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Tree and stand growth differ among soil classes in semi-natural forests in central Europe
Andrej Bončina, Matija Klopčič, Vasilije Trifković, Andrej Ficko, Primož Simončič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: We determined the size of differences in stand and tree growth in semi-natural forests with respect to 16 reference soil groups. The forest area of Slovenia (11.8 thousand km2) was used as the study area, and reference soil units were derived from the national soil map at a 1:25,000 scale consisting of 10,781 polygons with an average size of 117.95 ha. Stand growth was defined as periodic stand basal area increment, while the growth of Norway spruce, silver fir, Scots pine, European beech and sessile oak trees was estimated by the periodic diameter increment of 238,349 dominant trees on 67,061 permanent sampling plots. A linear fixed-effects model and linear mixed-effect models were used for studying stand and tree growth in different site, stand and tree conditions. The soil unit was the dummy variable with Dystric Cambisols set as the reference category. Soil contributed 4.3 % to the explained variability of basal area increment and 4–27 % to the explained variability of the diameter increment of the five tree species. Soil was a stronger driver of stand and tree growth than climate or topography. Stand and tree species production rate on soil units was in the interval of −28 % to +5 % and −47 % to +14 % of that on the reference soil unit, respectively. Stand growth was the highest on Eutric Gleysols and the lowest on Histosols, and tree species generally exhibited the highest and the lowest growth rates on different soil units. We suggest that soil should be considered in growth models and studied interrelatedly with climatic, site and stand variables.
Ključne besede: reference soil groups, FAO soil unit, natural forest, stand growth, tree growth
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 29.12.2022; Ogledov: 125; Prenosov: 72
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,23 MB)
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Real-world testing practices, treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients from Central Eastern Europe with EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer : a retrospective chart review study (REFLECT)
Urška Janžič, Nina Turnšek, Mircea Dediu, Ivan Shterev Donev, Roxana Lupu, Gabriela Teodorescu, Tudor Ciuleanu, Adam Płużański, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against the epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFRm) in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) changed the treatment paradigm. REFLECT study (NCT04031898) explored EGFR/T790M testing and treatment patterns in EGFRm NSCLC patients receiving first- or second-generation (1G/2G) EGFR TKIs as front-line (1L) in eight countries. Pooled data from Central Eastern Europe (CEE) countries from this study (Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Slovenia) are presented here. This physician-led chart review study was conducted in patients with confirmed-EGFRm NSCLC initiating 1L 1G/2G EGFR TKIs between 2015–2018. The CEE cohort included 389 patients receiving 1L erlotinib (37%), afatinib (34%), and gefitinib (29%). Overall, 320 (82%) patients discontinued 1L, and 298 (77%) progression events were registered. Median progression free survival on 1L TKIs was 14.0 (95% CI: 12.6–15.6) months. Median overall survival from 1L start was 26.6 (95% CI: 24.1–29.0) months. Attrition rate between 1L and next line was 30%. Among patients with 1L progression, 200 (67%) were tested for T790M and 58% were positive. This first CEE analysis of treatments and outcomes in EGFRm NSCLC patients highlights the importance of using the most efficacious therapies currently available in 1L to reduce attrition and improve patient outcomes.
Ključne besede: lung neoplasms, non-small cell lung carcinoma, Eastern Europe, real-world study, REFLECT study, epidermal growth factor receptor, lung cancer
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.09.2022; Ogledov: 162; Prenosov: 55
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Influence of housing conditions on reliability of immunocastration and consequences for growth performance of male pigs
Kevin Kress, Ulrike Weiler, Sonja Schmucker, Marjeta Čandek-Potokar, Milka Vrecl, Gregor Fazarinc, Martin Škrlep, Nina Batorek Lukač, Volker Stefanski, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Immunocastration is a sustainable alternative to piglet castration but faces limited market acceptance. The phenomenon of non-responders has not to date been examined in detail, but adverse and stressful housing conditions (e.g., mixing of groups) might impair the success of vaccinations. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of housing conditions on the immune response after two Improvac® vaccinations at an age of 12 and 22 weeks, respectively. Boars, immunocastrates and barrows (n = 48 each) were assigned to three different housing conditions (n = 36 enriched, n = 36 standard n = 72 repeated social mixing). Immune response was quantified by measuring GnRH-binding and its consequences for testosterone concentrations, development of the genital tract and boar taint. Growth performance was evaluated via average daily gain (ADG). GnRH-binding and testosterone levels revealed that immunocastration reliably suppressed testicular functions after the 2nd vaccination. Housing conditions did not modify testicular function but influenced ADG as animals under mixing grew slower than those under enriched conditions. Gonadal status had only a slight impact on ADG except in immunocastrates, which showed a temporarily higher ADG after the 2nd vaccination. The results show that immunocastration is a reliable procedure under different housing conditions and competitive in terms of growth performance.
Ključne besede: immunocastration, vaccination, Improvac, non-responder, immune response, housing conditions, surgical castration, boar taint, growth performance, genital tract
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.09.2022; Ogledov: 236; Prenosov: 82
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Early-warning signals of individual tree mortality based on annual radial growth
Maxime Cailleret, Vasilis Dakos, Steven Jansen, Elisabeth M.R. Robert, Tuomas Aakala, Mariano M. Amoroso, Joe A. Antos, Christof Bigler, Harald Bugmann, Marco Caccianaga, Katarina Čufar, Tom Levanič, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tree mortality is a key driver of forest dynamics and its occurrence is projected to increase in the future due to climate change. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to death, we still lack robust indicators of mortality risk that could be applied at the individual tree scale. Here, we build on a previous contribution exploring the differences in growth level between trees that died and survived a given mortality event to assess whether changes in temporal autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony in time-series of annual radial growth data can be used as early warning signals of mortality risk. Taking advantage of a unique global ring-width database of 3065 dead trees and 4389 living trees growing together at 198 sites (belonging to 36 gymnosperm and angiosperm species), we analyzed temporal changes in autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony before tree death (diachronic analysis), and also compared these metrics between trees that died and trees that survived a given mortality event (synchronic analysis). Changes in autocorrelation were a poor indicator of mortality risk. However, we found a gradual increase in interannual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony in the last %20 years before mortality of gymnosperms, irrespective of the cause of mortality. These changes could be associated with drought-induced alterations in carbon economy and allocation patterns. In angiosperms, we did not find any consistent changes in any metric. Such lack of any signal might be explained by the relatively high capacity of angiosperms to recover after a stress-induced growth decline. Our analysis provides a robust method for estimating early-warning signals of tree mortality based on annual growth data. In addition to the frequently reported decrease in growth rates, an increase in inter-annual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony may be powerful predictors of gymnosperm mortality risk, but not necessarily so for angiosperms.
Ključne besede: tree mortality, ring-width, forest, growth, resilience indicators, drought, biotic agents, variance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.07.2022; Ogledov: 230; Prenosov: 158
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,19 MB)
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Buckwheat milling waste effects on root morphology and mycorrhization of Silver fir seedlings inoculated with Black Summer Truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.)
Tina Unuk Nahberger, Tine Grebenc, Daniel Žlindra, Tanja Mrak, Matevž Likar, Hojka Kraigher, Zlata Luthar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Large amounts of buckwheat waste are generated annually by the industry and are used in several different ways. To date, there has been little research regarding its suitability as a medium for growing seedlings in nurseries. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the suitability of common and Tartary buckwheat wastes (brans and husks) as media used for raising seedlings. A pot experiment with five different treatments was carried out, in which silver fir root parameters were analyzed and compared 6 and 12 months after summer truffle-spore inoculation. A significantly higher concentration of the antioxidant rutin was confirmed in Tartary buckwheat bran compared to other buckwheat waste used. We also confirmed a significantly positive effect of added Tartary buckwheat husks on specific root length, root tip density, and specific root tip density compared to added common buckwheat husks or Tartary buckwheat bran, for which a significantly negative effect on branching density was confirmed. A significantly negative effect of added buckwheat husks and Tartary buckwheat bran was confirmed for summer truffle mycorrhization level.
Ključne besede: buckwheat waste, root growth, summer truffle, forest nursery, silver fir, inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.02.2022; Ogledov: 472; Prenosov: 411
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,37 MB)
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Climatic regulation of leaf and cambial phenology in Quercus pubescens : their interlinkage and impact on xylem and phloem conduits
Jožica Gričar, Jernej Jevšenak, Polona Hafner, Peter Prislan, Mitja Ferlan, Martina Lavrič, Dominik Vodnik, Klemen Eler, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Increased frequency and severity of stressful events affects the growth patterns and functioning of trees which adjust their phenology to given conditions. Here, we analysed environmental effects (temperature, precipitation, VPD and SWC) on the timing of leaf phenology, seasonal stem radial growth patterns, and xylem and phloem anatomy of Quercus pubescens in the sub-Mediterranean in the period 2014%2019, when various adverse weather events occurred, i.e. spring drought in 2015, summer fire in 2016 and summer drought in 2017. Results showed that the timings of leaf and cambium phenology do not occur simultaneously in Q. pubescens, reflecting different environmental and internal constraints. Although year-to-year variability in the timings of leaf and cambial phenology exists, their chronological sequence is fairly fixed. Different effects of weather conditions on different stages of leaf development in spring were observed. Common climatic drivers (i.e., negative effect of hot and dry summers and a positive effect of increasing moisture availability in winter and summer) were found to affect the widths of xylem and phloem increments with more pronounced effect on late formed parts. A legacy effect of the timing of leaf and cambial phenology of the previous growing season on the timing of phenology of the following spring was confirmed. Rarely available phloem data permitted a comprehensive insight into the interlinkage of the timing of cambium and leaf phenology and adjustment strategies of vascular tissues in Mediterranean pubescent oak to various environmental constraints, including frequent extreme events (drought, fire). Our results suggest that predicted changes in autumn/winter and spring climatic conditions for this area could affect the timings of leaf and stem cambial phenology of Q. pubescens in the coming years, which would affect stem xylem and phloem structure and hydraulic properties, and ultimately its performance.
Ključne besede: pubescent oak, leaf development, radial growth, initial earlywood vessel, sieve tube, anatomy, cambial cell production, extreme weather events
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.09.2021; Ogledov: 613; Prenosov: 105
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,00 MB)
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Drought stress can induce the pathogenicity of Cryptostroma corticale, the causal agent of sooty bark disease of sycamore maple
Nikica Ogris, Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Reports of sooty bark disease of maples caused by the fungus Cryptostroma corticale have recently been emerging from across Europe. The aims of our study were to describe the first report of sooty bark disease in Slovenia, to determine the pathogenicity of C. corticale, to confirm the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungus, and to determine the mass loss of Acer pseudoplatanus wood inoculated by C. corticale. We confirmed the presence of C. corticale on A. pseudoplatanus via morphological and molecular analysis. The optimal growth of C. corticale was measured in vitro on potato dextrose agar and was determined to occur at 25 °C. Pathogenicity tests were performed on 30 saplings of A. pseudoplatanus under two treatments, humid and drought stress, and the fungus was pathogenic in both treatments. The mean length of bark lesions and wood discoloration of the drought-stressed saplings was significantly greater than that in the humid treatment. Re-isolations of C. corticale were successful from all inoculated saplings, and thus Koch%s postulates were confirmed. The mass loss of A. pseudoplatanus wood was determined by mini-block test in a period of 10 weeks and was observed as minimal. Based on the results, we conclude that C. corticale is a weak and opportunistic pathogen that most likely expresses itself intensively under hot and dry conditions.
Ključne besede: pathogenicity, drought stress, optimal growth, climate change, mass loss, mini-block test, wood rot, opportunistic pathogen, saprophyte, endophyte
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.03.2021; Ogledov: 782; Prenosov: 659
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,21 MB)
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Water regulation ecosystem services following gap formation in Fir-beech forests in the Dinaric Karst
Urša Vilhar, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This paper investigates how variation in forest structural characteristics affects the water retention capacity of gaps and forests in fir-beech forests in the Dinaric Karst. Forests are identified as a key element of the landscape for provision of pristine water resources, particularly in highly vulnerable karst aquifers characterized by rapid infiltration of recharge water, high subsurface permeability, and heterogeneous underground flow. Indicators of hydrologic fluxes (drainage flux, canopy interception, transpiration, and soil evaporation) in a large experimental gap (approximately 0.2 ha in size) and those in a nearby old-growth gap were compared over a 13-year period using the Brook90 hydrological model and their structural characteristics were analyzed. In addition, the hydrologic fluxes were also simulated for a managed forest and an old-growth forest for reference. Water regulation capacity was lowest in the experimental gap, where drainage flux accounted for 81% of precipitation and the sum of canopy interception, transpiration, and soil evaporation (evapotranspiration) accounted for 18%. This was followed by the old-growth gap, where drainage flux accounted for 78% of precipitation and evapotranspiration for 23%. Water retention capacity was highest and generally similar for both forests, where 71%72% of annual precipitation drained to the subsurface. The results of this study suggest that the creation of large canopy gaps in fir-beech forests in the Dinaric Karst results in significant and long-lasting reduction in soil and vegetation water retention capacity due to unfavorable conditions for successful natural tree regeneration. For optimal provision of water regulation ecosystem services of forests in the Dinaric Karst, small, irregularly shaped canopy gaps no larger than tree height should be created, mimicking the structural characteristics of naturally occurring gaps in old-growth forests.
Ključne besede: water retention capacity, drainage flux, evapotranspiration, Brook90 hydrological model, experimental canopy gap, old-growth forest
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.03.2021; Ogledov: 710; Prenosov: 641
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,38 MB)
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