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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (energy) .

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Additive manufacturing multi-material components of SAF 2507 duplex steel and 15-5 PH martensitic stainless steel
Martina Koukolíková, Pavel Podaný, Sylwia Rzepa, Michal Brázda, Aleksandra Kocijan, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The study reports the successful deposition of 15–5 precipitation-hardened (PH) martensitic steel on SAF 2507 duplex stainless steel (and vice versa) to form functionally graded materials (FGMs) using powder-based, directed-energy-deposition (DED) technology. The evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the 15–5 PH/SAF 2507 functionally graded material in the as-built state were investigated systematically. The results proved that the microstructural transition zone (MTZ) is formed above the fusion line due to the dilution effect of both steels. The phase composition of the MTZ consists of ferrite and, in comparison to the base materials, an increased amount of austenite. The interface has the lowest hardness owing to the formation of a significant proportion of the austenitic phase. However, the tensile mechanical properties were not affected by the interface as failure occurred in both SAF 2507 and at the interface regions. The research presents a promising application of FGMs in a horizontal configuration to form a high - quality, metallurgical joint between heterogeneous materials. This study introduces a novel approach by additive manufacturing (AM) of heterogeneous multi-materials, merging the favorable properties of duplex SAF 2507 and martensitic 15-5 PH stainless steels through superior metallurgical bonding. The combination of SAF 2507 and 15-5 PH in a functionally graded material has not been previously explored, as the existing studies deal with the duplex stainless steels SAF 2507 and either martensitic stainless-steel 15-5 PH deposited separately by laser powder-bed-fusion (L-PBF) or DED methods. This research pioneers the investigation of these materials in tandem, paving the way for the development of novel FGMs with optimized properties for specific applications. The resulting FGM exhibits exceptional corrosion resistance and high strength, making it highly versatile for applications in diverse industries such as offshore oil and gas production, aerospace, aviation, and chemical processing equipment.
Ključne besede: directed energy deposition, functionally graded materials, miniaturized specimen testing methods, SAF 2507, 15-5 PH
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.04.2024; Ogledov: 208; Prenosov: 70
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Influence of geology, hydrogeology, and climate on ground source heat pump distribution in Slovenia and selected European countries
Simona Adrinek, Mitja Janža, Rao Martand Singh, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Shallow geothermal energy (SGE) is a renewable energy that could contribute to the decarbonatization of the heating and cooling sector. SGE is predominantly harnessed through ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. The choice of which type of GSHP system depends on various factors. Understanding these factors is crucial for optimizing the efficiency of GSHP systems and fostering their implementation. In this paper, we have analysed the spatial distribution of GSHPs in Slovenia. We identified 1073 groundwater and 1122 ground-coupled heat pump systems with a total heat pump capacity of almost 30 MW. We quantitatively assessed the influence of geological, hydrogeological, and climate conditions on their spatial distribution. Using the χ2 test and information value method, we identified hydrogeological conditions as the most influential factor for the GSHP systems’ spatial distribution. We also performed the spatial analysis of geological and hydrogeological data in 22 European countries, including Slovenia. We collected the reported numbers of installed GSHP units in 2020 and were able to distinguish the shares of groundwater and ground-coupled heat pump systems for 12 of these countries. The analysis showed that ground-coupled heat pumps predominate in most countries, even if the natural conditions are favourable for groundwater heat pumps.
Ključne besede: shallow geothermal energy, renewable heating and cooling, ground-source heat pump, spatial distribution, natural condition
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.03.2024; Ogledov: 186; Prenosov: 77
.pdf Celotno besedilo (15,39 MB)

Reviewing the modeling aspects and practices of shallow geothermal energy systems
Paul Christodoulides, Ana Vieira, Stanislav Lenart, João Maranha, Gregor Vidmar, Rumen Popov, Aleksandar Georgiev, Lazaros Aresti, Georgios Florides, 2020, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Shallow geothermal energy systems (SGES) may take different forms and have recently taken considerable attention due to energy geo-structures (EGS) resulting from the integration of heat exchange elements in geotechnical structures. Still, there is a lack of systematic design guidelines of SGES. Hence, in order to contribute towards that direction, the current study aims at reviewing the available SGES modeling options along with their various aspects and practices. This is done by first presenting the main analytical and numerical models and methods related to the thermal behavior of SGES. Then, the most important supplementary factors affecting such modeling are discussed. These include: (i) the boundary conditions, in the form of temperature variation or heat flow, that majorly affect the predicted thermal behavior of SGES; (ii) the spatial dimensions that may be crucial when relaxing the infinite length assumption for short heat exchangers such as energy piles (EP); (iii) the determination of SGES parameters that may need employing specific techniques to overcome practical difficulties; (iv) a short-term vs. long-term analysis depending on the thermal storage characteristics of GHE of different sizes; (v) the influence of groundwater that can have a moderating effect on fluid temperatures in both heating and cooling modes. Subsequently, thermo-mechanical interactions modeling issues are addressed that may be crucial in EGS that exhibit a dual functioning of heat exchangers and structural elements. Finally, a quite lengthy overview of the main software tools related to thermal and thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis of SGES that may be useful for practical applications is given. A unified software package incorporating all related features of all SGES may be a future aim.
Ključne besede: shalow geothermal energy systems, energy geo-structures, thermal analysis, thermo-hydro-mechanical, modelling, software tools
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.03.2024; Ogledov: 279; Prenosov: 92
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,10 MB)
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Flexible polymer connections for clt structures
Boris Azinović, Andreja Pondelak, Jaka Gašper Pečnik, Václav Sebera, 2020, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: This paper explores the possibility of using flexible polymer adhesives to dissipate energy in CLT buildings during earthquakes. In the first series of tests, pull-off tests of various polyurethane (PUR) adhesives were performed. The connection was tested in pull-pull configuration using monotonic, tension-only loading. The tests have shown that the adhesive can resist large deformations already in tension loading and with small thicknesses of the bond-line. Based on the pull-off test results, one adhesive has been selected for further testing. Monotonic lap-shear tests were performed with the selected adhesive and thick bond-line (3 mm and 6 mm). The results show, that the standard method for lap-shear testing (EN 205) needs to be adapted for thick glue-line. It was found that the strength of 3 mm glue-line is higher than 6mm one, which is in agreement with adhesion theory. The flexible PUR adhesives could potentially be used in CLT structures for anchoring the CLT wall with “flexible” glued-in rods or as a “flexible” vertical shear connection between the CLT walls. Such systems have a potential to dissipate energy in seismic areas.
Ključne besede: CLT connections, flexible adhesive, polyurethane, energy dissipation, pull-off, lap-shear
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.01.2024; Ogledov: 257; Prenosov: 113
.pdf Celotno besedilo (18,89 MB)
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Impact of Open-Loop Systems on Groundwater Temperature in NE Slovenia
Simona Adrinek, Mitja Janža, Mihael Brenčič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: To achieve sustainable and efficient use of shallow geothermal resources, it is important to understand the heat transfer in the subsurface of the planned geothermal system. In the City Municipality of Murska Sobota, NE Slovenia, the use of geothermal open-loop systems has increased in recent years. Their high spatial density raises the question of possible mutual interference between the systems. By compiling geological, hydrogeological, and thermal data, obtained from the monitoring network, fieldwork, and knowledge of regional hydrogeological conditions, we have developed a transient groundwater flow and heat transfer model to evaluate the impact of the open-loop systems on the subsurface and surrounding systems. The transient simulation showed that the thermal state in the observed area is restored over the summer, when the systems are not in operation. Also, the systems do not have significant mutual interference that would affect their efficiency. However, as interest in installing new systems in the area increases, simulations of the thermal plumes of new geothermal systems are needed to ensure sustainable and efficient use of shallow geothermal energy in the future.
Ključne besede: geothermal energy, open-loop system, groundwater heat pump, intergranular aquifer, numerical modelling, thermal plume
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.09.2023; Ogledov: 505; Prenosov: 116
.pdf Celotno besedilo (36,17 MB)

Effects of specific parameters on simulations of energy use and air temperatures in offices equipped with radiant heating/cooling panels
Sabina Jordan, Jože Hafner, Martina Zbašnik-Senegačnik, Andraž Legat, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: When creating a simulation model to assess the performance of buildings, there is usually a lack of feedback information. Only in the case of measurements of a real building is a direct comparison of the measured values and simulated results possible. Parameter data related to users’ behavior or other events can also be obtained. Their evaluated frequency, magnitude and duration, along with boundary conditions, are crucial for the results. It is clear that none of them can be predicted very accurately. Most of them, however, are needed for computer modeling. In this paper we analyzed the well-defined TRNSYS simulation model of offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels for heating and cooling. The model was based on real case offices and was validated based on measurements for 1 year. The analysis included simulations in order to define what effect the parameters related mainly to users have on the energy use and the indoor air temperatures. The study confirmed that specific human activities influence the annual energy use to a relatively small degree and that their effects often counteract. It also confirmed the even more important fact that although small, these activities can influence the thermal comfort of users. It is believed that despite the fact that this research was based on an analysis of offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels, most of the results could be applied generally.
Ključne besede: measurements, modeling, simulation, validation, analysis, energy use, temperature
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.09.2023; Ogledov: 361; Prenosov: 168
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,83 MB)
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