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Monitoring of species’ genetic diversity in Europe varies greatly and overlooks potential climate change impacts
Peter Pearman, Olivier Broennimann, Tsipe Aavik, Tamer Albayrak, Paulo Célio Alves, Filipos Aravanopoulos, Laura Bertola, Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Elena Bužan, Vlatka Čubrić Čurik, Katja Kavčič Sonnenschein, Marjana Westergren, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Genetic monitoring of populations currently attracts interest in the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity but needs long-term planning and investments. However, genetic diversity has been largely neglected in biodiversity monitoring, and when addressed, it is treated separately, detached from other conservation issues, such as habitat alteration due to climate change. We report an accounting of efforts to monitor population genetic diversity in Europe (genetic monitoring effort, GME), the evaluation of which can help guide future capacity building and collaboration towards areas most in need of expanded monitoring. Overlaying GME with areas where the ranges of selected species of conservation interest approach current and future climate niche limits helps identify whether GME coincides with anticipated climate change effects on biodiversity. Our analysis suggests that country area, financial resources and conservation policy influence GME, high values of which only partially match species’ joint patterns of limits to suitable climatic conditions. Populations at trailing climatic niche margins probably hold genetic diversity that is important for adaptation to changing climate. Our results illuminate the need in Europe for expanded investment in genetic monitoring across climate gradients occupied by focal species, a need arguably greatest in southeastern European countries. This need could be met in part by expanding the European Union’s Birds and Habitats Directives to fully address the conservation and monitoring of genetic diversity.
Ključne besede: genetics, monitoring, population genetic diversity, Europe
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.01.2024; Ogledov: 133; Prenosov: 50
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,53 MB)
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Infestation intensity by the invasive oak lace bug, Corythucha arcuata (Say) in mixed and pure oak stands
Gernot Hoch, Alex Stemmelen, Eötvös Csaba Béla, Werner Hinterstoisser, Miran Lanšćak, Srđan Stojnić, Máté Tóth, Marjana Westergren, Simon Zidar, Milica Zlatković, Nikola Zoric, Maarten De Groot, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: There has been accumulating evidence for effects of tree species composition on herbivory with many examples of lower damage by specialist feeders in tree species rich forests. In a joint study in five Central and Southeastern European countries, we studied the effect of tree species richness on infestation intensity of the oak lace bug, Corythucha arcuata (Say) (Heteroptera, Tingidae), an invasive pest on oak trees that has spread rapidly across the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe. Intensity of infestation by C. arcuata on oaks was assessed on three or four study plots with high (pure stands) and three or four plots with low percentage of oak (mixed stands) in each country. Ordinal regression analysis showed that intensity of infestation of trees by C. arcuata differed between countries; no significant effect of stand type (mixed or pure) on infestation levels was detected. When analysing the percentage of trees in the highest infestation class, stand type had a significant effect with more intensive infestation in pure stands. We conclude that mixed stands will not prevent severe infestation but may help mitigating the impact of established C. arcuata populations.
Ključne besede: associational resistance, Corythucha arcuata, diversity, host tree concentration, invasive forest pest
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.11.2023; Ogledov: 238; Prenosov: 140
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,76 MB)
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Congruence between vascular plants and bryophytes in response to ecological conditions in sustainably managed temperate forests (taxonomic- and trait-based levels)
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Marko S. Sabovljević, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Vascular plant species (VP) and bryophytes (B) constitute a significant portion of forest biodiversity and respond to both management intensity and natural disturbances within forests. In this study, we investigated the cross-taxa congruence between understorey VP and B at both diversity and composition levels across a wide range of sustainably managed forests in Slovenia. The taxonomic and functional characteristics of the selected plant groups were studied, with a particular emphasis on ground-dwelling species. We employed a trait-based approach to examine the functional characteristics. On average, the species richness of B in sustainably managed temperate forests increased with the corresponding number of VP. Furthermore, a moderate positive correlation in species composition between the studied groups of ground-dwelling organisms was also observed. The ground-dwelling VP and B were congruent in terms of trait-based composition, which was influenced by soil reaction and nutrients and light availability, while trait-based diversity was only slightly similar in response to moisture. A negative correlation between the composition of stress-tolerant VP and B hemeroby was found, indicating forest environments with a low level of disturbance. This is likely due to the sustainable management of Slovenian forests, where climate change and natural disturbances have intensified in recent years. A cross-taxon comparison of the two groups at four different levels, namely taxonomic-based diversity and composition and trait-based diversity and composition, revealed varying degrees of congruence. It is therefore important to monitor the status and temporal trends of both groups from different aspects to draw reliable conclusions.
Ključne besede: understory, mosses, terricolous species, diversity, composition, taxonomy, life-history traits, environmental gradients, managed forest, ICP Forests program, Slovenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 10.10.2023; Ogledov: 342; Prenosov: 149
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,04 MB)
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Contrasting responses of alien and ancient forest indicator plant species to fragmentation process in the temperate lowland forests
Mirjana Šipek, Lado Kutnar, Aleksander Marinšek, Nina Šajna, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Fragmentation is one of the major threats to biodiversity. In a fragmented landscape, forest specialists are losing suitable forest habitats with specific site and microclimate conditions, which results in their local extinction. Conversely, the invasion of alien species is facilitated by open forest areas and increased boundaries between forest fragments and adjacent land. We studied the effect of fragmentation in terms of fragment size impact on overall plant species richness and on selected ecologically important groups' richness, composition, and diversity. We surveyed vegetation in the interior of 47 fragments of various sizes and one unfragmented reference forest. Our results reveal that the effect of fragmentation is complex and differs for studied plant groups. Decreasing fragment size negatively affects the overall plant richness and richness of native and ancient forest indicator plants as well as their diversity, while the effect is positive for alien plants. The highest proportion of ancient forest indicator plant species and the lowest proportion of alien plants in the unfragmented forest underline the great conservation value of forest fragments. At the same time, our results reveal that large and diverse forest ecosystems are susceptible to biological invasions as well.
Ključne besede: forest fragment, indicator plants, invasion, diversity, habitat modification, habitat conservation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.05.2023; Ogledov: 268; Prenosov: 150
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,16 MB)
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In-depth study of tomato and weed viromes reveals undiscovered plant virus diversity in an agroecosystem
Mark Paul Selda Rivarez, Anja Pecman, Katarina Bačnik, Olivera Maksimović, Ana Vučurović, Gabrijel Seljak, Nataša Mehle, Ion Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Maja Ravnikar, Denis Kutnjak, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background: In agroecosystems, viruses are well known to influence crop health and some cause phytosanitary and economic problems, but their diversity in non-crop plants and role outside the disease perspective is less known. Extensive virome explorations that include both crop and diverse weed plants are therefore needed to better understand roles of viruses in agroecosystems. Such unbiased exploration is available through viromics, which could generate biological and ecological insights from immense high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data. Results: Here, we implemented HTS-based viromics to explore viral diversity in tomatoes and weeds in farming areas at a nation-wide scale. We detected 125 viruses, including 79 novel species, wherein 65 were found exclusively in weeds. This spanned 21 higher-level plant virus taxa dominated by Potyviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Tombusviridae, and four non-plant virus families. We detected viruses of non-plant hosts and viroid-like sequences and demonstrated infectivity of a novel tobamovirus in plants of Solanaceae family. Diversities of predominant tomato viruses were variable, in some cases, comparable to that of global isolates of the same species. We phylogenetically classified novel viruses and showed links between a subgroup of phylogenetically related rhabdoviruses to their taxonomically related host plants. Ten classified viruses detected in tomatoes were also detected in weeds, which might indicate possible role of weeds as their reservoirs and that these viruses could be exchanged between the two compartments. Conclusions: We showed that even in relatively well studied agroecosystems, such as tomato farms, a large part of very diverse plant viromes can still be unknown and is mostly present in understudied non-crop plants. The overlapping presence of viruses in tomatoes and weeds implicate possible presence of virus reservoir and possible exchange between the weed and crop compartments, which may influence weed management decisions. The observed variability and widespread presence of predominant tomato viruses and the infectivity of a novel tobamovirus in solanaceous plants, provided foundation for further investigation of virus disease dynamics and their effect on tomato health. The extensive insights we generated from such in-depth agroecosystem virome exploration will be valuable in anticipating possible emergences of plant virus diseases and would serve as baseline for further post-discovery characterization studies.
Ključne besede: tomato, weed, virus, viroid, virome, virus discovery, virus diversity, phylogenetics, metagenomics, viromics
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.04.2023; Ogledov: 512; Prenosov: 111
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Bryophyte diversity, composition and functional traits in relation to bedrock and tree species composition in close-to-nature managed forests
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Marko S. Sabovljević, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Bryophytes respond to a variety of environmental factors, including tree species composition and geological conditions, which are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Bryophytes growing on a variety of substrates were identified in ICP Forests monitoring plots in a wide range of close-to-nature managed forests, from lowland to high mountain areas in Slovenia. Based on data on tree layer composition (broadleaves vs. conifers) and on bedrock and soil type (calcareous vs. siliceous bedrock), all study plots were classified into five groups representing forest types. Different ordination analyses and statistical tests were used to represent differences between forest types in bryophyte composition, richness and functional traits. Almost 200 bryophyte species were identified in managed forests, with the most common being Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachytheciastrum velutinum and Polytrichum formosum. Bryophyte species composition varied considerably along the tree species composition and edaphic gradients represented by the selected forest types. Bryophyte species richness was significantly higher on calcareous bedrock than on siliceous bedrock. The higher occurrence of rocks on the ground surface may significantly increase the availability of various microhabitats for bryophytes. Bedrock had a significant influence on the functional diversity and composition of bryophytes, while tree species composition had less influence. Bedrock and tree species composition are important drivers of bryophyte species composition and diversity at taxonomic and functional trait levels. The high diversity of bryophyte species in Slovenian forests can also be attributed to close-to-nature and sustainable forest management practices that preserve favourable microclimatic conditions in forest stands and maintain diverse substrates.
Ključne besede: mosses, species richness, functional diversity, site conditions, overstory, sustainable managed forests, European temperate zone
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Ogledov: 416; Prenosov: 126
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,99 MB)
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Forest genetics research in the mediterranean basin : bibliometric analysis, knowledge gaps, and perspectives
Bruno Fady, Edoardo Esposito, Khaled Abulaila, Jelena M. Aleksic, Ricardo Alía, Paraskevi Alizoti, Ecaterina-Nicoleta Apostol, Filipos Aravanopoulos, Dalibor Ballian, Magda Bou Dagher Kharrat, Hojka Kraigher, Marjana Westergren, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Purpose of Review Recognizing that in the context of global change, tree genetic diversity represents a crucial resource for future forest adaptation, we review and highlight the major forest genetics research achievements of the past decades in biodiversity-rich countries of the Mediterranean region. For this, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature spanning the past thirty years (1991–2020). Putting together the representative regionwide expertise of our co-authorship, we propose research perspectives for the next decade. Recent Findings Forest genetics research in Mediterranean countries is organized into three different scientific domains of unequal importance. The domain “Population diversity and Differentiation” related to over 62% of all publications of the period, the domain “Environmental conditions, growth and stress response” to almost 23%, and the domain “Phylogeography” to almost 15%. Citation rate was trending the opposite way, indicating a strong and sustained interest in phylogeography and a rising interest for genetics research related to climate change and drought resistance. The share of publications from Asia and Africa to the total within the Mediterranean increased significantly during the 30-year period analyzed, reaching just below 30% during the last decade. Summary Describing poorly known species and populations, including marginal populations, using the full potential of genomic methods, testing adaptation in common gardens, and modeling adaptive capacity to build reliable scenarios for forest management remain strategic research priorities. Delineating areas of high and low genetic diversity, for conservation and restoration, respectively, is needed. Joining forces between forest management and forest research, sharing data, experience, and knowledge within and among countries will have to progress significantly, e.g., to assess the potential of Mediterranean genetic resources as assisted migration material worldwide.
Ključne besede: conservation ·, forest genetic resources, genetic diversity, global change, Mediterranean, sustainable management
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.12.2022; Ogledov: 403; Prenosov: 215
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,16 MB)
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The status and role of genetic diversity of trees for the conservation and management of riparian ecosystems : a European experts' perspective
Filip Alimpić, Jelena Milovanović, Remigiusz Pielech, Georgi Hinkov, Roland Jansson, Simon Dufour, Marcin Beza, Nebi Bilir, Luis Santos del Blanco, Gregor Božič, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Riparian vegetation supports high biodiversity providing many services and is, therefore, an important landscape element. Riparian ecosystems are subject to numerous pressures leading to population decline and genetic erosion of riparian plants. This may have cascading effects at various ecosystem levels, including decreasing ecosystem services, so identifying the current status of genetic diversity of riparian tree species is vital to improve the effectiveness of restoration efforts. We aimed to elicit expert views on the status and importance of genetic diversity of tree species, and conservation needs across European riparian ecosystems. Sharing of such information among researchers, managers and policymakers has the potential to enhance ecological restoration and management of riparian ecosystems. We identified experts in riparian genetic resources conservation and management across Europe. These included stakeholders with different perspectives, ranging from researchers to practitioners. We designed a set of questionnaires where our identified experts were asked to answer questions related to the status and conservation of genetic diversity of riparian tree species in their respective countries. Specifically, we asked about societal awareness, legislative tools, good practices and conservation or restoration projects accounting for intraspecific genetic diversity and differentiation of tree species in riparian ecosystems. Questionnaire responses were analysed and discussed in light of the scientific literature to define needs and priorities related to the management and conservation of genetic diversity of riparian tree species. The experts recognized that a combination of in situ and ex situ measures and/or integrative conservation of riparian ecosystems is the most appropriate option for conserving the genetic diversity of riparian tree species. Simultaneous application of conservation measures at the level of priority species, identified by experts, and protection of riparian areas are required. Synthesis and applications. This study revealed the importance of recognizing the ecological processes that shape the genetic diversity of riparian tree species in hydrographic networks (dendritic spatial configuration, specific patterns of gene flow among riparian populations, fragmentation of river by dams) but also the need to overcome socio-economic barriers, such as lack of policy priority, deficiency in funding and weak legislation framework.
Ključne besede: biodiversity conservation, genetic erosion, genetic resources conservation, knowledge transfer, management, riparian genetic diversity, vegetation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.12.2022; Ogledov: 399; Prenosov: 269
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,02 MB)
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