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Does cognitive training improve mobility, enhance cognition, and promote neural activation?
Jeannette R. Mahoney, Joe Verghese, Uroš Marušič, 2022

Povzetek: A close inter-relationship between mobility and cognition is reported in older adults, with improvements in gait performance noticeable after cognitive remediation in frail individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of computerized cognitive training (CCT) on mobility in healthy, independently living older adults, and to determine whether CCT is associated with changes in neural activation for mobility-related brain processes. Using a randomized single-blind control design, sixty-three non-demented adults age 60 y and older (mean age = 67 y; 76% female, mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA] score = 27) were recruited from a local Senior Activity Center. Participants were randomly assigned to either a 2-month CCT program (8 weeks, 3x/week, 40 min/session) or a wait-list control group. Primary outcome was self-selected gait speed during single- and dual-task walking. Secondary outcome was executive function on Trail Making Test (TMT), Part B. Neural activity was assessed via electroencephalography/event-related potentials (EEG/ERPs) targeting lower-limb performance. Results from a linear mixed effect model, adjusted for baseline MoCA score, age, gender, and study completion revealed that compared to controls, CCT improved gait speed during the dual-task (p = 0.008) but not during the single-task walking condition (p = 0.057). CCT also improved executive function (p = 0.024). Further, shorter foot reaction time responses (p = 0.019) were found with enhanced neural activation over sensorimotor areas, with shorter ERP latencies during the P2 component (p = 0.008) and enhanced motor responses (p = 0.009) also evident in the CCT group after the intervention. Overall, the electrophysiological findings suggest possible neural adaptations that could explain improvements in mobility and executive functions associated with CCT in healthy older adults.
Ključne besede: visual evoked potentials, motor-related cortical potentials, executive control, cognitive-motor brain networks, healthy aging, sensorimotor integration, functional mobility
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 24.05.2022; Ogledov: 4; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,11 MB)

Prehrana po delni ali popolni odstranitvi želodca
Denis Mlakar-Mastnak, Eva Justin, 2021

Ključne besede: požiranje, motnje, prehranska podpora
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.05.2022; Ogledov: 7; Prenosov: 3
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,55 MB)

Consuming Eid Al-Adha : constructing and expressing the Muslim identity
Amar Ahmed, 2020

Povzetek: There is a lacuna in ethnographic research with regards to Muslims’ identity construction and expression from an internal perspective. Eid Al-Adha is an Islam-ic holiday which is rich in symbolism, collective rituals, and spiritual and material abundance. The article will interpret the meanings and values that consumers of Eid Al-Adha construct as parts of their identity, mainly being the religious one. It will discuss how the holiday expresses significant Muslim values like collectiv-ism, submission to God, sacrifice, charity, patience, and sacredness. Moreover, it will explain possible differences in consumption reflecting particularism due to national and/or cultural identities. The paper furthers our understanding of what Muslims do and say during their consumption of the Day rather than referring to scriptures or scholars. It contributes to the body of knowledge of Muslim holidays, the meanings associated with them, and how celebrators utilize the symbolism within them to construct their identities.
Ključne besede: Muslims, identity, Eid Al-Adha, consumer culture theory, Islamic culture, cultural consumption, identity construction, identity expression
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 19.05.2022; Ogledov: 11; Prenosov: 17
.pdf Celotno besedilo (179,12 KB)

Expounding the concept of religion in Islam as understood by Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas
Mesut Idriz, 2020

Povzetek: The discussions concerning the religion in Islam have a long history in Mus-lim intellectual tradition, particularly in the Arabic language. However, with the rise and development of Islamic oriental studies in the Western world in the last two centuries and particularly after the second half of the 20th century onwards, a “return” to semantic studies began re-emerging. Realizing the necessity, Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas began to focus and develop the definitions that had been altered, and clarified misunderstood and misleading concepts in relation to the religion of Islam in both the Muslim world and the West. Beginning from the 1970s, al-Attas began explicating his thoughts for the English speaking milieu (later in other languages). Al-Attas’s profound knowledge in various disciplines, traditions, cultures, and languages allowed him to begin to contribute scholarly input as he contributed his beliefs as well as ideas in the academic environment. In this article, al-Attas’s comprehensive understanding will be discussed briefly, but in some detail, including is own specific intellectual contributions.
Ključne besede: religion, Islam, din and religion, Qur’an, Arabic language
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 19.05.2022; Ogledov: 14; Prenosov: 16
.pdf Celotno besedilo (179,12 KB)

Dietary acid load but not Mediterranean diet adherence score is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health state : ǂa ǂpopulation observational study from Northern Italy
Juana Maria Sanz, Domenico Sergi, Simona Colombari, Eleonora Capatti, Roberta Situlin, Gianni Biolo, Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Stefano Lazzer, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Angelina Passaro, 2022

Povzetek: Diet plays a pivotal role in shaping the trajectory of chronic diseases. In this regard, the Mediterranean diet has been widely shown to exert beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. On the contrary, the Western diet, which has also been reported to be an acidogenic dietary pattern, elicits detrimental effects on both metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) health. However, the role of dietary acid load (DAL) as a predictor of cardiometabolic prognosis remains to be elucidated. Thus, this study aims to compare Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) and DAL focusing on their relationship with metabolic and CV prognosis. A total of 448 individuals aged 55–80 years were grouped depending on their MDA, assessed using food frequency questionnaires, or DAL, evaluated using potential renal load acid (PRAL) and net-endogenous acid production (NEAP). Study participants underwent anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence was evaluated according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. Finally, the CV risk was evaluated using three independent algorithms: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and Cuore risk scores. Mediterranean diet adherence was negatively associated with PRAL and NEAP. Individuals in the higher MDA tertile group had higher HDL cholesterol as well as lower homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) and fat mass relative to the lowest MDA tertile. However, in the high-MDA tertile group, there was neither a significantly lower MetS prevalence nor CV risk. Instead, both the MetS prevalence and CV risk were higher in individuals in the higher acid PRAL quartile relative to the lower alkaline PRAL quartile. Dietary acid load, especially assessed using PRAL but not MDA, was associated with indices of metabolic and CV prognosis. Thus, DAL assessed by 24-h dietary recalls may represent a better predictor of cardiometabolic health if compared to MDA evaluated using food frequency questionnaires.
Ključne besede: Mediterranean diet, dietary acid load, alkaline diet, acidic diet, metabolic syndrome, cradiovascular risk score
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 19.05.2022; Ogledov: 18; Prenosov: 16
.pdf Celotno besedilo (522,54 KB)

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