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Alternative alkali activators based on waste bottle glass and waste cathode-ray tube glass
Katja Koenig, Katja Traven, Vilma Ducman, 2021, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Alkali-activated binders are an environmentally friendly alternative to Portland cement, particularly when locally-available raw materials are used. It is well known that alkali activation with a sodium silicate activator generates a hardened binder with higher compressive strength than a binder hardened with sodium hydroxide. As the alkali-silicate activators are produced through energy extensive processes, and their use can significantly increase the carbon footprint of the final products, it is of great significance to develop alternative alkaline activators based on locally-available waste materials. This article assesses the potential to apply waste bottle glass and waste cathode-ray tube (CRT) glass to synthesise alternative alkali activators by the hydrothermal method. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used to determine silicon and aluminium content in the alternative activators. The influence of dissolution process parameters (time, temperature, particle size) on the concentrations of silicon and aluminium in the alternative activators was investigated. The alternative activators with silicon concentration up to 19 g/L and aluminium concentration up to 0.9 g/L were prepared at T = 120 °C and boiling time 24 h. The alternative alkali activators and, for comparison, also commercial sodium silicate were used in the alkali activation of fly ash powder. The formed pastes were cured at 70 °C for 72 h. Mechanical strength measurements indicated that alkali activation of fly ash with the optimal alternative activator yielded hardened paste with compressive strength of 33 MPa. However, the compressive strength of hardened paste prepared from fly ash and commercial sodium silicate reached 70 MPa. Part of this difference can be ascribed to the lower density of hardened pastes prepared with alternative activators.
Ključne besede: alkali -activated materials, alternative alkali activators, waste bottle glass, waste cathode -ray tube glass, fly ash, hydrothermal method
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2024; Ogledov: 189; Prenosov: 122
.pdf Celotno besedilo (14,96 MB)
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Electrochemical cycling behaviour and shape changes of Zn electrodes in mildly acidic aqueous electrolytes containing quaternary ammonium salts
Benedetto Bozzini, Marco Boniardi, Tommaso Caielli, Andrea Casaroli, Elisa Emanuele, Lucia Mancini, Nicola Sodini, Jacopo Strada, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Secondary Zn–based batteries are a valid alternative to Li for stationary storage, but commercial devices are not yet available, chiefly owing to anode shape-change and passivation issues. Mildly acidic aqueous solutions are actively studied, since they seem to limit unstable growth of Zn, with respect to the alkaline ones, customary for primary batteries. Additives can further improve the performance of mildly acidic electrolytes. In this work we focus on the impact of a series of quaternary ammonium salts (TBAB, CTAB, DMDTDAB, BDMPAC, BPPEI, PDADMAC), selected to represent a comprehensive range of molecular functionalities. Electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and galvanostatic-cycling in split-cells), combined with 2D and 3D imaging techniques (SEM, stereomicroscopy and in situ tomography) were adopted for the assessment Zn behaviour. This multi-technique approach pinpointed TBAB as the single most effective additive for low-current density operation, while at high current densities the additive-free electrolyte allows better cycling performance, coherently with similar results for alkaline electrolytes.
Ključne besede: battery, electrolyte, electrochemical measurements, quaternary Ammomium salt, X-ray computed microtomography, mobility
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.07.2023; Ogledov: 397; Prenosov: 176
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,52 MB)
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Characterizing steel corrosion in different alkali-activated mortars
Nina Gartner, Miha Hren, Tadeja Kosec, Andraž Legat, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) present a promising potential alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The service life of reinforced concrete structures depends greatly on the corrosion resistance of the steel used for reinforcement. Due to the wide range and diverse properties of AAMs, the corrosion processes of steel in these materials is still relatively unknown. Three different alkali-activated mortar mixes, based on fly ash, slag, or metakaolin, were prepared for this research. An ordinary carbon-steel reinforcing bar was installed in each of the mortar mixes. In order to study the corrosion properties of steel in the selected mortars, the specimens were exposed to a saline solution in wet/dry cycles for 17 weeks, and periodic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were performed. The propagation of corrosion damage on the embedded steel bars was followed using X-ray computed microtomography (XCT). Periodic EIS measurements of the AAMs showed different impedance response in individual AAMs. Moreover, these impedance responses also changed over the time of exposure. Interpretation of the results was based on visual and numerical analysis of the corrosion damages obtained by XCT, which confirmed corrosion damage of varying type and extent on steel bars embedded in the tested AAMs.
Ključne besede: corrosion, alkali-activated mortars, steel reinforcement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray computed microtomography, visual analysis
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.07.2023; Ogledov: 389; Prenosov: 182
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,00 MB)
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Quantitative in situ X-ray diffraction analysis of early hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cement at various defined temperatures
Maruša Mrak, Christian L. Lengauer, Sabina Dolenec, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The influence of temperature on the early hydration of belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements with two different calcium sulfate to calcium sulfoaluminate molar ratios was investigated. The phase composition and phase assemblage development of cements prepared using molar ratios of 1 and 2.5 were studied at 25, 40 and 60 ◦C by in situ X-ray powder diffraction. The Rietveld refinement method was used for quantification. The degree of hydration after 24 h was highest at ambient temperatures, but early hydration was significantly accelerated at elevated temperatures. These differences were more noticeable when we increased the temperature from 25 ◦C to 40 ◦C, than it was increased from 40 ◦C to 60 ◦C. The amount of calcium sulfate added controls the amount of the precipitated ettringite, namely, the amount of ettringite increased in the cement with a higher molar ratio. The results showed that temperature also affects full width at half maximum of ettringite peaks, which indicates a decrease in crystallite size of ettringite at elevated temperatures due to faster precipitation of ettringite. When using a calcium sulfate to calcium sulfoaluminate molar ratio of 1, higher d-values of ettringite peaks were observed at elevated temperatures, suggesting that more ions were released from the cement clinker at elevated temperatures, allowing a higher ion uptake in the ettringite structure. At a molar ratio of 2.5, less clinker is available in the cement, therefore these differences were not observed.
Ključne besede: in situ X-ray diffraction, hydration, temperature, cement, rietveld analysis
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.06.2023; Ogledov: 346; Prenosov: 199
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,59 MB)
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Multiscale femoral neck imaging and multimodal trabeculae quality characterization in an osteoporotic bone sample
Enrico Soldati, Flavy Roseren, Daphne Guenoun, Lucia Mancini, Emilio Catelli, Silvia Prati, Giorgia Sciutto, Jerome Vicente, Stefano Iotti, David Bendahan, Emil Malucelli, Martine Pithioux, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Although multiple structural, mechanical, and molecular factors are definitely involved in osteoporosis, the assessment of subregional bone mineral density remains the most commonly used diagnostic index. In this study, we characterized bone quality in the femoral neck of one osteoporotic patients as compared to an age-matched control subject, and so used a multiscale and multimodal approach including X-ray computed microtomography at different spatial resolutions (pixel size: 51.0, 4.95 and 0.9 µm), microindentation and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results showed abnormalities in the osteocytes lacunae volume (358.08 ± 165.00 for the osteoporotic sample vs. 287.10 ± 160.00 for the control), whereas a statistical difference was found neither for shape nor for density. The osteoporotic femoral head and great trochanter reported reduced elastic modulus (Es) and hardness (H) compared to the control reference (−48% (p < 0.0001) and −34% (p < 0.0001), respectively for Es and H in the femoral head and −29% (p < 0.01) and −22% (p < 0.05), respectively for Es and H in the great trochanter), whereas the corresponding values in the femoral neck were in the same range. The spectral analysis could distinguish neither subregional differences in the osteoporotic sample nor between the osteoporotic and healthy samples. Although, infrared spectroscopic measurements were comparable among subregions, and so regardless of the bone osteoporotic status, the trabecular mechanical properties were comparable only in the femoral neck. These results illustrate that bone remodeling in osteoporosis is a non-uniform process with different rates in different bone anatomical regions, hence showing the interest of a clear analysis of the bone microarchitecture in the case of patients’ osteoporotic evaluation
Ključne besede: synchrotron X-ray microtomography, bone, trabecular struicture, osteons, osteoporosis, phase-contrast imaging, open access
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.04.2023; Ogledov: 408; Prenosov: 193
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,87 MB)
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