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Iskalni niz: "vrsta gradiva" (1) AND "polno besedilo" AND "organizacija" (Znanstveno-raziskovalno središče Koper / Centro di Ricerche Scientifiche Capodistria) .

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11.
Ecodemocracy in practice : exploration of debates on limits and possibilities of addressing environmental challenges within democratic systems
Helen Kopnina, Reingard Spannring, Shé Mackenzie Hawke, Colin D. Robertson, Alessio Thomasberger, Michelle Maloney, Marco Morini, William Lynn, Naziru Zakari Muhammad, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, Hana Begovic, Mariusz Baranowski, 2021

Povzetek: This article examines the practical implications of ecological democracy or ecodemocracy, inquiring how capable democratic societies are of addressing environmental challenges. It asks: What is needed to secure democratic legitimacy for policy measures to benefit nonhuman species? What would ecodemocracy look like in practice? Different types of existing and possible types of representation are discussed, including the expansion of the precautionary principle, the Council of All Beings or Parliament of Things, and representation through the Parties for Animals. A possible approach in the form of a mandate for proxy ecorepresentation similar to civil rights through continuous affirmative action is investigated. Limitations and possibilities of each approach for nature representation are weighed.
Ključne besede: anthropocentrism, democracy, ecocentrism, ecological democracy, ecodemocracy, ecological justice, environmental justice, multispecies justice, rights of nature
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.06.2021; Ogledov: 378; Prenosov: 173
.pdf Celotno besedilo (338,91 KB)

12.
Neuromuscular junction instability and altered intracellular calcium handling as early determinants of force loss during unloading in humans
Elena Monti, Carlo Reggiani, Martino V. Franchi, Luana Toniolo, Marco Sandri, Andrea Armani, Sandra Zampieri, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Marco Vincenzo Narici, 2021

Povzetek: Unloading induces rapid skeletal muscle atrophy and functional decline. Importantly, force is lost at a much higher rate than muscle mass. We aimed to investigate the early determinants of the disproportionate loss of force compared to that of muscle mass in response to unloading. Ten young participants underwent 10 days of bed rest (BR). At baseline (BR0) and at 10 days (BR10), quadriceps femoris (QF) volume (VOL) and isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were assessed. At BR0 and BR10 blood samples and biopsies of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle were collected. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability and myofibre innervation status were assessed, together with single fibre mechanical properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium handling. From BR0 to BR10, QFVOL and MVC decreased by 5.2% (P = 0.003) and 14.3% (P < 0.001), respectively. Initial and partial denervation was detected from increased neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive myofibres at BR10 compared with BR0 (+3.4%, P = 0.016). NMJ instability was further inferred from increased C-terminal agrin fragment concentration in serum (+19.2% at BR10, P = 0.031). Fast fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) showed a trend to decrease by 15% (P = 0.055) at BR10, while single fibre maximal tension (force/CSA) was unchanged. However, at BR10 SR Ca2+ release in response to caffeine decreased by 35.1% (P < 0.002) and 30.2% (P < 0.001) in fast and slow fibres, respectively, pointing to an impaired excitation%contraction coupling. These findings support the view that the early onset of NMJ instability and impairment in SR function are eligible mechanisms contributing to the greater decline in muscle force than in muscle size during unloading.
Ključne besede: Ca2+ dynamics, muscle atrophy, neuromuscular junction instability, sarcoplasmic reticulum, single fibre atrophy, single fibre contractile impairment, unloading
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.06.2021; Ogledov: 357; Prenosov: 350
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,39 MB)

13.
Independent infuence of age on heart rate recovery after flywheel exercise in trained men and women
Damir Zubac, Nandu Goswami, Vladimir Ivančev, Zoran Valić, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021

Povzetek: The present study examined whether differences in the heart rate recovery following flywheel exercise cessation were associated with differences in maximal oxygen uptake (V%O2 max.), age and sex in trained adults. Eleven men (age range 22%49 years, V%O2 max.%=%43.6%%%7.6 mL kg min%1) and ten women (age range 20%53 years, V%O2 max.%=%38.0%%%5.7 mL kg min%1) were randomly assigned to complete a squat-exercise on the flywheel ergometer set at three different moments of inertia, while their cardiovascular responses were continuously monitored. During the flywheel exercise the mean arterial pressure rose by%~%35 to 40% (p%=%.001), and the increment was more robust in men than women. The cardiac index was two-fold greater across both sexes compared to the baseline (p%=%.001), while the rise in heart rate (~%144 bpm) was more pronounced in women to compensate for their load-dependent stroke index decline (p%=%.001). The load-independent time-course changes in heart rate recovery markers were comparable between the sexes. When these indicators were pooled, a stepwise regression revealed age as the only relevant predictor of both fast and slow components of the heart rate recovery (~%30% of the shared variance explained, p%=%.014). The present data suggest that the heart rate recovery declines with age, irrespective of sex, or well-preserved cardiorespiratory fitness in moderately-trained adults.
Ključne besede: training, exercise, Yo-Yo exercise, flywheel, heart rate variability, total peripheral conductance, oxygen uptake kinetics
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 11.06.2021; Ogledov: 352; Prenosov: 202
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,64 MB)

14.
Effect of a warm-up protocol with and without facemask-use against COVID-19 on cognitive function : ǂa ǂpilot, randomized counterbalanced, cross-sectional study
Maamer Slimani, Bianca Miarka, Hela Znazen, Wassim Moalla, Amri Hammami, Armin Paravlić, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, 2021

Povzetek: The present study aimed to verify the effect of a warm-up protocol with and without facemask-use on cognitive function. The sample was composed of 17 healthy, non-smoking physical education students (age = 17.6 years, height = 1.71 m, and body mass = 69.7 kg). They were randomized to perform 15 min of warm-up exercises, while wearing a cloth facemask (EXP) or no mask (CON) on two separate occasions, with at least 48-h separating conditions. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and d2 Attention assessment were used to verify cognitive function, using a repeated measures general linear model. The warm-up improved cognitive abilities and the results demonstrated significant differences between the EXP vs. CON groups in post-concentration performance (186.06 % 15.47 EXP-score vs. 178.12 % 13.66 CON-score), post the total number of errors (23.47 % 14.50 EXP-frequency < 29.06 % 13.74 CON-frequency), and in the post RPE (6.0 % 1.37 EXP-index > 4.7 % 0.85 CON-index). Wearing a cloth facemask caused positive effects on cognitive function. This data suggests that wearing a cloth facemask during warm-up may stimulate/improve the cognitive function.
Ključne besede: pandemic, coronavirus, COVID-19, physical activities, exercises, facemasks, warm-up protocol, cognitive functions, neuropsychological tests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 11.06.2021; Ogledov: 337; Prenosov: 216
.pdf Celotno besedilo (320,39 KB)

15.
Učinkovitost računalniškega kognitivnega treninga v domovih starejših občanov
Uroš Marušič, Zdenka Milič Žepič, Voyko Kavcic, 2021

Povzetek: Ohranjanje in krepitev fi zičnega in kognitivnega zdravja je pri starejših osebah izziv, še posebej pri tistih, ki so podvržene pospešenim starostnim ali nevrodegenerativnim spremembam. Obstoječe nefarmakološke intervencije lahko stabilizirajo ali upočasnijo kognitivni upad, vendar se učinkovite preventivne tretmaje, ki bi zakasnili pojavnost simptomov, še raziskuje. Eden izmed nefarmakoloških tretmajev je kognitivni trening. Namen naše raziskave je bil oceniti izvedljivost in učinkovitost kognitivnega treninga z nalogo prostorske navigacije pri stanovalcih domov starejših občanov. Enaintrideset stanovalcev (povprečna starost 81,6 leta, razpon 69%94 let; povprečna ocena MoCA 22,8 točke, razpon 17%27; 7 moških) je bilo naključno razporejenih v kontrolno skupino ali intervencijsko skupino. Slednja je bila vključena v dvomesečni kognitivni trening (2-krat tedensko; skupaj 16 treningov), v katerem so udeleženci vadili učenje virtualnega labirinta. Vsi udeleženci raziskave so bili merjeni pred in po intervenciji na nevropsihološki ocenjevalni bateriji testov. Udeleženci kontrolne skupine niso prejeli nobene posebne obravnave in so tako sodelovali le na %pred in po% meritvah. Pomembne izboljšave so bile ugotovljene le pri Reyjevem testu slušno-besednega učenja (AVLT), kjer so udeleženci v intervencijski skupini značilno izboljšali svoj rezultat v primerjavi s kontrolno skupino. Kljub omejeni učinkovitosti kognitivnega treninga je bila naša intervencija izvedljiva in pozitivno sprejeta s strani večine udeležencev. Nadaljnje raziskave bi morale ovrednotiti dolgoročne učinke kognitivnega treninga na druge funkcionalne sposobnosti in aktivnosti vsakodnevnega življenja. Na splošno naša raziskava ponuja empirične dokaze, da je kognitivni trening sprejemljiv za stanovalce domov za starejše občane, in kar je najpomembneje, da lahko izboljša mnemonične kognitivne sposobnosti.
Ključne besede: staranje, kognitivni trening, prostorska navigacija, naloge, virtualni labirint, domovi za starejše občane
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 13.05.2021; Ogledov: 400; Prenosov: 209
.pdf Celotno besedilo (333,30 KB)

16.
Higher neural demands on stimulus processing after prolonged hospitalization can be mitigated by a cognitively stimulating environment
Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, Voyko Kavcic, 2021

Povzetek: Prolonge d periods of complete physical inactivity or bed rest trigger various alterations in the functional and metabolic levels of the human body. However, bed rest-related adaptations of the central nervous system are less known and thoroughly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate brain electrophysiological changes using event-related potentials (ERPs) after 14 days of bed rest and 12 consecutive sessions of computerized cognitive training (CCT). Sixteen older (Mage= 60 years) healthy volunteers were randomly divided into a CCT treatment group and an active control group. All participants performed ERP measurements based on the foveal visual presentation of a circle on a black background before and after bed rest. After 14 days of bed rest, participants in the control group showed increased peak P1 amplitude (p = .012), decreased P1 latency (p = .024), and increased P2 amplitude (p = .036), while the CCT group also showed decreased P1 latency (p = .023) and decreased P2 latency (p = .049). Our results suggest that, even from a central adaptation perspective, prolonged periods of physical inactivity or bed rest trigger additional neural recruitment and should therefore be minimized, and that CCT may serve as a tool to mitigate this. Future research should focus on other aspects of central nervous system adaptation following periods of immobilization/hospitalization to improve our knowledge of infl uence of physical inactivity and its eff ects on cortical activity and to develop appropriate countermeasures to mitigate functional dysregulation.
Ključne besede: aging, physical inactivity, immobilization, electroencephalography, EEG, computerized cognitive training
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 13.05.2021; Ogledov: 394; Prenosov: 240
.pdf Celotno besedilo (820,21 KB)

17.
Children's daily routine response to COVID-19 emergency measures in Serbia
Saša Pišot, Dragan Krivokapić, Nebojša Maksimović, Ivana Milovanović, Radenko Matić, Jovan Vuković, 2021

Povzetek: Objective: The emergence of coronavirus in Serbia as well as in other European countries led to the declaration of a state of emergency, which, among other measures, included a switch to online education, the lockdown of public life and organized sports, and a curfew from 5 pm to 5 am. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which these measures affected children%s daily routines. More specifically, it aimed to determine how children maintained their learning, physical activity, and screen time routines from the period before the state of emergency was declared. Methods: Response to an online parent-reported questionnaire was conducted (N = 450). The factorial validity of the scales was prepared using confirmatory factor analysis, with acceptable fit indices. Based on that, the authors tested the interrelations between dimensions using structural equation modeling in SPSS, AMOS 24.0. Results: The study results indicate a positive relationship between school achievement and study time (% = 0.25). They also indicate that children who were physically active before the pandemic continued their activities during the emergency state (% = 0.53). Physical activity impact during the COVID-19 emergency measures reduces children%s behavior changes (% = 0.55). Finally, they highlight that children who spent more time with multimedia content had greater changes in anxiety, sensitivity, nervousness, and worry due to COVID-19 emergency measures (% = %0.38). Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle habits formed in childhood are suggested to be responsible for the greater %resistance to change% shown by the children from this study.
Ključne besede: children, daily routine, school achievement, physical activity, coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic, restrictions, emergency measures, Serbia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.04.2021; Ogledov: 499; Prenosov: 296
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,30 MB)

18.
Globally altered sleep patterns and physical activity levels by confinement in 5056 individuals : ECLB COVID-19 international online survey
Khaled Trabelsi, Achraf Ammar, Liwa Masmoudi, Omar Boukhris, Hamdi Chtourou, Bassem Bouaziz, Michael Brach, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Saša Pišot, 2021

Povzetek: Symptoms of psychological distress and disorder have been widely reported in people under quarantine during the COVID-19 pandemic; in addition to severe disruption of peoples% daily activity and sleep patterns. This study investigates the association between physical-activity levels and sleep patterns in quarantined individuals. An international Google online survey was launched in April 6th, 2020 for 12-weeks. Forty-one research organizations from Europe, North-Africa, Western-Asia, and the Americas promoted the survey through their networks to the general society, which was made available in 14 languages. The survey was presented in a differential format with questions related to responses %before% and %during% the confinement period. Participants responded to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. 5056 replies (59.4% female), from Europe (46.4%), Western-Asia (25.4%), America (14.8%) and North-Africa (13.3%) were analysed. The COVID-19 home confinement led to impaired sleep quality, as evidenced by the increase in the global PSQI score (4.37 % 2.71 before home confinement vs. 5.32 % 3.23 during home confinement) (p < 0.001). The frequency of individuals experiencing a good sleep decreased from 61% (n = 3063) before home confinement to 48% (n = 2405) during home confinement with highly active individuals experienced better sleep quality (p < 0.001) in both conditions. Time spent engaged in all physical-activity and the metabolic equivalent of task in each physical-activity category (i.e., vigorous, moderate, walking) decreased significantly during COVID-19 home confinement (p < 0.001). The number of hours of daily-sitting increased by ~2 hours/days during home confinement (p < 0.001). COVID-19 home confinement resulted in significantly negative alterations in sleep patterns and physical-activity levels. To maintain health during home confinement, physical-activity promotion and sleep hygiene education and support are strongly warranted.
Ključne besede: coronavirus, COVID-19, pandemic, public health, restrictions, isolation, home confinement, psychosocial health, sleep, sedentary lifestyle, physical activities, lifestyle, behaviours
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 24.03.2021; Ogledov: 9373; Prenosov: 292
.pdf Celotno besedilo (408,87 KB)

19.
Absence of an aging-related increase in fibre type grouping in athletes and non-athletes
Mathew Piasecki, Guy A. M. Messa, Joern Rittweger, Jamie McPhee, Erika Koltai, Zsolt Radak, Boštjan Šimunič, Ari Heinonen, Harri Suominen, Marko T. Korhonen, Hans Degens, 2020

Povzetek: The ageing-related loss of muscle mass is thought to be partly attributable to motor neuron loss and motor unit remodelling that result in fibre type grouping. We examined fibre type grouping in 19- to 85-year-old athletes and non-athletes and evaluated to which extent any observed grouping is explained by the fibre type composition of the muscle. Since regular physical activity may stimulate reinnervation, we hypothesised that fibre groups are larger in master athletes than in age-matched non-athletes. Fibre type grouping was assessed in m. vastus lateralis biopsies from 22 young (19-27 years) and 35 healthy older (66-82 years) non-athletes, and 14 young (20-29 years), 51 middle-aged (38%65 years) and 31 older (66-85 years) athletes. An "enclosed fibre" was any muscle fibre of a particular type surrounded by fibres of the same type only. A fibre type group was defined as a group of fibres with at least one enclosed fibre. Only type II fibre cross-sectional area (FCSA) showed an age-related decline that was greater in athletes (p < 0.001) than in non-athletes (p = 0.012). There was no significant age-related effect on fibre group size or fibre group number in athletes or non-athletes, and the observed grouping was similar to that expected from the fibre type composition. At face value these observations do 1) neither show evidence for an age-related loss and remodelling of motor units nor 2) improved reinnervation with regular physical activity, but 3) histological examination may not reveal the full extent of ageing-related motor unit remodelling.
Ključne besede: aging, denervation, fibre type, reinnervation, vastus lateralis
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 24.03.2021; Ogledov: 476; Prenosov: 277
.pdf Celotno besedilo (936,83 KB)

20.
Additional exergames to regular tennis training improves cognitive-motor functions of children but may temporarily affect tennis technique : a single-blind randomized controlled trial
Luka Šlosar, Eling D. de Bruin, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes, Matej Plevnik, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Uroš Marušič, 2021

Povzetek: This study evaluated the effects of an exergame program (TennisVirtua-4, Playstation Kinect) combined with traditional tennis training on autonomic regulation, tennis technique, gross motor skills, clinical reaction time, and cognitive inhibitory control in children. Sixty-three children were randomized into four groups (1st % two exergame and two regular trainings sessions/week, 2nd % one exergame and one regular training sessions/week, 3rd % two regular trainings sessions/week, and 4th % one regular training session/week) and compared at baseline, 6-month immediately post intervention and at 1-year follow-up post intervention. At 6-month post intervention the combined exergame and regular training sessions revealed: higher breathing frequency, heart rate (all ps % 0.001) and lower skin conductance levels (p = 0.001) during exergaming; additional benefits in the point of contact and kinetic chain elements of the tennis forehand and backhand technique (all ps % 0.001); negative impact on the shot preparation and the follow-through elements (all ps % 0.017); higher ball skills (as part of the gross motor skills) (p < 0.001); higher percentages of clinical reaction time improvement (1st %9.7% vs 3rd group %7.4% and 2nd %6.6% vs 4th group %4.4%, all ps % 0.003) and cognitive inhibitory control improvement in both congruent (1st %20.5% vs 3rd group %18.4% and 2nd %11.5% vs 4th group %9.6%, all ps % 0.05) and incongruent (1st group %19.1% vs 3rd group %12.5% and 2nd group %11.4% vs 4th group %6.5%, all ps % 0.001) trials. The 1-year follow-up test showed no differences in the tennis technique, clinical reaction time and cognitive inhibitory control improvement between groups with the same number of trainings per week. The findings support exergaming as an additional training tool, aimed to improve important cognitive-motor tennis skills by adding dynamics to the standardized training process. Caution should be placed to planning this training, e.g., in a mesocycle, since exergaming might decrease the improvement of specific tennis technique parts of the trainees. (ClinicalTrials.gov; ID: NCT03946436).
Ključne besede: tennis, training, performance, children, motor learning, cognitive learning, teaching, strategies
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 17.03.2021; Ogledov: 499; Prenosov: 313
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,81 MB)

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