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Iskalni niz: "polno besedilo" AND "organizacija" (Onkološki inštitut Ljubljana) .

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1.
Stereotaktična radioterapija za zdravljenje refraktarne prekatne tahikardije: prikaz primerov
Tamara Jarm, Krištof Knap, Bor Antolič, Boštjan Berlot, Rihard Hudej, Aljaša Jenko, Ajra Šečerov Ermenc, Jasna But-Hadžić, Ivica Ratoša, 2023, strokovni članek

Povzetek: Stereotaktična radioterapija aritmij (STAR) predstavlja novo in obetavno možnost za bolnike z refraktarno prekatno tahikardijo, ki je odporna proti konvencionalnim metodam zdravljenja. STAR omogoča natančno neinvazivno ablacijo aritmogenega substrata ob minimalni prizadetosti sosednjih organov. Ta metoda zdravljenja je uporabna za bolnike, pri katerih je tarčno tkivo s katetrsko ablacijo nedosegljivo, pogosti šoki implantabilnega kardioverter-defibrilatorja pa močno nižajo njihovo kakovost življenja ali kadar sta ti metodi zdravljenja zaradi slabega zdravstvenega stanja kontraindicirani. Tarčo obsevanja (predel levega prekata) natančno opredelimo s predhodno slikovno diagnostiko, elektrokardiogramom, posnetki prekatne tahikardije in po potrebi invazivnim ali neinvazivnim elektrofiziološkim mapiranjem srca. Po pripravi na obsevanje na simulatorju sledi enkratno obsevanje z visokim odmerkom 25 Gy, ki je trenutno edina standardna frakcionacija. Bolniki obsevanje dobro prenašajo. Dosedanje raziskave so poročale o dobri učinkovitosti zdravljenja z bistvenim zmanjšanjem pogostosti epizod prekatne tahikardije in brez večjih neželenih učinkov. Poročamo o prvi skupini štirih bolnikov z visokorizično refraktarno prekatno tahikardijo, ki so bili zdravljeni s stereotaktično radioterapijo na Onkološkem inštitutu Ljubljana. Izvedba STAR se je izkazala kot učinkovita metoda z nizko stopnjo akutnih neželenih učinkov in predstavlja novo možnost obravnave te ranljive skupine bolnikov v slovenskem prostoru.
Ključne besede: stereotaktična radioterapija, aritmije, prekatna tahikardija, radioablacija srca
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.02.2024; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (146,07 KB)

2.
Protibolečinsko obsevanje kostnih zasevkov
Eva Pribožič, Ivica Ratoša, Jasna But-Hadžić, 2023, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Povzetek: Kostni zasevki povzročajo bolečino, ki vpliva na kakovost življenja bolnika in lahko vodijo do zapletov, ki zahtevajo urgentno ukrepanje. Ko zaradi kostnih zasevkov grozi oziroma je prisoten patološki zlom ali maligna kompresija hrbtenjače, je nujno oceniti, ali bolnik potrebuje kirurško intervencijo, ki ji sledi pooperativno obsevanje. Kadar bolnik ni kandidat za operativno zdravljenje, se priporoča urgentno obsevanje. Pri bolečih kostnih zasevkih, brez grozečega oziroma prisotnega patološkega zloma ali maligne utesnitve hrbtenjače, ne glede na velikost samega zasevka, prvi pristop zdravljenja bolečine predstavlja farmakološko zdravljenje, ki ga podpre in dopolni protibolečinsko paliativno obsevanje. Pri paliativnem obsevanju so celokupne obsevalne doze nizke, obsevanje je izvedeno v enem odmerku ali v kratkih obsevalnih režimih. Bolniki, ki ne odgovorijo na prvo obsevanje, ali se jim bolečina ponovi, so lahko varno ponovno obsevani na istem mestu. Na Onkološkem inštitutu Ljubljana smo opravili retrospektivni pregled paliativnih obsevanj kosti med leti 2018 – 2021. Letno obsevamo 800 kostnih zasevkov, upažamo pa upad števila obsevanj. Najpogostejša frakcionacija je 5 x 4 Gy, samo 10% bolnikov pa prejme obsevanje v enem odmerku. Protibolečinsko obsevanje kosti je učinkovito, stroškovno učinkovito in varno. Pomembno je prepoznati bolnike, ki bi imeli korist od protibolečinskega obsevanja, in jih napotiti na konzilij. S poenostavitvijo radioterapevtskih postopkov in odločitvijo za obsevanje v enem odmerku, je lahko obsevalno zdravljenje bolniku prijaznejše in dostopnejše.
Ključne besede: kostni zasevki, bolečina, paliativno obsevanje, frakcionacija
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.02.2024; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (202,07 KB)

3.
Incidenca raka v prvem letu epidemije covida-19
Vesna Zadnik, Tina Žagar, Nika Bric, Mojca Birk, Amela Duratović Konjević, Ana Mihor, Katarina Lokar, Sonja Tomšič, 2023, strokovni članek

Povzetek: Uvod: Število novih diagnoz raka (incidenca) se v Sloveniji v zadnjem desetletju povečuje za povprečno 1,6 % na leto. V letu 2020, prvem letu omejitvenih ukrepov zaradi epidemije covida19, smo s platformo OnKOvid predvideli 3–8-odstotni padec novih diagnoz raka. Namen je predstaviti uradno incidenco raka za Slovenijo za leto 2020 in ugotoviti, kolikšen je bil dejansko manko novih diagnoz raka. Metode: V Registru raka Republike Slovenije smo v skladu z mednarodnimi pravili registrirali vse nove primere raka pri prebivalcih s stalnim prebivališčem v Sloveniji. Primerjali smo jih z registrirano incidenco za 2019, modelno incidenco za 2020, preliminarnimi rezultati OnKovida in dostopnimi rezultati incidence iz registrov raka iz drugih držav. Rezultati: V letu 2020 je za rakom zbolelo 15.096 oseb v Sloveniji (7.034 žensk, 8.002 moška). Glede na modelno oceno incidence za leto 2020 gre za manko 1.854 oseb (10,9 %; 11,6 % žensk, 10,4 % moških). Pri tem je za 10,5 % manj ugotovljenih rakov v omejenem stadiju, najbolj izrazito v starosti 50–69 let (za 13,2 %). Upad je primerljiv s poročili iz Anglije, ZDA in Kanade ter deloma večji kot na Škotskem in Švedskem. Najbolj izrazit upad novih diagnoz raka ugotavljamo pri nemelanomskem kožnem raku (23 %, najbolj po 50. letu), raku prostate (15,9 %, najbolj v omejenem stadiju), pljučnem raku (8,9 %, 60–64 let, v razširjenem stadiju), raku dojk (8,3 %, 45–64 let), ne-Hodgkinovem limfomu (9 %) in levkemijah (11,6 %). Pri kožnem melanomu, raku debelega črevesa in danke ni bilo primanjkljaja. Zaključek: Upad incidence raka v letu 2020 gre verjetno na račun omejitvenih ukrepov, reorganizacije zdravstva in z zdravjem povezanega vedenja med epidemijo covida-19, beležijo jo v več državah. Med epidemijami je potrebno nemoteno izvajanje onkologije.
Ključne besede: rak, incidenca, register raka, epidemija, covid-19
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.02.2024; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (301,68 KB)

4.
Uporaba deksmedetomidina za paliativno sedacijo : prikaz primera
Iztok Potočnik, Branka Stražišar, 2023, strokovni članek

Povzetek: Paliativna oskrba ob koncu življenja, v katerem se pojavijo znaki pričetka umiranja s pešanjem vitalnih organov in se končajo s smrtjo, je pomemben del celostne paliativne oskrbe. Včasih, ob izredno težkih refraktarnih simptomih napredovale bolezni, je lahko primerna tudi paliativna sedacija. Paliativna sedacija je medicinski postopek, kjer je potrebno strogo upoštevati protokol izvedbe, in slediti etično moralnim vidikom in nikakor prekoračiti črte evtanazije. Paliativno sedacijo je potrebno skrbno načrtovati, se pogovoriti z bolnikom, svojci in s celotnim timom, ki bolnika oskrbuje (zdravniki in negovalno osebje), ga ustrezno dokumentirati in nadzorovati. Pomemben je multidisciplinarni pristop, ko vsak od vključenih zdravnikov specialistov in negovalnega osebja osvetli svoj vidik. V prispevku smo opisali klinični primer bolnice, ki se je zaradi refraktarnega simptoma sprva odločila za paliativno sedacijo, kasneje pa je svojo odločitev spremenila. Pri opisanem primeru s standardnimi učinkovinami sprva nismo uspeli doseči ustrezne globine paliativne sedacije, zato smo se odločili uporabiti deksmedetomidin. Z deksmedetomidinom smo dosegli plitvo sedacijo, ki je bolnici olajšala trpljenje do te mere, da se je tudi odločila za prekinitev paliativne sedacije. Deksmedetomidin je učinkovita in varna učinkovina, ki si išče svoje mesto tudi v paliativni medicini. V literaturi so objavljeni samo posamezni prikazi kliničnih primerov in pregledov področja, ni pa še objavljene randomizirane raziskave. V prihodnosti se taka raziskava načrtuje
Ključne besede: umirajoči bolniki, pozna paliativna oskrba, paliativna sedacija, multidisciplinarni pristop
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.02.2024; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 2
.pdf Celotno besedilo (85,65 KB)

5.
Cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation of pulmonary adenocarcinoma : prikaz primera in pregled literature
Mitja Letonja, Andrej Debeljak, 2007, strokovni članek

Povzetek: Background. Neoplastic pericarditis can be presented as acute pericarditis, pericardial effusion, effusive-constrictive pericarditis or cardiac tamponade.For the majority of patients, a clinical manifestation of neoplasticpericarditis is absent or remains unrecognised during their life. Case report. A 69-year-old non-smoking woman with acute dyspnoea, tachycardia,jugular venous distension, hepatomegaly and right side pleural effusion was presented in the emergency department. The roentgen picture of the chest confirmed pleural effusion and revealed enlarged heart. An emergencyechocardiogram established the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade. The patient improved immediately after the therapeutic pericardiocentesis. Cytology of pericardial fluid confirmed malignant glandular cells, consistent with metastatic adenocarcinoma. A computed chest tomography showed a right side pleural effusion and a solitary round lesion in the right lower lobe of the lung. Bronchoscopy with fundoscopic lung biopsy and brushing revealed adenocarcinoma. Conclusions. Cardiac tamponade as the initial manifestation ofmalignancy is rare and rare is also malignant pericardial effusion due the adenocarcinoma of the lung in a non-smoking woman. The presented patient had one of the longest survival reported in literature despite a limited life expectancy regardless of the treatment in the patient presented with neoplastic pericarditis.
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.02.2024; Ogledov: 103; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (117,08 KB)

6.
Quality of life following thoracotomy for lung cancer
Lučka Debevec, Irma Rozman Sinur, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. The aim of the study was to assess the preoperative and postoperative quality of life (QoL) in lung cancer patients undergoing thoracotomy and to compare the impairment of QoL in resected and exploratory thoracotomized (ET) patients. Patients and methods. Forty-three patients age 31 to 82 (mean 61) thoracotomized (lobectomy 29, bilobectomy 1, pneumonectomy 8, ET 5) for non-small cell lung cancer were assessed using the EORTC QLQ-LC30and QLQ-LC13 questionnaire preoperatively and a mean of 45 17 days after the thoracotomy and before eventual chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Results. After thoracotomy there were significantly impaired functional scales(physical functioning, role functioning, social functioning) and symptomscales (fatigue, constipation, appetite loss, dyspnoea, pain). The remaining symptoms (nausea/vomiting, insomnia, diarrhoea, coughing), global health status, functional scales (emotional functioning, cognitive functioning) and financial difficulties were impaired non-significantly. However, haemoptysis significantly improved and completely disappeared after thoracotomy. There were no significant differences between resected and ET patients. Conclusions. The study established significant impairment of QoL in the first two months after thoracotomy, but no significant differences betweenresected and ET patients.
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.02.2024; Ogledov: 96; Prenosov: 12
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,15 MB)

7.
Adjuvant treatment of breast cancer patients with trastuzumab
Erika Matos, Tanja Čufer, 2007, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. Trastuzumab is a monoclone antibody directed against HER2 receptors that are overexpressed in approximately 20% of breast cancer patients. The present paper presents five clinical trials in which trastuzumabwas applied in breast cancer patients in adjuvant setting. The results of all the trials consistently demonstrate a high efficacy of this target drug in the patients with HER2 positive tumours. So far, no formal guidelines for using trastuzumab in adjuvant setting for breast cancer have been approved. The reasons are many: (i) mean observation time in the studies done so far was considerably short; (ii) the drug was used according to different schedules, (iii) the overall time of treatment with trastuzumab was different in each trial, (iv) late side effects of treatment with trastuzumab are inadequately investigated, and (v) nobody can so far say for sure for which HER2 status patients therapy with trastuzumab is really beneficial. Conclusions. Trastuzumab is definitely very helpful in the treatment of the HER2-positive breast cancer patients that are hormone-independent and of anatomically larger tumours; but, what the absolute benefit of trastuzumab therapy in the treatment of small hormone-dependent tumours is remains a mystery. Incidentally, it must be borne in mind that cardiotoxicity, the well known side effect, may put particularly elderly patients at risk of death, thus beating any treatment advantages down. It has also not been yet resolved at what time it would be most appropriate to start with the therapy with trastuzumab, what would be the optimal duration of the therapy and whether trastuzumab is to be administered concurrently with chemotherapy or immediately after it? What is the optimal treatment duration, one or two yearsor only a few months? In addition there is still a question of optimal HER2 status determination and which HER2 status predicts for trastuzumab benefit. (Abstract truncated at 2000 characters)
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.02.2024; Ogledov: 83; Prenosov: 12
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,80 MB)

8.
Basal cell carcinoma in the inner canthus
Boris Jančar, 2007, drugi sestavni deli

Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.02.2024; Ogledov: 85; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (73,71 KB)

9.
CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy of lung lesions - 2-year experience at the Institute of radiology in Ljubljana
Igor Kocijančič, Ksenija Kocijančič, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. In 1883, Leyden described percutaneous lung biopsy, but it was notuntil 1970s that image guided fine needle chest biopsy gained widespread acceptance. Haaga and Alfidi reported CT-guided thoracic biopsy in 1976. Currently, tissue sampling of a thoracic lesion is indicated when the diagnosis is not obtained by the endobronchial technique and when the cytological diagnosis will modify the stage of the disease or influence the therapeutic strategy. Cytology obtained by small-gauge needle aspiration biopsy confirms the nature of the lesion in 80 - 95% of cases and carry a low incidence of major complications according to the literature. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to provide basic data about diagnostic accuracy and incidence of pneumothorax and chest tube insertion with respect to percutaneous transthoracic CT-guided needle biopsy of lung lesions. Methods. After positioning of the patient we performed a spiral CT of the thorax with the accordingly placed metal mark, which helped us to set the optimal cutaneous entry point. After that we re-checked the localisation of the lesion and marked the entry point with a pen and clean the surface to keepit sterile. After we applied local anaesthetic subcutaneously, we used coaxial 18G Gallini aspiration biopsy needles with cutting tip for CT- guided aspiration cytologic examination. The length of the needle was chosen according to the distance of the targeted lesion. Results. From January 2005 to January 2007 forty-three patients - 24 men and 19 women who were 26-79 years old (mean +/- SD, 59.8 +/- 10 years) were referred to the Institute of Radiology to undergo the PTNB. One patient was referred twice. Consequently, the hospital records and images of 44 consecutive cases of percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy procedure were retrospectively analysed. (Abstract truncated at 2000 characters)
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.02.2024; Ogledov: 90; Prenosov: 15
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,01 MB)

10.
Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel
Metka Šavli, Breda Jamar, 2007, strokovni članek

Povzetek: Background. Adenocarcinoma of small bowel is generally a rather rare primary tumour of small bowel with a prevalence rate of 0.5-3.0/100.000 population, but the most frequent tumour of small intestine. It more often involves the duodenum and jejunum than the ileum. The aim of this paper is also to point out the value of small bowel follow through (SBFT) in the diagnosis of stenosing lesions. Case report. An 83-year old male patient suffered from abdominal pain, malaise, vomiting cachexia and diarrhoea for 3 months. The result of occult blood testing was negative. Haemoglobin level was normal. Proctoscopy, colonoscopy, upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, and ultrasonography (US) did not explain the patient's problems. Ileus of the small bowel was established with abdominal plain film. Small bowel follow through (SBFT) and computer tomography (CT) showed a stenosing tumour in the jejunum. Adenoearcinoma of the small bowel was established with histological examination after resection of the tumor. Conclusions. SBFT, with manual compression of all segments of the small bowel, can be a very accurate diagnostic investigation for evaluation of stenosing lesions in this part of the intestine.
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.02.2024; Ogledov: 87; Prenosov: 14
.pdf Celotno besedilo (228,62 KB)

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