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Iskalni niz: "ključne besede" (Quercus robur L.) .

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Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) is more drought tolerant and better reflects climate variations compared to pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in lowland mixed forests in northwestern Serbia : ǂa ǂstable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and radial growth approach
Saša Kostić, Tom Levanič, Saša Orlović, Bratislav Matović, Dejan Stojanović, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tree-ring width (TRW), stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) data set chronologies were built for the period 1961–2000 for two oak species (pedunculate oak – Quercus robur L. and Turkey oak – Quercus cerris L.) in northwestern Serbia (Vojvodina province). We focused on the response of the two oak species to measured meteorological data (temperature, precipitation and cloud cover), drought events expressed by six meteorological drought indices, and river water level to better understand their drought tolerance and stress and to assess the reliability of the species response to climate and drought indices when using TRW or δ13C. Turkey oak exhibited better drought tolerance (and less drought stress) compared to pedunculate oak, as manifested, respectively, by less negative δ13C and lower iWUE values. Based on a generalised additive mixed model (GAMM) among the six drought indices studied, the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index and the standardised precipitation index showed the best fit with both TRW and δ13C, while the Palmer drought severity index exerted a strong influence only on TRW. It was thus concluded that δ13C responds more strongly and rapidly to climate variations than TRW.
Ključne besede: dendrochronology, stable carbon isotope, tree ring, Quercus robur, Quercus cerris, drought, climate change
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.08.2022; Ogledov: 571; Prenosov: 417
.pdf Celotno besedilo (5,19 MB)
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Contrasting resource dynamics in mast years for European Beech and Oak - a continental scale analysis
Anita Nussbaumer, Arthur Gessler, Sue Benham, B. De Cinti, Sophia Etzold, Morten Ingerslev, Frank Jacob, François Lebourgeois, Tom Levanič, Hrvoje Marjanović, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Resource allocation to different plant tissues is likely to be affected by high investment into fruit production during mast years. However, there is a large knowledge gap concerning species-specific differences in resource dynamics. We investigated the influence of mast years on stem growth, leaf production, and leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations and contents in Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, and Q. robur at continental and climate region scales using long-term data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and similar datasets. We discussed the results in the light of opposing resource dynamics hypotheses: (i) resource accumulation before mast years and exhaustion after mast years (resource storage hypothesis), (ii) shifting resources from vegetative to generative compartments (resource switching hypothesis), and (iii) investing resources concurrently in both vegetative and generative compartments (resource matching hypothesis). Linear mixed-effects modelling (LMM) showed that both stem growth and leaf production were negatively influenced by weather conditions which simultaneously lead to high fruit production. Thus, the impact of generative on vegetative growth is intermixed with effects of environmental factors. Superposed epoch analyses and LMM showed that for mast behaviour in F. sylvatica, there are indicators supporting the resource storage and the resource switching hypotheses. Before mast years, resources were accumulated, while during mast years resources switched from vegetative to generative tissues with reduced stem and leaf growth. For the Quercus species, stem growth was reduced after mast years, which supports the resource storage hypothesis. LMM showed that leaf C concentrations did not change with increasing fruit production in neither species. Leaf N and P concentrations increased in F. sylvatica, but not in Quercus species. Leaf N and P contents decreased with increasing fruit production in all species, as did leaf C content in F. sylvatica. Overall, our findings suggest different resource dynamics strategies in F. sylvatica and Quercus species, which might lead to differences in their adaptive capacity to a changing climate.
Ključne besede: climate change, Fagus sylvatica, long-term monitoring, mast fruiting, Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, resource dynamics
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.07.2021; Ogledov: 820; Prenosov: 615
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,63 MB)
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First report of European truffle ectomycorrhiza in the semi%arid climate of Saudi Arabia
Seema R. Bajaj, Sandesh J. Marathe, Tine Grebenc, Alessandra Zambonelli, Salem Shamekh, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (Black or Périgord truffle) is a truffle native to the Mediterranean Southern Europe, popular for its unique flavor, and has great economic importance. The present work focused on assessing the possibility of cultivating T. melanosporum associated with Quercus robur L. in the desert climate of Saudi Arabia. The plantation was initiated in November 2018 by planting 271 oak seedlings in the Al-Qassim desert area and checked for survival and ectomycorrhiza development after 1.5 years of plantation maintenance. Amongst the 271 seedlings planted, 243 plants survived two harsh seasons (2019 and 2020), and the randomly selected and tested seedlings were still mycorrhized with T. melanosporum. The mycorrhization level with T. melanosporum was between 5 and 35% of all fine roots, and the share of contaminant ectomycorrhiza was low. In comparison to other areas where T. melanosporum is successfully cultivated, the Al-Qassim desert area has 10%15 °C higher average summer temperatures and a low total annual precipitation, which necessitates regular irrigation of the plantation. This work opens the avenue for an adapted, yet sustainable cultivation of T. melanosporum-inoculated oak tree in a desert climatic condition and introduces new opportunities of the agro-forest business in Saudi Arabia and GCC region.
Ključne besede: Tuber melanosporum, Quercus robur, Desert climate, Truffle cultivation, Ectomycorrhiza
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 26.01.2021; Ogledov: 1023; Prenosov: 263
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Isotopic and water relation responses to ozone and water stress in seedlings of three oak species with different adaptation strategies
Claudia Cocozza, Elena Paoletti, Tanja Mrak, Saša Zavadlav, Tom Levanič, Hojka Kraigher, Alessio Giovannelli, Yasutomo Hoshika, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The impact of global changes on forest ecosystem processes is based on the species-specific responses of trees to the combined effect of multiple stressors and the capacity of each species to acclimate and cope with the environment modification. Combined environmental constraints can severely affect plant and ecological processes involved in plant functionality. This study provides novel insights into the impact of a simultaneous pairing of abiotic stresses (i.e., water and ozone (O3) stress) on the responses of oak species. Water stress (using 40 and 100% of soil water content at field capacity - WS and WW treatments, respectively) and O3 exposure (1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 times the ambient concentration - AA, 1.2AA, and 1.4AA, respectively) were carried out on Quercus robur L., Quercus ilex L., and Quercus pubescens Willd. seedlings, to study physiological traits (1. isotope signature [delta 13C, delta 18O and delta 15N], 2. water relation [leaf water potential, leaf water content], 3. leaf gas exchange [light-saturated net photosynthesis, Asat, and stomatal conductance, gs]) for adaptation strategies in a Free-Air Controlled Exposure (FACE) experiment. Ozone decreased Asat in Q. robur and Q. pubescens while water stress decreased it in all three oak species. Ozone did not affect delta 13C, whereas delta 18O was influenced by O3 especially in Q. robur. This may reflect a reduction of gs with the concomitant reduction in photosynthetic capacity. However, the effect of elevated O3 on leaf gas exchange as indicated by the combined analysis of stable isotopes was much lower than that of water stress. Water stress was detectable by delta 13C and by delta 18O in all three oak species, while delta 15N did not define plant response to stress conditions in any species. The delta 13C signal was correlated to leaf water content (LWC) in Q. robur and Q. ilex, showing isohydric and anisohydric strategy, respectively, at increasing stress intensity (low value of LWC). No interactive effect of water stress and O3 exposure on the isotopic responses was found, suggesting no cross-protection on seasonal carbon assimilation independently on the species adaptation strategy.
Ključne besede: ozone, gas exchange, English oak, holm oak, downy oak, Quercus ilex L., Quercus robur L., Quercus pubescens Willd
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 11.08.2020; Ogledov: 1700; Prenosov: 1054
URL Povezava na celotno besedilo
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Analiza uspešnosti vzpostavitve nadomestnega habitata Črni log - Hotiška gmajna s poudarkom na rastni uspešnosti sadik
Samar Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, 2019, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Analizirali smo vzpostavitev nadomestnega habitata Črni log - Hotiška gmajna, ki je bil osnovan jeseni 2010 s sajenjem predvsem dveletnih sadik drevesnih in grmovnih vrst kot omilitveni ukrep zaradi izgube gozdnih površin v Črnem logu ob izgradnji avtocestnega odseka Beltinci-Lendava. V obdobju od 2011 do 2017 smo določili deleže preživetja, izdelali ocene vitalnosti in določili višinski ter debelinski prirastek za 566 sadik sedmih drevesnih vrst (črna jelša, dob, gorski javor, divja češnja, maklen, čremsa in poljski brest), rastočih na 26 raziskovalnih ploskvah. Sajenje je bilo praviloma uspešno pri vseh analiziranih vrstah, z izjemo divje češnje, kljub nekoliko večjem izpadu v drugem rastnem obdobju (dob, črna jelša, čremsa) oziroma še tri leta po sajenju (dob). Domnevamo, da je na zmanjšano preživetje sadik v letu 2012 vplivala suša v obdobju od oktobra 2011 do februarja 2012. Hkrati so v aprilu 2012 poročali o spomladanski pozebi, za katero je zlasti občutljiv dob, katerega povprečni delež preživetja se je povečal na okoli 70 % šele v letu 2015 in se nato ni več bistveno spremenil. Na podlagi opaženih poškodb divje češnje, čremse in maklena že v letu 2011 ter gorskega javorja in poljskega bresta v letu 2012 sklepamo, da je tudi objedanje divjadi vplivalo na manjši delež preživetja, vendar manj kot neugodne vremenske razmere. V tretjem letu (2013) po vzpostavitvi nadomestnega habitata sta bila povprečni višinski in povprečni debelinski prirastek na koreninskem vratu za vse drevesne vrste, z izjemo divje češnje, pozitivna in bistveno večja od prejšnjega rastnega obdobja (april 2011 - april 2012). Upoštevaje deleže preživetja, višinsko in debelinsko priraščanje ter delež vitalnih sadik je najuspešnejša drevesna vrsta črna jelša, kar je pogoj za oblikovanje načrtovanega jelševega sestoja. Med vsemi opazovanimi vrstami pa je najmanj uspešna divja češnja. Delež preživetja sadik je bil namreč vseskozi manjši od zahtevanih 70 %, zato smo ocenili, da sajenje divje češnje na izbranih raziskovalnih ploskvah ni bilo uspešno. Na podlagi ugotovitev so jo že v jeseni 2013 ponovno sadili, vendar zunaj raziskovalnih ploskev in zato slednje ne vpliva na predstavljene rezultate. Lahko zaključimo, da se med Hotiško gmajno in Črnim logom uspešno vzpostavlja gozdni habitat, ki nadomešča prejšnje njivske površine in da bo lahko nadomestil oziroma omilil škodo zaradi izgube gozdnih površin v Črnem logu ob izgradnji avtoceste A5 na odseku Beltinci-Lendava. Pričakujemo, da bo nastali gozdni sestoj v naslednjih letih omogočil gnezdenje srednjega detla in belovratnega muharja, ki sta zaradi gradnje avtoceste izgubila del svojega habitata.
Ključne besede: nadomestni habitat, Črni log - Hotiška gmajna, Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gartn., Quercus robur L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Acer campestre L., Prunus avium L., Prunus padus L., Ulmus minor Mill., sadike
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.08.2019; Ogledov: 2971; Prenosov: 812
.pdf Celotno besedilo (633,15 KB)

Odvisnost velikosti prevodnih elementov doba (Quercus robur L.) od temperatur na dveh rastiščih Querco-Carpinetum v Sloveniji
Jernej Jevšenak, Tom Levanič, 2015, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Namen študije je analizirati odnos med povprečnimi mesečnimi temperaturami in dimenzijami trahej dveh zdravih in ene propadajoče skupine dobov z dveh rastišč Querco-Carpinetum v Sloveniji. Kronologije povprečnih površin trahej in vsot površin trahej smo izdelali po predhodni skrbni pripravi površin vzorcev in analizi slik z makrom EWVA v programu ImageJ. Skupina propadajočih dreves s Cigonce je imela največje povprečne površine trahej in največjo površino prevodnega tkiva, kar povezujemo s propadanjem te skupine. Analiza časovne stabilnosti korelacijskih koeficientov je za propadajoča drevesa pojasnila negativne korelacijske koeficiente, ki niso bili stabilni v času. Vse skupine so se najbolj značilno odzivale na povprečne aprilske temperature. Pri vseh skupinah je bil klimatski signal najmočnejši v parametru povprečna površina trahej. Pri zdravih drevesih iz Mlač v primeru nadaljevanja trenda dvigovanja povprečnih temperatur pričakujemo večje povprečne površine trahej v prihodnjih desetletjih, ki so bolj izpostavljene problemu kavitacije. Padec podtalnice leta 1982 na Cigonci se časovno ujema s pričetkom padanja klimatskega signala v trahejah ranega lesa.
Ključne besede: dendroekologija, propadanje hrastov, anatomija lesa, okoljski signal, Quercus robur, traheje ranega lesa
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 4639; Prenosov: 2235
.pdf Celotno besedilo (803,25 KB)

Makro EWVA - učinkovito orodje za analizo prevodnih elementov ranega lesa venčastoporoznih listavcev
Jernej Jevšenak, Tom Levanič, 2014, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: V članku je predstavljena uporabnost programa ImageJ v lesni anatomiji. Njegova glavna prednost sta prosta dostopnost ter možnost vključevanja dodatnih vtičnikov in makrov. Program ImageJ smo uporabili kot platformo za razvoj makra EWVA za avtomatizirano prepoznavanje ranega lesa ter hitro in učinkovito analizo trahej venčastoporoznih listavcev. Uporabnost makra EWVA predstavljamo na primeru dveh dobov iz sestoja v Mlačah. V zaključku razpravljamo o prednostih in slabostih uporabljene metode.
Ključne besede: lesna anatomija, Quercus robur, traheje ranega lesa, prevodni elementi, ImageJ, makro, EWVA, Slovenija
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 12.07.2017; Ogledov: 4466; Prenosov: 2150
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,40 MB)

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