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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (monitoring) .

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1.
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure assessment among active daily commuters to induce behaviour change to reduce air pollution
Anja Ilenič, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Nina Zupančič, Radmila Milačič, Janez Ščančar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a detrimental urban air pollutant primarily emitted by traffic and biomass burning, poses disproportionately significant health risks at relatively limited exposure during commuting. Previous studies have mainly focused on fixed locations when assessing PM2.5 exposure, while neglecting pedestrians and cyclists, who often experience higher pollution levels. In response, this research aimed to independently validate the effectiveness of bicycle-mounted low-cost sensors (LCS) adopted by citizens, evaluate temporal and spatial PM2.5 exposure, and assess associated health risks in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The LCS quality assurance results, verified by co-location field tests by air quality monitoring stations (AQMS), showed comparable outcomes with an average percentage difference of 21.29 %, attributed to humidity-induced nucleation effects. The colder months exhibited the highest air pollution levels (μ = 32.31 μg/m3) due to frequent thermal inversions and weak wind circulation, hindering vertical air mixing and the adequate dispersion of pollutants. Additionally, PM2.5 levels in all sampling periods were lowest in the afternoon (μ = 12.09 μg/m3) and highest during the night (μ = 61.00 μg/m3) when the planetary boundary layer thins, leading to the trapping of pollutants near the surface, thus significantly affecting diurnal and seasonal patterns. Analysis of exposure factors revealed that cyclists were approximately three times more exposed than pedestrians. However, the toxicological risk assessment indicated a minimal potential risk of PM2.5 exposure. The collaborative integration of data from official AQMS and LCS can enhance evidence-based policy-making processes and facilitates the realignment of effective regulatory frameworks to reduce urban air pollution.
Ključne besede: air pollution monitoring, PM2.5 exposure, citizen science, bicycle-mounted low-cost sensors
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 30.01.2024; Ogledov: 91; Prenosov: 37
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,57 MB)
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2.
Citizen science is a vital partnership for invasive alien species management and research
Michael J.O. Pocock, Tim Adriaens, Sandro Bertolino, René Eschen, Franz Essl, Philip E. Hulme, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Helen E. Roy, Heliana Teixeira, Maarten De Groot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Invasive alien species (IAS) adversely impact biodiversity, ecosystem functions and socio-economics. Citizen science can be an effective tool for IAS surveillance, management and research, providing large datasets over wide spatial extents and long time periods, with public participants generating knowledge that supports action. We demonstrate how citizen science has contributed knowledge across the biological invasion process, especially for early detection and distribution mapping. However, we recommend that citizen science could be used more for assessing impacts and evaluating the success of IAS management. Citizen science does have limitations and we explore solutions to two key challenges: ensuring data accuracy and dealing with uneven spatial coverage of potential recorders (which limits the dataset’s ‘fit for purpose’). Greater co-development of citizen science with public stakeholders will help us better realise its potential across the biological invasion process and across ecosystems globally while meeting the needs of participants, local communities, scientists and decision-makers.
Ključne besede: biosecurity, community science, invasion continuum, invasive alien species, monitoring, volunteers
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 114; Prenosov: 74
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,81 MB)
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3.
Comprehensive permanent remote monitoring system of a multi-span highway bridge
Andrej Anžlin, Uroš Bohinc, Doron Hekič, Maja Kreslin, Jan Kalin, Aleš Žnidarič, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: As part of the reconstruction of a multi-span viaduct on a Slovenian highway, a permanent remote monitoring system with over 200 sensors was established. Several parameters are monitored on different parts of the viaduct by means of temperature sensors, accelerometers, strain gauges, long-gauge deformation and Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. In this way strains, frequencies and temperatures on external prestressed beam cables, carbon fibre rebarsused for the flexural strengthening of a deck overhang, pier caps and prestressed beams are measured and stored into the on-site central data acquisition system. This paper presents architecture of the permanent bridge monitoring system and preliminary results of the measurements.
Ključne besede: permanent monitoring, structural health monitoring, bridge WIM, sensors, viaduct
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 106; Prenosov: 71
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,29 MB)
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4.
Monitoring of species’ genetic diversity in Europe varies greatly and overlooks potential climate change impacts
Peter Pearman, Olivier Broennimann, Tsipe Aavik, Tamer Albayrak, Paulo Célio Alves, Filipos Aravanopoulos, Laura Bertola, Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Elena Bužan, Vlatka Čubrić Čurik, Katja Kavčič Sonnenschein, Marjana Westergren, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Genetic monitoring of populations currently attracts interest in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity but needs long-term planning and investments. However, genetic diversity has been largely neglected in biodiversity monitoring, and when addressed, it is treated separately, detached from other conservation issues, such as habitat alteration due to climate change. We report an accounting of efforts to monitor population genetic diversity in Europe (genetic monitoring effort, GME), the evaluation of which can help guide future capacity building and collaboration towards areas most in need of expanded monitoring. Overlaying GME with areas where the ranges of selected species of conservation interest approach current and future climate niche limits helps identify whether GME coincides with anticipated climate change effects on biodiversity. Our analysis suggests that country area, financial resources and conservation policy influence GME, high values of which only partially match species’ joint patterns of limits to suitable climatic conditions. Populations at trailing climatic niche margins probably hold genetic diversity that is important for adaptation to changing climate. Our results illuminate the need in Europe for expanded investment in genetic monitoring across climate gradients occupied by focal species, a need arguably greatest in southeastern European countries. This need could be met in part by expanding the European Union’s Birds and Habitats Directives to fully address the conservation and monitoring of genetic diversity.
Ključne besede: genetics, monitoring, population genetic diversity, Europe
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 119; Prenosov: 43
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,53 MB)
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5.
Extending BIM for air quality monitoring
Michael Nicolas Mrissa, Jan Vcelak, László Hajdu, Balázs Dávid, Miklós Ferenz Krész, Jakub Michal Sandak, Anna Malgorzata Sandak, Rok Kanduti, Monika Varkonji, Anja Jutraž, Katja Malovrh Rebec, 2020, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: As we spend more than 90% of our time inside buildings, indoor environmental quality is a major concern for healthy living. Recent studies show that almost 80% of people in European countries and the United States suffer from SBS (Sick Building Syndrome), which affects physical health, productivity and psychological well-being. In this context, environmental quality monitoring provides stakeholders with crucial information about indoor living conditions, thus facilitating building management along its lifecycle, from design, construction and commissioning to usage, maintenance and end-of-life. However, currently available modelling tools for building management remain limited to static models and lack integration capacities to efficiently exploit environmental quality monitoring data. In order to overcome these limitations, we designed and implemented a generic software architecture that relies on accessible Building Information Model (BIM) attributes to add a dynamic layer that integrates environmental quality data coming from deployed sensors. Merging sensor data with BIM allows creation of a digital twin for the monitored building where live information about environmental quality enables evaluation through numerical simulation. Our solution allows accessing and displaying live sensor data, thus providing advanced functionality to the end-user and other systems in the building. In order to preserve genericity and separation of concerns, our solution stores sensor data in a separate database available through an application programming interface (API), which decouples BIM models from sensor data. Our proof-of-concept experiments were conducted with a cultural heritage building located in Bled, Slovenia. We demonstrated that it is possible to display live information regarding environmental quality (temperature, relative humidity, CO2, particle matter, light) using Revit as an example, thus enabling end-users to follow the conditions of their living environment and take appropriate measures to improve its quality
Ključne besede: Building Information Model, internet of things, environmental quality monitoring, healthy living
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.01.2024; Ogledov: 103; Prenosov: 53
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,89 MB)
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6.
Hydrogeological characterization of karst springs of the white (Proteus anguinus anguinus) and black olm (Proteus anguinus parkelj) habitat in Bela krajina (SE Slovenia)
Katja Koren, Rok Brajkovič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The springs west of Črnomelj, in SE Slovenia, are the habitat of the black (Proteus anguinus parkelj) and the white olm (Proteus anguinus anguinus). Some of these springs are also the only known habitat in the world of endemic species of black olm. A steady decline in olm populations has been observed in this area over the past decades. Owing to the rapid runoff and groundwater flow high-resolution monitoring is essential in providing better insight into the hydrogeological characterization of the catchment area of springs. Specific factors and critical parameters of water behind said olm degradation have not yet been defined. Because the olm’s environment is largely aquatic, one potential critical parameter could be the higher water temperatures (>12 °C) or higher nitrate concentration (>9.2mg/l). The six-month observation of the springs (July – December 2021) point to water temperature as a potential critical parameter since the water temperature of the springs exceeded 12 °C in months July and August. Nitrate concentrations could also be a second critical parameter in the degradation of the olm’s habitat. Maximum nitrate concentrations above 9.2mg/l throughout much of the observation period (except for Dobličica spring). Due to less agricultural activity in December in the spring catchment area and a higher dilution rate due to reduced evapotranspiration and increased effective precipitation during this time of the year, the nitrate concentrations are decreased. The results of the measured parameters of groundwater could show the hydrogeological connection between the Otovski and Pački breg springs and between Šotor, Jamnice and Dobličica. The Obršec spring has an independent catchment area. A detailed estimation of the springs catchment area is possible due to a detailed geologic map. It is necessary to determine the origin of the nitrate (nitrate isotope analysis), to quantify the threshold values of the critical parameters, to define precisely all the causes of the olm deterioration, and to make proposals for appropriate measures to limit or even stop the decline of the olm population.
Ključne besede: hydrogeology, olm, ecology, nitrate, monitoring
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.01.2024; Ogledov: 78; Prenosov: 34
.pdf Celotno besedilo (13,65 MB)

7.
Impact assessment of the Gajke and Brstje landfills on groundwater status using stable and radioactive isotopes
Sonja Cerar, Luka Serianz, Polona Vreča, Marko Štrok, Tjaša Kanduč, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Waste disposal in landfills represents a severe threat to aquatic environments on the local, regional, and global levels. In Slovenia, there are 69 registered landfills where groundwater is regularly monitored. However, isotope techniques are not regularly employed. Therefore, we employed isotope analysis of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen in combination with total alkalinity to assess the impact of the selected landfill on groundwater and to evaluate the biogeochemical processes at work. The δ18O, δ2H, δ13CDIC, 3H activity and total alkalinity were determined in October 2020 at 12 sampling points from the surrounding area of the Gajke and Brstje landfills and leachate from the Gajke landfill. The δ18O (-9.24 ± 0.3 ‰) and δ2H (-64.9 ± 2.7 ‰) in groundwater indicate that the main water source consists in direct infiltration of precipitation, with no significant isotopic fractionation. Total alkalinity in the investigated area ranges from 5.45 to 73 mM and δ13CDIC from –14.9 to +6.1 ‰, respectively. Higher values of total alkalinity (up to 73 mM), δ13CDIC (up to +6.1 ‰), δ18O (-7.64 ‰) and 3H (209.8 TU) are detected in the leachate, indicating biogeochemical process related to CO2 reduction or methanogenesis. Methanogenesis could be present at locations GAP-10/13 (Brstje landfill) and G-2 (Gajke landfill) with δ13CDIC values ranging from –8.2 to –7.6 ‰ and with dissolved oxygen values around 0 % and elevated 3H values (from 16 to 18 TU). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of isotopic analysis as a valuable tool for monitoring landfills, revealing shifts in biogeochemical processes within the groundwater there.
Ključne besede: groundwater, monitoring, landfill, stable isotopes, tritium, Gajke, Brstje
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.01.2024; Ogledov: 96; Prenosov: 38
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,52 MB)

8.
Razširjenost dvojnozobega smrekovega lubadarja (Ips duplicatus) v Sloveniji v letu 2023
Maarten De Groot, Tine Hauptman, Marija Kolšek, 2023, kratki znanstveni prispevek

Povzetek: Članek prikazuje rezultate raziskave razširjenosti vrste Ips duplicatus (Sahlberg, 1836) v Sloveniji v letu 2023. Uporabili smo 14 režastih pasti tipa Theysohn, ki so bile opremljene s feromonom Dupliwit. V raziskavo smo vključili tudi tri križne prestrezne pasti brez feromona, ki so bile postavljene v sklopu drugega projekta in smo v njih odkrili vrsto I. duplicatus. Prisotnost vrste smo potrdili na šestih lokacijah, skupno pa smo ujeli osem osebkov. Predstavljena je razprava o pomenu teh najdb v kontekstu razširjenosti, spremljanja in upravljanja dvojnozobega smrekovega lubadarja.
Ključne besede: gozdovi, varstvo gozdov, monitoring, navadna smreka, Picea abies, podlubniki, invazivna tujerodna vrsta
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 10.01.2024; Ogledov: 92; Prenosov: 49
.pdf Celotno besedilo (575,46 KB)
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9.
Elucidating nucleation stages of transgranular stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel by in situ electrochemical and optical methods
Sarmiento Klapper Helmuth, Bojan Zajec, Andreas Heyn, Andraž Legat, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The pitting and environmentally assisted cracking resistance of austenitic stainless steels (SS) is challenged in several industrial applications particularly those involving hot chloride-concentrated streams. Directional drilling used in the oil and gas exploration is one of these applications. Indeed, high strength CrMn-SS commonly used in drilling technology have a high tendency to fail by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) preceded by localized corrosion once subjected to highly chloride-concentrated drilling fluids at elevated temperatures. A comprehensive understanding regarding the mechanisms governing the transition from pitting into SCCis not currently available, though. Therefore, mechanistic aspects such as the effect of loading conditions on pit nucleation and repassivation as well as the synergistic effect between pit stabilization and the nucleation of a stress corrosion crack are of great practical significance. To investigate this an electrochemical-, optical- and mechanical- monitored SCC test was conducted on a CrMn-SS in an alkaline brine at elevated temperature. The transition from metastable to stable pitting and subsequently to SCC in this system was documented in-situ for the first time. Results supported H.S. Isaacs postulates regarding the interpretation of electrochemical signals and demonstrated that loading conditions affect pit nucleation and repassivation leading to a higher susceptibility of the material to pitting, which preceded SCC.
Ključne besede: pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, monitoring, elektrochemical noise, austenitic stainless steel
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 23.11.2023; Ogledov: 130; Prenosov: 117
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,28 MB)
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10.
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