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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (forests) .

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1.
Patterns of tree microhabitats across a gradient of managed to old-growth conditions : a case study from beech dominated forests of South-Eastern Slovenia
Kristina Sever, Thomas Andrew Nagel, 2019

Povzetek: An inventory of tree microhabitats was done in two unmanaged forests (Kobile and Ravna gora forest reserves) and one managed beech forest in SE Slovenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of forest management, natural disturbances, and tree characteristics on microhabitat patterns. Forest structure and microhabitats were recorded in systematically placed plots (500 m2 in size) across each area. In total, we inventoried 849 trees on 54 plots and 1833 tree microhabitats. The results showed that forest management had no significant influence on the abundance of microhabitats per tree, but there were differences regarding microhabitat type between managed and unmanaged sites. There were substantially more microhabitats related to standing dead and live habitat trees in unmanaged forest (e.g. woodpecker cavities, insect galleries and bore holes, branch holes, dead branches and fruiting bodies of fungi), whereas in managed forests there were more tree microhabitats related to management (e.g. exposed heartwood, coarse bark, and epiphytic plants). The results also indicate that disturbance, tree diameter, vitality, and species influence the density, diversity, and occurrence of tree microhabitats.
Ključne besede: forest management, biodiversity, tree microhabitats, beech forests, old-growth, veteran tree, natural disturbance, dead wood
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 08.07.2019; Ogledov: 2021; Prenosov: 1304
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)
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Light response of Fagus sylvatica L. and Abies alba Mill. in different categories of forest edge % Vertical abundance in two silvicultural systems
Matjaž Čater, Andrej Kobler, 2017

Povzetek: In managed Dinaric montane fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests, the light response of young beech and fir in gap microsites was studied during three consecutive growing periods (2009, 2010, and 2011) under controlled environmental conditions in stands of single-tree and irregular shelterwood silvicultural system. According to maximal quantum yield, the different response between species in microsite light categories was evidenced for silver fir on microsites with predominating diffuse light and for beech on microsites with predominating direct light, respectively. Abundance and change of share in microsite light categories was compared over different elevation belts on comparable sites between two silvicultural systems. The share of forest edge area was bigger in the irregular shelterwood system. Change in width of forest edge (20, 30 and 40 m) did not affect the proportion and share of the microsite in both regions of different silvicultural system. Separation of microsite areas between both silvicultural systems, evident in lower elevation belts was not evident in the most conflict and highest elevation zone, while the absolute values of all categories above 700 m in both systems were almost identical, indicating the same, small-scale irregular shelterwood system, known also as the freestyle silvicultural approach.
Ključne besede: Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba, Dinaric silver fir and beech forests, Dinaric forests, forest edge, silviculture, selective system, irregular shelterwood system
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 1796; Prenosov: 510
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

4.
Early responses of biodiversity indicators to various thinning treatments in mountain beech forests
Valeria Altieri, Roberto Tognetti, Lado Kutnar, Bruno Lasserre, Marco Marchetti, Carmen Giancola, Simone Di Benedetto, Stefania Di Lella, Fabio Lombardi

Povzetek: In recent decades, the conservation of biodiversity has become one of the main areas under consideration in managing forests in an ecologically sustainable way. Forest management practices are primary drivers of diversity and may enhance or decrease forest biodiversity, according to the measures applied (thinning options). We have focused on three beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests across a latitudinal gradient in Italy, characterised by different structures resulting from dissimilar management. We tested the short-term effects of differently-based silvicultural intervention vs. stands where no silvicultural practices were applied on biodiversity indicators and related proxies: deadwood amounts, microhabitat density, floristic richness and life form abundance. In each study area, the occurrence of the above indicators and proxies was evaluated before and after the implementation of crop tree thinning (CTT) and thinning from below (LT) methods, comparing them with control areas where no interventions were performed. After two years, the management options resulted in different responses of the investigated parameters. The CTT increased deadwood amounts in comparison with the LT ones, while stumps increased significantly after the LT thinning. Microhabitats increased significantly where intervention was not undertaken. On the contrary, they remained unaltered after the LT treatments. CTT thinning created favourable conditions for the development of microhabitats and their proliferation in the long term. Two years after the application of the CTT thinning treatment, all forest stands demonstrated a significant increase in their floristic richness and herb layer cover. Significant differences were also found in both the frequency and cover of life forms in relation to silvicultural treatment. These findings provide a better understanding of short-term effects of silvicultural treatment useful for maintaining biodiversity in mountain beech forests.
Ključne besede: deadwood, microhabitats, understory vegetation, mountain forests, sustainable forest management, Italian forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 04.10.2018; Ogledov: 1446; Prenosov: 905
.pdf Celotno besedilo (835,42 KB)

5.
Beech and silver fir's response along the Balkan's latitudinal gradient
Tom Levanič, Matjaž Čater, 2019

Povzetek: At the 1000km geographical distance in Dinaric montane forests of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the tree response from the north-western sites towards southern, warmer and dryer sites was performed during three consecutive growing seasons (2011, 2012 and 2013). On eleven permanent plots, positioned in uneven-aged beech and fir forests above 800m along the geographical gradient, the physiological and morphological response to light intensity were measured in predefined light categories based on the analysis of hemispherical photos. Radial growth was analysed on all plots and compared to precipitation, temperature and two drought indexes. Analysis showed a decrease in the cumulative precipitation and no change in temperature between plots. Beech was most efficient in the open area light conditions, while fir proved most efficient under shelter. Physiological response for beech increased towards SE and reached its maximal values in the middle of transect, while fir%s response decreased from the NW towards SE. Tendency to plagiotropic growth decreased from NW to SE in both species. Growth response to climatic parameters is weak, stronger in fir than in beech and decreasing towards SE.
Ključne besede: beech, uneven aged forests, silviculture, latitudinal gradient, response, silver fir
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 13.11.2019; Ogledov: 953; Prenosov: 585
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

6.
Effects of disturbance on understory vegetation across Slovenian forest ecosystems
Lado Kutnar, Thomas Andrew Nagel, Janez Kermavnar, 2019

Povzetek: The herbaceous understory represents a key component of forest biodiversity across temperate forests of Europe. Here, we quantified changes in the diversity and composition of the forest understory layer in representative Slovenian forest ecosystems between 2004/05 and 2014/15. In total, 60 plots were placed across 10 different managed forest types, ranging from lowland deciduous and mid-altitude mesic mixed forests to mountain conifer forests. This network is part of an international network of sites launched within the ICP Forests Programme aimed to assess the condition of forests in Europe. To examine how disturbance influenced understory dynamics, we estimated the disturbance impacts considering both natural and/or anthropogenic disturbances that cause significant damage to trees and to ground-surface layers, including ground-vegetation layers and upper-soil layers. Species richness across 10 sites (gamma diversity) significantly decreased from 272 to 243 species during the study period, while mean species richness per site did not significantly change. The mean value of site level Shannon diversity indices and evenness significantly increased. The cover of most common plant species increased during the monitoring period. The mean value of disturbance estimates per site increased from 0.8% in 2004/05 (ranging from 0% to 2.5%) to 16.3% in 2014/15 (ranging from 5.0% to 38.8%), which corresponded to a reduction in total vegetation cover, including tree-layer cover. More disturbed sites showed larger temporal changes in species composition compared to less disturbed sites, suggesting that forest disturbances caused understory compositional shifts during the study period. Rather than observing an increase in plant diversity due to disturbance, our results suggest a short-term decrease in species number, likely driven by replacement of more specialized species with common species.
Ključne besede: vegetation dynamics, vascular-plant diversity, understory layer, disturbance, monitoring, temperate forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 27.11.2019; Ogledov: 1071; Prenosov: 655
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

7.
Comparing observer performance in vegetation records by efficiency graphs derived from rarefaction curves
Walter Seidling, Leena Hamberg, František Máliš, Maija Salemaa, Lado Kutnar, Janusz Czerepko, Thomas Kompa, Václav Buriánek, Jean-Luc Dupouey, Anna Vodálová, Roberto Canullo, 2020

Povzetek: Species richness is a key variable in measuring diversity of ecological communities. It is crucial to get reliable estimates for the number of plant species in space (mapping) and % even more important in the context of monitoring % over time. Therefore, knowledge on error rates related to recordings of species numbers should be considered in such inventories. The performance of observers in four field tests to capture species numbers carried out in forest ecosystems in central and southern Europe were compared. Observer-related species accumulation (rarefaction) curves and derived efficiency curves were analysed, resulting in mean error rates of 29.7% and 39.4% over series of plots sized 4m2 and 100m2 respectively. As a new approach individual rarefaction and efficiency curves reveal site-specific and spatially differentiated capabilities of observers to register plant species. Since expertise and individual searching strategies are difficult to parametrise, reasons for variation in error rates remain largely unknown. However, statistical modelling with site- and scale-specific mean error rates gave an overview on important influential factors like location, scale, spatial integration, and their interactions. Our results underline the importance to incorporate specific training and inter-comparison measures in monitoring programs and critical perception of results on temporal changes of species richness.
Ključne besede: species richness, observer error, overlooking rate, misidentification rate, singleton species, ICP Forests
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 583; Prenosov: 265
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

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Cultural ecosystem services provided by the biodiversity of forest soils : a European review
Jurga Motiejunaite, Isabella Børja, Ivika Ostonen, Mark Bakker, Brynhildur Bjarnadottir, Ivano Brunner, Reda Iršenaite, Tanja Mrak, Edda Oddsdottir, Tarja Lehto, 2019

Povzetek: Soil is one of the most species-rich habitats and plays a crucial role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. It is acknowledged that soils and their biota deliver many ecosystem services. However, up to now, cultural ecosystem services (CES) provided by soil biodiversity remained virtually unknown. Here we present a multilingual and multisubject literature review on cultural benefits provided by belowground biota in European forests. We found 226 papers mentioning impact of soil biota on the cultural aspects of human life. According to the reviewed literature, soil organisms contribute to all CES. Impact on CES, as reflected in literature, was highest for fungi and lowest for microorganisms and mesofauna. Cultural benefits provided by soil biota clearly prevailed in the total of the reviewed references, but there were also negative effects mentioned in six CES. The same organism groups or even individual species may have negative impacts within one CES and at the same time act as an ecosystem service provider for another CES. The CES were found to be supported at several levels of ecosystem service provision: from single species to two or more functional/taxonomical groups and in some cases morphological diversity acted as a surrogate for species diversity. Impact of soil biota on CES may be both direct % by providing the benefits (or dis-benefits) and indirect through the use of the products or services obtained from these benefits. The CES from soil biota interacted among themselves and with other ES, but more than often, they did not create bundles, because there exist temporal fluctuations in value of CES and a time lag between direct and indirect benefits. Strong regionality was noted for most of CES underpinned by soil biota: the same organism group or species may have strong impact on CES (positive, negative or both) in some regions while no, minor or opposite effects in others. Contrarily to the CES based on landscapes, in the CES provided by soil biota distance between the ecosystem and its CES benefiting area is shorter (CES based on landscapes are used less by local people and more by visitors, meanwhile CES based on species or organism groups are used mainly by local people). Our review revealed the existence of a considerable amount of spatially fragmented and semantically rich information highlighting cultural values provided by forest soil biota in Europe.
Ključne besede: soil biota, forests, soil ecosystem services, Europe
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 634; Prenosov: 223
.pdf Celotno besedilo (316,79 KB)
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10.
The influence of abiotic and biotic disturbances on the protective effect of alpine forests against avalanches and rockfalls
Domen Oven, Barbara Žabota, Milan Kobal, 2020

Povzetek: Abiotic and biotic disturbances in alpine forests can reduce forest cover or change the structure of the forest and consequently reduce the protective effect of forest against natural hazards such as avalanches and rockfalls. In this review article, the effect of the main abiotic (forest fire, windthrow, ice break, snow break, avalanche and rockfall) and biotic (insects and pathogens) disturbances in protection forests are presented along with their potential influence on the protective effect of forest against avalanches and rockfalls. In general, natural disturbances negatively affect the protective effect of forest, especially in the case of large-scale and severe events, which in alpine areas are mostly caused by storms, bark beetle outbreaks, avalanches and forest fires. Climate change induced interactions between disturbances are expected to present challenges in the management of protection forests in the future.
Ključne besede: natural disturbances, natural hazards, abiotic disturbances, biotic disturbances, protection forests, protective effect, stand parameters, rockfall, avalanche
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 01.04.2020; Ogledov: 773; Prenosov: 1360
.pdf Celotno besedilo (893,89 KB)

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