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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (biosecurity) .

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1.
An outbreak of Verticillium dahliae on sycamore maple in a forest stand in Slovenia
Ana Brglez, Zina Devetak, Nikica Ogris, Sebastjan Radišek, Barbara Piškur, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Verticillium dahliae Kleb., the causal agent of Verticillium wilts, is a devastating plant disease affecting many plant species. Fungus V. dahliae was detected in a partially artificially established Acer pseudoplatanus L. forest stand in central Slovenia. This finding incited further study about the risk of different sources of V. dahliae isolates for maples in forests and the pathogenicity of three V. dahliae isolates of different origins was tested on saplings of A. pseudoplatanus, A. platanoides L., and A. campestre L. The inoculated saplings exhibited disease symptoms, i.e., leaf necrosis and wilting. At the end of the pathogenicity test, typical xylem browning was visible on the cross-sections, and the pathogen was successfully re-isolated. The isolates showed significant differences in their pathogenicity to specific maple hosts, with the agricultural isolate (originated from bell pepper) being the most aggressive on all three maple species. The disease severity index (DSI) and relative area under the disease progress curve (rAUDPC), as well as the success of re-isolation, indicate that A. platanoides is the most susceptible to inoculation with V. dahliae. In addition, significant differences in sapling biomass were observed between treated and control plants. These results suggest that maples in forest stands are threatened by V. dahliae, and biosecurity measures should be considered and implemented in forest management to reduce the transmission and potential spread of the pathogen.
Ključne besede: Verticillium wilt, Acer spp., pathogenicity test, Disease severity index, DSI, Area under the disease progress curve, AUDPC, biosecurity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 07.02.2024; Ogledov: 285; Prenosov: 242
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,75 MB)
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2.
Citizen science is a vital partnership for invasive alien species management and research
Michael J.O. Pocock, Tim Adriaens, Sandro Bertolino, René Eschen, Franz Essl, Philip E. Hulme, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Helen E. Roy, Heliana Teixeira, Maarten De Groot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Invasive alien species (IAS) adversely impact biodiversity, ecosystem functions and socio-economics. Citizen science can be an effective tool for IAS surveillance, management and research, providing large datasets over wide spatial extents and long time periods, with public participants generating knowledge that supports action. We demonstrate how citizen science has contributed knowledge across the biological invasion process, especially for early detection and distribution mapping. However, we recommend that citizen science could be used more for assessing impacts and evaluating the success of IAS management. Citizen science does have limitations and we explore solutions to two key challenges: ensuring data accuracy and dealing with uneven spatial coverage of potential recorders (which limits the dataset’s ‘fit for purpose’). Greater co-development of citizen science with public stakeholders will help us better realise its potential across the biological invasion process and across ecosystems globally while meeting the needs of participants, local communities, scientists and decision-makers.
Ključne besede: biosecurity, community science, invasion continuum, invasive alien species, monitoring, volunteers
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 245; Prenosov: 129
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,81 MB)
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3.
Transnational strategy on the sustainable management and responsible use of non-native trees in the Alpine Space
Katharina Lapin, Anja M. Bindewald, Giuseppe Brundu, Aleksander Marinšek, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Janine Oettel, Janine Oettel, Konrad Heino, Nicola La Porta, Ajša Alagić, 2023, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Non-native tree species – defined as those species intentionally or unintentionally introduced by humans – have long been a part of the Alpine Space, providing numerous benefits, but also posing a potential threat to native biodiversity and related ecosystem services. Compared to the urban space where non-native trees comprise most tree species, the number of non-native trees in forests and plantations is relatively low. To evaluate potential risks and benefits of non-native trees in the Alpine Space, a transnational strategy for the responsible use and management of non-native trees is needed. The goals of the strategy are to tailor management practices for a sustainable and responsible use or admixture of non-native trees, to reduce the risks connected with the invasive potential of some non-native tree species, to help forests and urban areas to adapt to climate change, and to improve coordination and cooperation regarding best practices between different regions of the Alpine Space. A proposal was developed in a four-step process including expert-based assessment, stakeholder mapping, an extensive data review, and a public consultation. For implementing the strategy fully, strong collaboration among diverse stakeholders is anticipated and robust governance and an adequate long-term and fair funding scheme is needed.
Ključne besede: adaptive forest management, non-native tree species, Alpine Space, biosecurity, green infrastructure
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.01.2024; Ogledov: 224; Prenosov: 124
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,98 MB)
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4.
Efficacy of trapping protocols for Agrilus jewel beetles : a multi-country assessment
Giacomo Santoiemma, David Williams, Everett G. Booth, Giacomo Cavaletto, James Connell, Gianfranco Curletti, Maarten De Groot, Sarah M. Devine, Abigail Enston, Joseph A. Francese, Eva Groznik, Tine Hauptman, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The genus Agrilus is one of the most diverse insect genera worldwide. The larval feeding activity causes extensive damage in both forests and orchards. In addition, more than 30 species have been introduced outside their native range so far, including the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Thus, the availability of efficient trapping protocols for early detection of Agrilus species at entry points is of utmost importance. In this study we tested whether trapping protocols developed for surveillance of A. planipennis in North America were also effective for other Agrilus species. In particular, through a multi-country assessment we compared the efficacy of detecting Agrilus species on: (i) green glue-coated prism traps vs. green Fluon-coated multi-funnel traps when baited with the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenol or left unbaited; and (ii) green multi-panel traps vs. green multi-panel traps baited with dead adult Agrilus beetles (decoys). A total of 23,481 individuals from 45 Agrilus species were caught. Trap design significantly affected both species richness and abundance of Agrilus species in several of the countries where the trapping experiments were carried out, and green prism traps outperformed green multi-funnel traps in most cases. On the contrary, the addition of a (Z)-3-hexenol lure or dead adult beetle decoys on to traps did not improve trap catches. Our study highlights that reliable trap models to survey Agrilus species are already available, but also that there is the clear need to further investigate chemical ecology of Agrilus species to develop semiochemical lures that can improve detection efficacy.
Ključne besede: biosecurity, early detection, forest pests, lures, traps, visual stimuli, Agrilus, beetles
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.01.2024; Ogledov: 230; Prenosov: 183
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,11 MB)
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5.
The potential global distribution of an emerging forest pathogen, Lecanosticta acicola, under a changing climate
Nikica Ogris, Rein Drenkhan, Petr Vahalík, Thomas L. Cech, Martin Mullett, Katherine Tubby, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Brown spot needle blight (BSNB), caused by Lecanosticta acicola (Thüm.) Syd., is an emerging forest disease of Pinus species originating from North America and introduced to Europe and Asia. Severity and spread of the disease has increased in the last two decades in North America and Europe as a response to climate change. No modeling work on spread, severity, climatic suitability, or potential distribution has been done for this important emerging pathogen. This study utilizes a global dataset of 2,970 independent observations of L. acicola presence and absence from the geodatabase, together with Pinus spp. distribution data and 44 independent climatic and environmental variables. The objectives were to (1) identify which bioclimatic and environmental variables are most influential in the distribution of L. acicola; (2) compare four modeling approaches to determine which modeling method best fits the data; (3) examine the realized distribution of the pathogen under climatic conditions in the reference period (1971–2000); and (4) predict the potential future global distribution of the pathogen under various climate change scenarios. These objectives were achieved using a species distribution modeling. Four modeling approaches were tested: regression-based model, individual classification trees, bagging with three different base learners, and random forest. Altogether, eight models were developed. An ensemble of the three best models was used to make predictions for the potential distribution of L. acicola: bagging with random tree, bagging with logistic model trees, and random forest. Performance of the model ensemble was very good, with high precision (0.87) and very high AUC (0.94). The potential distribution of L. acicola was computed for five global climate models (GCM) and three combined pathways of Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) and Representative Concentration Pathway (SSP-RCP): SSP1-RCP2.6, SSP2-RCP4.5, and SSP5-RCP8.5. The results of the five GCMs were averaged on combined SSP-RCP (median) per 30-year period. Eight of 44 studied factors determined as most important in explaining L. acicola distribution were included in the models: mean diurnal temperature range, mean temperature of wettest quarter, precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation seasonality, moisture in upper portion of soil column of wettest quarter, surface downwelling longwave radiation of driest quarter, surface downwelling shortwave radiation of warmest quarter and elevation. The actual distribution of L. acicola in the reference period 1971–2000 covered 5.9% of Pinus spp. area globally. However, the model ensemble predicted potential distribution of L. acicola to cover an average of 58.2% of Pinus species global cover in the reference period. Different climate change scenarios (five GCMs, three SSP-RCPs) showed a positive trend in possible range expansion of L. acicola for the period 1971–2100. The average model predictions toward the end of the century showed the potential distribution of L. acicola rising to 62.2, 61.9, 60.3% of Pinus spp. area for SSP1-RCP2.6, SSP2-RCP4.5, SSP5-RCP8.5, respectively. However, the 95% confidence interval encompassed 35.7–82.3% of global Pinus spp. area in the period 1971–2000 and 33.6–85.8% in the period 2071–2100. It was found that SSP-RCPs had a little effect on variability of BSNB potential distribution (60.3–62.2% in the period 2071–2100 for medium prediction). In contrast, GCMs had vast impact on the potential distribution of L. acicola (33.6–85.8% of global pines area). The maps of potential distribution of BSNB will assist forest managers in considering the risk of BSNB. The results will allow practitioners and policymakers to focus surveillance methods and implement appropriate management plans.
Ključne besede: brown spot needle blight, BSNB, pines, species distribution model, climate change, biosecurity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 02.08.2023; Ogledov: 377; Prenosov: 234
.pdf Celotno besedilo (11,59 MB)
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6.
Ascertaining the knowledge of the general public and stakeholders in the forestry sector to invasive alien species - a Pan-European study
Flavius Balacenoiu, Anže Japelj, Iris Bernardinelli, Bastien Castagneyrol, György Csóka, Milka Glavendekić, Gernot Hoch, Boris Hrašovec, Silvija Krajter Ostoić, Márton Paulin, David Williams, Johan Witters, Maarten De Groot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Against the background of the phenomenon of globalisation, which has increasingly intensified in recent decades, invasive alien species (IAS) have led to biological invasions that have resulted in multiple negative effects on economies, human health, and especially on the environment. In order to control invasive alien species, preventive actions are considered the most effective methods. In this context, society can actively participate in the process of early detection and preventing the spread of these organisms, but there is a need to raise public awareness. In order for this process to take place in the most efficient way, it is necessary to initially evaluate the knowledge of the general public to IAS. Through a questionnaire that was circulated in ten European countries and had over two thousand respondents, this study aimed to investigate the level of knowledge of some stakeholders in the forestry sector regarding IAS. The results showed that a vast majority of respondents who participated in the study had heard about IAS and provided a correct definition of these organisms. Most of the respondents in this study heard for the first time about IAS from school, the Internet, or journal articles. Data analysis also showed that stakeholders in the forestry sector (foresters, forest owners, and members of environmental NGOs) were more likely than the other respondents to be aware of the impact of IAS. The results of this study offer an insight to researchers and decision makers assessing the differences of opinion regarding invasive alien species, and the necessary steps that could be adopted in the process of raising awareness in society.
Ključne besede: citizen science, online survey, biosecurity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 09.03.2023; Ogledov: 619; Prenosov: 251
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,23 MB)
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