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Seismogenic depth and seismic coupling estimation in the transition zone between Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian Basin for the new Slovenian seismic hazard model
Polona Zupančič, Barbara Šket Motnikar, Michele M. C. Carafa, Petra Jamšek Rupnik, Mladen Živčić, Vanja Kastelic, Gregor Rajh, Martina Čarman, Jure Atanackov, Andrej Gosar, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Seismogenic depth and seismic coupling are important inputs into seismic hazard estimates. Although the importance of seismic coupling is often overlooked, it significantly impacts seismic hazard results. We present an estimation of upper and lower seismogenic depth and expected hypocentral depth and seismic coupling in the transition zone between the Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian Basin, characterized by a complex deformation pattern, highly variable crustal thickness, and moderate seismic hazard, supporting the development of the 2021 seismic hazard model of Slovenia. The hazard model was based on three seismic source models: area source model, fault source model and smoothed seismicity (point) source model. We estimated the lower seismogenic depth using seismological and geological data and compared them. The seismological estimate was based on two regional earthquake catalogues prepared for this study. In the area source model, estimates of lower seismogenic depth from seismological data are deeper or equal to the ones derived from geological data, except in one case. In the fault source model, we analysed each fault individually and chose seismological lower depth estimates in 12 among 89 faults as more representative. The seismogenic thickness for each individual fault source was determined for seismic coupling determination. The seismic coupling was assessed by two approaches, i.e. we chose the most trusted value from the literature, and the value determined for each fault individually by using the approach based on the updated regional fault and earthquake data sets. The final estimate of seismic coupling ranges from 0.77 to 0.38. We compared the tectonic moment rate based on long-term slip rate using different values of seismic coupling with the seismic moment rate obtained from the earthquake catalogue. The analysis is done for the whole area, as well as for the individual area zones. The analysis of N–S components of estimated slip for the largest faults in the area of west Slovenia shows that the regional geological and geodetic shortening rates are comparable. The total activity rate of three global seismic source models is compared, which gives up to a 10 % difference. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the seismic activity in the region. The presented approach for seismic coupling estimation can be applied in cases where the total slip rate is given instead of its seismic part and can be used at regional or national level. The approach is also suitable for the cross-border harmonization of the European seismic hazard modelling data.
Ključne besede: seismic hazard, modeling, Slovenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 18.03.2024; Ogledov: 82; Prenosov: 56
.pdf Celotno besedilo (11,29 MB)
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Overview of the thermal properties of rocks and sediments in Slovenia
Dušan Rajver, Simona Adrinek, 2023, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The use of geothermal energy, which comes from both deep geothermal systems and the shallow underground, has been developing rapidly in the last few decades. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of measurements of the thermal properties of all rock samples and sediments that were available from boreholes, two tunnels and numerous surface locations in Slovenia in the period from 1982 to the end of 2022. In relation to the shallow geothermal potential, a special effort is needed to characterize the thermal properties of the rocks and sediments and to implement thermal energy transfer technology. In this sense, knowledge of the thermal conductivity of rocks and sediments is required to assess the possibility of low-enthalpy heat exchange in a given local area. The largest number of measurements was taken to determine thermal conductivity. Determinations of thermal diffusivity were carried out on a much smaller number of rock and sediment samples, as well as determinations of radiogenic heat production in rocks. The results of thermal conductivity measurements on 430 samples from 119 wells, 20 samples from two tunnels and 156 samples from surface locations are shown. The highest thermal conductivities are shown by samples of dolomite, quartz conglomerate and conglomerate, phyllonite, quartz phyllite and gneiss, while the lowest are measured in sediments such as clay, lignite with clay, peat and dry sand. The determined radioactive heat generation is the lowest for milonitized dolomite and highest for dark grey sandstone with shale clasts. Our results are comparable to those already published worldwide, and they could be the basis for the possible future Slovenian standard for the thermal properties of measured rocks and sediments.
Ključne besede: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, borehole, tunnel, surface, rock, sediment, radioactive heat generation, Slovenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.01.2024; Ogledov: 133; Prenosov: 72
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,03 MB)
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Accounting for cloud cover and circannual variation puts the effect of lunar phase on deer–vehicle collisions into perspective
Jacopo Cerri, Laura Stendardi, Elena Bužan, Boštjan Pokorny, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Although several studies have focused on the influence of moonlight on deer–vehicle collisions, findings have been inconsistent. This may be due to neglect of the effects of cloud cover, a major impediment to moon illumination and circannual variation in both deer and human activity. We assessed how median cloud cover interacted with the illuminated fraction of the moon in affecting daily roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) roadkill in Slovenia (Central Europe). Data included nationwide roadkill (n = 49,259), collected between 2010 and 2019 by hunters, as required by law. Roadkill peaked under medium to high cloud cover and decreased during nights with low or extremely high cloudiness. This pattern was more pronounced on nights with a full moon. However, the effects of moon illumination and cloud cover had a lower predictive potential than circannual variation, as collisions clearly peaked in April/May, July and August/September. Our results suggest that moonlight could influence roe deer movements through compensatory foraging. However, on nights with a full moon, collisions could also be affected by weather. On bright nights, roe deer might be less active due to increased human presence and sustained vehicular traffic. Then, with medium to high cloud cover and also rainfall, human presence in the environment may be low enough to increase deer movements, but vehicular traffic can still be intermediate, maximizing the risk of collisions. Finally, with overcast skies, widespread rainfall can reduce both traffic volume and human outdoor activity, decreasing the risk of collisions. Moon illumination may indeed affect wildlife–vehicle collisions and roadkill, but its effects should be quantified as a function of cloud cover. Moreover, to make studies truly comparable, research about wildlife–vehicle collisions should also account for time of the year. Policy implications. Because collisions with roe deer peak at particular periods of the year, signs should be installed seasonally. By doing so, they would warn drivers about the risk, improve drivers' awareness and increase their safety. Moreover, as collisions also increase on nights with a full moon and overcast skies, interactive warning signs that are activated by ground illumination should also be useful.
Ključne besede: cloudiness, MODIS Surface Reflectance, moon, road ecology, roe deer, Slovenia, thin-plate splines, wildlife–vehicle collisions
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.11.2023; Ogledov: 317; Prenosov: 147
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,25 MB)
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Legislative and judicial responses to the “refugee crisis” in Slovenia and Austria : a comparative perspective
Neža Kogovšek Šalamon, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The article compares key normative and judicial responses to the 2015–2016 “refugee crisis” in Slovenia and Austria. It does so by comparing the asylum statistics, the main changes to the legislation reflecting populist reactions to the “refugee crisis,” and judicial responses to these changes and reactions. The qualitative legal analysis is based on examples of the most important changes and responses. The article considers the populistic context of these changes, as discussed by some political scientists, who demonstrate that with the crisis, a new wave of populism—“the populist Othering of migrants”—emerged.
Ključne besede: refugee crisis, constitutional court, Slovenia, Austria, populism
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.10.2023; Ogledov: 318; Prenosov: 122
.pdf Celotno besedilo (135,47 KB)
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Congruence between vascular plants and bryophytes in response to ecological conditions in sustainably managed temperate forests (taxonomic- and trait-based levels)
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Marko S. Sabovljević, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Vascular plant species (VP) and bryophytes (B) constitute a significant portion of forest biodiversity and respond to both management intensity and natural disturbances within forests. In this study, we investigated the cross-taxa congruence between understorey VP and B at both diversity and composition levels across a wide range of sustainably managed forests in Slovenia. The taxonomic and functional characteristics of the selected plant groups were studied, with a particular emphasis on ground-dwelling species. We employed a trait-based approach to examine the functional characteristics. On average, the species richness of B in sustainably managed temperate forests increased with the corresponding number of VP. Furthermore, a moderate positive correlation in species composition between the studied groups of ground-dwelling organisms was also observed. The ground-dwelling VP and B were congruent in terms of trait-based composition, which was influenced by soil reaction and nutrients and light availability, while trait-based diversity was only slightly similar in response to moisture. A negative correlation between the composition of stress-tolerant VP and B hemeroby was found, indicating forest environments with a low level of disturbance. This is likely due to the sustainable management of Slovenian forests, where climate change and natural disturbances have intensified in recent years. A cross-taxon comparison of the two groups at four different levels, namely taxonomic-based diversity and composition and trait-based diversity and composition, revealed varying degrees of congruence. It is therefore important to monitor the status and temporal trends of both groups from different aspects to draw reliable conclusions.
Ključne besede: understory, mosses, terricolous species, diversity, composition, taxonomy, life-history traits, environmental gradients, managed forest, ICP Forests program, Slovenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 10.10.2023; Ogledov: 430; Prenosov: 164
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,04 MB)
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Forest commons responded efficiently - do we understand why?
Nevenka Bogataj, Janez Krč, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Ključne besede: harvesting, natural disturbances, climate change effects, forest management, Slovenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.10.2023; Ogledov: 220; Prenosov: 80
.pdf Celotno besedilo (116,68 KB)

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