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Effects of desiccation and freezing on microbial ionizing radiation survivability : considerations for Mars sample return
William H. Horne, Tine Grebenc, Rok Tkavc, Cene Gostinčar, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Increasingly, national space agencies are expanding their goals to include Mars exploration with sample return. To better protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination, as set forth in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, international efforts to develop planetary protection measures strive to understand the danger of cross-contamination processes in Mars sample return missions. We aim to better understand the impact of the martian surface on microbial dormancy and survivability. Radiation resistance of microbes is a key parameter in considering survivability of microbes over geologic times on the frigid, arid surface of Mars that is bombarded by solar and galactic cosmic radiation. We tested the influence of desiccation and freezing on the ionizing radiation survival of six model microorganisms: vegetative cells of two bacteria (Deinococcus radiodurans, Escherichia coli) and a strain of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); and vegetative cells and endospores of three Bacillus bacteria (B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis). Desiccation and freezing greatly increased radiation survival of vegetative polyploid microorganisms when applied separately, and when combined, desiccation and freezing increased radiation survival even more so. Thus, the radiation survival threshold of polyploid D. radiodurans cells can be extended from the already high value of 25 kGy in liquid culture to an astonishing 140 kGy when the cells are both desiccated and frozen. However, such synergistic radioprotective effects of desiccation and freezing were not observed in monogenomic or digenomic Bacillus cells and endospores, which are generally sterilized by 12 kGy. This difference is associated with a critical requirement for survivability under radiation, that is, repair of genome damage caused by radiation. Deinococcus radiodurans and S. cerevisiae accumulate similarly high levels of the Mn antioxidants that are required for extreme radiation resistance, as do endospores, though they greatly exceed spores in radioresistance because they contain multiple identical genome copies, which in D. radiodurans are joined by persistent Holliday junctions. We estimate ionizing radiation survival limits of polyploid DNA-based life-forms to be hundreds of millions of years of background radiation while buried in the martian subsurface. Our findings imply that forward contamination of Mars will essentially be permanent, and backward contamination is a possibility if life ever existed on Mars.
Ključne besede: ionizing radiation, life on Mars, astrobiology, radiation, fungi, bacteria, radiotolerance
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.11.2022; Ogledov: 228; Prenosov: 91
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The effects of topical antibiotics on eradication and acquisition of third-generation cephalosporin and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in ICU patients : ǂa ǂpost hoc analysis from a multicentre cluster-randomized trial
Nienke L. Plantinga, Bastiaan H. Wittekamp, Christian Brun-Buisson, Marc J. M. Bonten, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Objectives: The aim was to quantify the effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) consisting of a mouth paste and gastro-enteral suspension, selective oropharyngeal decontamination with a mouth paste (SOD) and 1-2% chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on eradication and acquisition of carriage of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (3GCR-E) and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Methods: This was a nested cohort study within a cluster-randomized cross-over trial in six European countries and 13 ICUs with 8665 patients. Eradication and acquisition during ICU stay of 3GCR-E and CRGNB were investigated separately in the rectum and respiratory tract for the three interventions and compared with standard care (SC) using Cox-regression competing events analyses. Results: Adjusted cause specific hazard ratios (CSHR) for eradication of rectal carriage for SDD were 1.76 (95% CI 1.31-2.36) for 3GCR-E and 3.17 (95% CI 1.60-6.29) for CR-GNB compared with SC. For the respiratory tract, adjusted CSHR for eradication of 3GCR-E were 1.47 (0.98-2.20) for SDD and 1.38 (0.92-2.06) for SOD compared with SC, and for eradication of CR-GNB these were 0.77 (0.41-1.45) for SDD and 0.81 (0.44-1.51) for SOD, compared with SC. Adjusted CSHRs for acquisition of rectal carriage during SDD (compared with SC) were 0.51 (0.40-0.64) for 3GCR-E and of 0.56 (0.40-0.78) for CR-GNB. Adjusted CSHRs for acquiring respiratory tract carriage with 3GCR-E compared with SC were 0.38 (0.28-0.50) for SDD and 0.55 (0.42-0.71) for SOD, and for CR-GNB 0.46 (0.33-0.64) during SDD and 0.60 (0.44-0.81) during SOD, respectively. SOD was not associated with eradication or acquisition of 3GCR-E and CR-GNB in the rectum. Conclusions: Among mechanically ventilated ICU patients, SDD was associated with more eradication and less acquisition of 3GCR-E and CR-GNB in the rectum than SC. SDD and SOD were associated with less acquisition of both 3GCR-E and CR-GNB than SC in the respiratory tract.
Ključne besede: intensive care units -- analysis -- epidemiology, bacterial drug resistance, anti-infective agents -- therapeutic use decontamination, beta-lactamases, Gram-negative bacteria, gastrointestinal tract -- microbiology -- drug therapy, cohort studies, colonization, ESBL, digestive tract
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 27.05.2022; Ogledov: 226; Prenosov: 84
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