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1.
Forest genetics research in the mediterranean basin : bibliometric analysis, knowledge gaps, and perspectives
Bruno Fady, Edoardo Esposito, Khaled Abulaila, Jelena M. Aleksic, Ricardo Alía, Paraskevi Alizoti, Ecaterina-Nicoleta Apostol, Filipos Aravanopoulos, Dalibor Ballian, Magda Bou Dagher Kharrat, Hojka Kraigher, Marjana Westergren, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Purpose of Review Recognizing that in the context of global change, tree genetic diversity represents a crucial resource for future forest adaptation, we review and highlight the major forest genetics research achievements of the past decades in biodiversity-rich countries of the Mediterranean region. For this, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature spanning the past thirty years (1991–2020). Putting together the representative regionwide expertise of our co-authorship, we propose research perspectives for the next decade. Recent Findings Forest genetics research in Mediterranean countries is organized into three different scientific domains of unequal importance. The domain “Population diversity and Differentiation” related to over 62% of all publications of the period, the domain “Environmental conditions, growth and stress response” to almost 23%, and the domain “Phylogeography” to almost 15%. Citation rate was trending the opposite way, indicating a strong and sustained interest in phylogeography and a rising interest for genetics research related to climate change and drought resistance. The share of publications from Asia and Africa to the total within the Mediterranean increased significantly during the 30-year period analyzed, reaching just below 30% during the last decade. Summary Describing poorly known species and populations, including marginal populations, using the full potential of genomic methods, testing adaptation in common gardens, and modeling adaptive capacity to build reliable scenarios for forest management remain strategic research priorities. Delineating areas of high and low genetic diversity, for conservation and restoration, respectively, is needed. Joining forces between forest management and forest research, sharing data, experience, and knowledge within and among countries will have to progress significantly, e.g., to assess the potential of Mediterranean genetic resources as assisted migration material worldwide.
Ključne besede: conservation ·, forest genetic resources, genetic diversity, global change, Mediterranean, sustainable management
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.12.2022; Ogledov: 77; Prenosov: 37
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,16 MB)
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2.
The status and role of genetic diversity of trees for the conservation and management of riparian ecosystems : a European experts' perspective
Filip Alimpić, Jelena Milovanović, Remigiusz Pielech, Georgi Hinkov, Roland Jansson, Simon Dufour, Marcin Beza, Nebi Bilir, Luis Santos del Blanco, Gregor Božič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Riparian vegetation supports high biodiversity providing many services and is, therefore, an important landscape element. Riparian ecosystems are subject to numerous pressures leading to population decline and genetic erosion of riparian plants. This may have cascading effects at various ecosystem levels, including decreasing ecosystem services, so identifying the current status of genetic diversity of riparian tree species is vital to improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts. We aimed to elicit expert views on the status and importance of genetic diversity of tree species, and conservation needs across European riparian ecosystems. Sharing of such information among researchers, managers and policymakers has the potential to enhance ecological restoration and management of riparian ecosystems. We identified experts in riparian genetic resources conservation and management across Europe. These included stakeholders with different perspectives, ranging from researchers to practitioners. We designed a set of questionnaires where our identified experts were asked to answer questions related to the status and conservation of genetic diversity of riparian tree species in their respective countries. Specifically, we asked about societal awareness, legislative tools, good practices and conservation or restoration projects accounting for intraspecific genetic diversity and differentiation of tree species in riparian ecosystems. Questionnaire responses were analysed and discussed in light of the scientific literature to define needs and priorities related to the management and conservation of genetic diversity of riparian tree species. The experts recognized that a combination of in situ and ex situ measures and/or integrative conservation of riparian ecosystems is the most appropriate option for conserving the genetic diversity of riparian tree species. Simultaneous application of conservation measures at the level of priority species, identified by experts, and protection of riparian areas are required. Synthesis and applications. This study revealed the importance of recognizing the ecological processes that shape the genetic diversity of riparian tree species in hydrographic networks (dendritic spatial configuration, specific patterns of gene flow among riparian populations, fragmentation of river by dams) but also the need to overcome socio-economic barriers, such as lack of policy priority, deficiency in funding and weak legislation framework.
Ključne besede: biodiversity conservation, genetic erosion, genetic resources conservation, knowledge transfer, management, riparian genetic diversity, vegetation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.12.2022; Ogledov: 91; Prenosov: 50
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,02 MB)
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Worldwide diversity of endophytic fungi and insects associated with dormant tree twigs
Iva Franić, Simone Prospero, Kalev Adamson, Eric Allan, Fabio Attorre, Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg, Sylvie Augustin, Dimitrios N. Avtzis, Wim Baert, Marek Barta, Maarten De Groot, Barbara Piškur, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: International trade in plants and climate change are two of the main factors causing damaging tree pests (i.e. fungi and insects) to spread into new areas. To mitigate these risks, a large-scale assessment of tree-associated fungi and insects is needed. We present records of endophytic fungi and insects in twigs of 17 angiosperm and gymnosperm genera, from 51 locations in 32 countries worldwide. Endophytic fungi were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of 352 samples from 145 tree species in 28 countries. Insects were reared from 227 samples of 109 tree species in 18 countries and sorted into taxonomic orders and feeding guilds. Herbivorous insects were grouped into morphospecies and were identified using molecular and morphological approaches. This dataset reveals the diversity of tree-associated taxa, as it contains 12,721 fungal Amplicon Sequence Variants and 208 herbivorous insect morphospecies, sampled across broad geographic and climatic gradients and for many tree species. This dataset will facilitate applied and fundamental studies on the distribution of fungal endophytes and insects in trees.
Ključne besede: diversity, endophytic fungi, endophytic insects, tree twigs
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.03.2022; Ogledov: 379; Prenosov: 301
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,32 MB)
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5.
Genomics and adaptation in forest ecosystems
Charalambos Neophytou, Katrin Heer, Pascal Miles, Martina Peter, Tanja Pyhäjärvi, Marjana Westergren, Christian Rellstab, Felix Gugerli, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Rapid human-induced environmental changes like climate warming represent a challenge for forest ecosystems. Due to their biological complexity and the long generation time of their keystone tree species, genetic adaptation in these ecosystems might not be fast enough to keep track with conditions changing at such a fast pace. The study of adaptation to environmental change and its genetic mechanisms is therefore key for ensuring a sustainable support and management of forests. The 4-day conference of the European Research Group EvolTree (https://www.evoltree.eu) on the topic of “Genomics and Adaptation in Forest Ecosystems” brought together over 130 scientists to present and discuss the latest developments and findings in forest evolutionary research. Genomic studies in forest trees have long been hampered by the lack of high-quality genomics resources and affordable genotyping methods. This has dramatically changed in the last few years; the conference impressively showed how such tools are now being applied to study past demography, adaptation and interactions with associated organisms. Moreover, genomic studies are now finally also entering the world of conservation and forest management, for example by measuring the value or cost of interspecific hybridization and introgression, assessing the vulnerability of species and populations to future change, or accurately delineating evolutionary significant units. The newly launched conference series of EvolTree will hopefully play a key role in the exchange and synthesis of such important investigations.
Ključne besede: gene conservation, genetic diversity, local adaptation, pathogens, selection, mycorrhizal fungi
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 18.02.2022; Ogledov: 319; Prenosov: 275
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,04 MB)
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6.
Using genomic information for management planning of an endangered perennial, Viola uliginosa
Kyung Min Lee, Pertti Ranta, Jarmo Saarikivi, Lado Kutnar, Branko Vreš, Maxim Dzhus, Marko Mutanen, Laura Kvist, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Species occupying habitats subjected to frequent natural and/or anthropogenic changes are a challenge for conservation management. We studied one such species, Viola uliginosa, an endangered perennial wetland species typically inhabiting sporadi-cally flooded meadows alongside rivers/lakes. In order to estimate genomic diversity, population structure, and history, we sampled five sites in Finland, three in Estonia, and one each in Slovenia, Belarus, and Poland using genomic SNP data with double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). We found mono-phyletic populations, high levels of inbreeding (mean population FSNP = 0.407-0.945), low effective population sizes (Ne = 0.8-50.9), indications of past demographic ex-pansion, and rare long-distance dispersal. Our results are important in implementing conservation strategies for V. uliginosa, which should include founding of seed banks, ex situ cultivations, and reintroductions with individuals of proper origin, combined with continuous population monitoring and habitat management.
Ključne besede: nature conservation, demography, genomic diversity, population genomics, RAD sequencing, Viola
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 20.01.2022; Ogledov: 462; Prenosov: 420
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,49 MB)
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7.
Ectomycorrhizal fungal community in mature white poplar plantation
Marina Milović, Saša Orlović, Tine Grebenc, Marko Bajc, Branislav Kovačević, Hojka Kraigher, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Ectomycorrhizal communities are rarely studied on seasonal basis, especially in poplar plantations. In this study we analysed the ectomycorrhizal community in a mature twenty-year-old white poplar (Populus alba L.) plantation during four consecutive seasons. Using morpho-anatomical and molecular identification 30 taxa of ectomycorrhizal fungi were recorded of which 15 were identified to the species level, 12 to the genus level, 2 to the family, and one morphotype of ectomycorrhizae remained unidentified. The most abundant among identified ectomycorrhizal fungi were: Inocybe griseovelata, Inocybe splendens, Tuber rufum, and Tomentella sp. 2, which together represented up to 50% of all ectomycorrhizal root tips. The number of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa and the percentage of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips were highest in winter and spring, respectively. The diversity indices of ectomycorrhizae, number of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips, and total fine roots in the studied poplar plantation did not differ between seasons. Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Inocybaceae family and the short-distance exploration strategy were dominant in all four seasons. On the other hand, the abundance of ectomycorrhizal root tips belonging to the medium-distance exploration strategy type was significantly higher in spring in comparison with autumn and winter.
Ključne besede: Populus alba L., Ectomycorrhizal diversity, morpho-anatomical characterization, molecular identification, seasons
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.12.2021; Ogledov: 450; Prenosov: 190
.pdf Celotno besedilo (847,82 KB)
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Global homogenization of the structure and function in the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, David J. Eldridge, Yu-Rong Liu, Blessing Sokoya, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He, Felipe Bastida, José L. Moreno, Adebola R. Bamigboye, Tine Grebenc, Tina Unuk, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The structure and function of the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces remain largely undetermined. We conducted a global field survey in urban greenspaces and neighboring natural ecosystems across 56 cities from six continents, and found that urban soils are important hotspots for soil bacterial, protist and functional gene diversity, but support highly homogenized microbial communities worldwide. Urban greenspaces had a greater proportion of fast-growing bacteria, algae, amoebae, and fungal pathogens, but a lower proportion of ectomycorrhizal fungi than natural ecosystems. These urban ecosystems also showed higher proportions of genes associated with human pathogens, greenhouse gas emissions, faster nutrient cycling, and more intense abiotic stress than natural environments. City affluence, management practices, and climate were fundamental drivers of urban soil communities. Our work paves the way toward a more comprehensive global-scale perspective on urban greenspaces, which is integral to managing the health of these ecosystems and the well-being of human populations.
Ključne besede: soil biodiversity, structural diversity, functional diversity, urban soils
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.07.2021; Ogledov: 653; Prenosov: 514
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,34 MB)
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10.
Hypogeous fungi (truffles) diversity and cultivation at the upper timber line
Tine Grebenc, J. Wei, Tina Unuk, Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher, Sana Jabeen, Abdul N. Khalid, Mitko Karadelev, 2019, objavljeni povzetek znanstvenega prispevka na konferenci

Ključne besede: hypogeous fungi, upper timer line, diversity, economic evaluation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 27.05.2020; Ogledov: 1384; Prenosov: 677
.pdf Celotno besedilo (153,45 KB)
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