelling of hydrological processes in forested karst aquifers.
Ključne besede: natural disasters, climatic changes, evapotranspiration, hydrology, karst aquifers
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.05.2023; Ogledov: 189; Prenosov: 117
.pdf Celotno besedilo (16,50 MB)
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6.
New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 11
Marko S. Sabovljević, Gordana Tomović, Marjan Niketić, Teodor T. Denchev, Cvetomir M. Denchev, Aneta D. Sabovljević, Sorin Stefanut, Gabriela Tamas, Zbigniew Szeląg, Boris Assyov, Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: red algae Sheathia confusa, parasitic fungus Anthracoidea caryophylleae, mycorrhizal fugus Hydnellum caeruleum, bryoparasitic fungus Octospora erzbergeri, liverwort Cephaloziella baumgartneri, mosses Hamatocaulis vernicosus, Streblotrichum convolutum var. commutatum and Ulota crispula, monocots Ophrys bertolonii subsp. bertolonii, Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta and Spiranthes spiralis and dicots Androsace hedraeantha, Hieracium mrazii, Ramonda nathaliae and Triglochin palustris are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.04.2023; Ogledov: 353; Prenosov: 112
.pdf Celotno besedilo (223,52 KB)
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7.
Stable isotope composition in tree rings of Fagus sylvatica L. saplings reflects environmental variation induced by silviculture and microsite factors
Janez Kermavnar, Tom Levanič, Lado Kutnar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Natural regeneration of tree species is sensitive to silvicultural interventions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different cutting intensities and local topographic and soil conditions on the composition of stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes in wood of young beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Beech saplings in the regeneration layer were sampled in summer 2018 at three study sites in Dinaric fir-beech forests in the karst area of Slovenia. Three different cutting intensities were performed in 2012: i) no cutting (control), ii) 50% cutting of the stand’s growing stock creating thinned stands, and iii) 100% cutting of the stand’s growing stock creating 0.4 ha canopy gaps. We show that δ13C increased along the gradient of cutting intensity. On average, δ13C values in the tree rings were ∼ 2‰ increased in trees from canopy gaps than from closed control stands. Furthermore, δ13C was higher on south-facing slopes characterized by higher air temperatures and lower relative humidity compared to north-facing slopes of karst sinkholes. Additionally, the results suggest a dependence of δ18O on interannual and cross-site climatic variations, particularly in the case of summer precipitation amount. δ18O also responded to soil depth, with beech individuals exhibiting lower values on deeper soils, presumably characterized by higher soil water availability compared to shallow soils. The results are discussed in the context of future climate change, as many beech-dominated forests on karst terrain in the Dinaric Mountains are particularly affected by climate warming and drying due to prolonged and reoccurring summer droughts, intensified large-scale disturbances, and often shallow soils with low water storage capacity.
Ključne besede: stable carbon isotopes, stable oxygen isotopes, tree cutting, microclimate, drought stress, dinaric fir-beech forests
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Ogledov: 665; Prenosov: 145
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,95 MB)
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8.
Bryophyte diversity, composition and functional traits in relation to bedrock and tree species composition in close-to-nature managed forests
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Marko S. Sabovljević, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Bryophytes respond to a variety of environmental factors, including tree species composition and geological conditions, which are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Bryophytes growing on a variety of substrates were identified in ICP Forests monitoring plots in a wide range of close-to-nature managed forests, from lowland to high mountain areas in Slovenia. Based on data on tree layer composition (broadleaves vs. conifers) and on bedrock and soil type (calcareous vs. siliceous bedrock), all study plots were classified into five groups representing forest types. Different ordination analyses and statistical tests were used to represent differences between forest types in bryophyte composition, richness and functional traits. Almost 200 bryophyte species were identified in managed forests, with the most common being Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachytheciastrum velutinum and Polytrichum formosum. Bryophyte species composition varied considerably along the tree species composition and edaphic gradients represented by the selected forest types. Bryophyte species richness was significantly higher on calcareous bedrock than on siliceous bedrock. The higher occurrence of rocks on the ground surface may significantly increase the availability of various microhabitats for bryophytes. Bedrock had a significant influence on the functional diversity and composition of bryophytes, while tree species composition had less influence. Bedrock and tree species composition are important drivers of bryophyte species composition and diversity at taxonomic and functional trait levels. The high diversity of bryophyte species in Slovenian forests can also be attributed to close-to-nature and sustainable forest management practices that preserve favourable microclimatic conditions in forest stands and maintain diverse substrates.
Ključne besede: mosses, species richness, functional diversity, site conditions, overstory, sustainable managed forests, European temperate zone
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Ogledov: 333; Prenosov: 82
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,99 MB)
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9.
Ecological factors affecting the recent Picea abies decline in Slovenia : the importance of bedrock type and forest naturalness
Janez Kermavnar, Lado Kutnar, Anže Martin Pintar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) has been at the centre of controversy for many decades. Recent evidence of its profound disturbance-induced damage and consequent stock depletions across forest landscapes in Europe has reinforced doubts regarding the sustainability and prospects of this tree species in the future. Like many other European countries, Slovenia has experienced significant Norway spruce mortality and a decrease in growing stock primarily as the result of several disturbance agents (bark beetle outbreaks, an ice storm, windthrows). We investigated a countrywide spruce growing stock decline based on data between 2010 and 2018. Particular focus was placed on identifying the main ecological drivers of this decline, namely geological conditions, climatic parameters, soil attributes, topographic factors and forest stand characteristics. The effects of potential predictors on the relative change (%) in spruce volume (m3 ha-1) during the period 2010-2018 were analysed with Generalized Additive Models. Based on a national dataset including forest compartments (n = 6355) with a spruce growing stock decline > 10%, we found mixed support for ecology-based hypotheses. While spruce decline responded to bedrock type as predicted (i.e., greater relative decline in carbonate compared to silicate compartments), higher forest naturalness (preservation of tree species composition) was not associated with a lower decline. Spruce decline was amplified by higher potential evapotranspiration and soil clay content but showed a strong negative relationship with spruce proportion in the year 2010. General trends along the gradients of other selected predictors (stoniness/rockiness and heat load index) were less pronounced. The results suggest that most of these ecological predictors interact with geology and forest naturalness in affecting Norway spruce decline. Our analysis reveals that bedrock type can play an important role due to its mitigating effects. However, forest naturalness is of secondary significance as intensified large-scale forest disturbances likely override its buffering potential.
Ključne besede: Norway Spruce, bark beetle outbreaks, ice storm, soil-geology, relationship, tree species composition, Slovenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Ogledov: 592; Prenosov: 130
.pdf Celotno besedilo (917,30 KB)
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10.
Are ecological niche optimum and width of forest plant species related to their functional traits?
Janez Kermavnar, Lado Kutnar, Aleksander Marinšek, Valerija Babij, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The ecological niche is one of the central concepts in plant ecology. Understanding which biological traits influence plant niches remains limited, preventing large-scale generalizations. Using a representative pool of 94 herb-layer species frequently occurring in the Slovenian forest vegetation types and an extensive suite of 28 plant functional traits, we tested whether traits serve as predictors for the optimum and width of plant species ecological niche. Niche optimum (mean) and niche width (standard deviation) of each species were derived from community-level ecological indicator values for six environmental gradients, i.e., light, temperature, continentality, moisture, soil reaction and nutrients. We investigated relationships between niche parameters and functional traits through a random forest analysis to account for relatively high trait correlations. Our results suggest that niche optimum and width of forest plant species are related to their functional traits. The two niche parameters were best explained by similar set of traits; however, the relative importance of traits differed substantially. Traits associated with disturbances (frequency and severity), plant dispersal (seed mass, dispersal syndrome), leaf economics spectrum (specific leaf area) and life strategy (CSR scores) showed the highest overall significance in predicting niche optimum and width. Functional traits were, on average, better predictors for niche optimum (average variance explained across all six environmental factors: 20.2%) than for niche width (average variance explained: 7.7%). Intraspecific trait variability, not considered in this study, likely plays an important role in case of niche width. The analyses suggest that, while not all traits impact niche parameters to the same degree, it is crucial to consider traits representing different ecological dimensions and revealing leading patterns of trait coordination. We recommend that the relative importance of traits for species niche parameters should be tested on a larger spatial scale using broader pool of forest understory plants across Europe.
Ključne besede: ecological gradients, Ellenberg indicator values, Slovenian forest types, trait-environment relationship, understory plants
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.03.2023; Ogledov: 300; Prenosov: 159
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,37 MB)
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