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The Rigelj Formation, a new lithostratigraphic unit of the Lower Permian in the Karavanke Mountains (Slovenia/Austria)
Matevž Novak, Karl Krainer, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The Rigelj Formation is a new lithostratigraphic unit of the Lower Permian Rattendorf Group in the Karavanke Mountains. The Formation is up to 105 m thick and mainly composed of siliciclastic and fossiliferous carbonate sediments that are entirely of shallow-marine setting. Conglomerates are interpreted as shoreface deposits, sandstones as deposits of the upper to lower shoreface, and fossiliferous siltstones as offshore deposits. Fossiliferous limestones were deposited in a shallow, open-marine shelf environment of moderate to low energy (wackestone, floatstone) and strong water turbulence (packstone, rudstone). The siliciclastic and carbonate lithotypes form some well-developed backstepping cycles starting with conglomerates, overlain by sandstones, siltstones and fossiliferous limestones that formed in an open shelf environment without siliciclastic influx. Similar sedimentary cycles are developed in the Grenzland Formation of the Carnic Alps. The fusulinid fauna indicates that the Rigelj Formation ranges in age from the late Asselian to the middle Sakmarian. In the western Karavanke Mountains and near Trögern, the Lower Permian lithostratigraphic succession is very similar to the succession in the Carnic Alps with Tarvis Breccia resting on the Trogkofel Limestone and the Goggau Limestone. Unlike this, in the central part of the Karavanke Mountains (Dovžanova Soteska–Mt. Pleschiwetz/Plešivec area) the Rigelj Formation is erosively overlain by the Tarvis Breccia. The stronger diversification of the sedimentary environments within the Karavanke-Carnic Alps in the Lower Permian after the uniform sedimentation in the Upper Carboniferous can be attributed to block-faulting.
Ključne besede: Lower Permian, Southern Alps, Dovžanova soteska, Mt. Pleschiwetz / Plešivec, Clastic Trogkofel Beds, fusulinid biostratigraphy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.08.2022; Ogledov: 162; Prenosov: 45
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,45 MB)

New data on lower Permian rugose corals from the Southern Karavanke Mountains (Slovenia)
Olga L. Kossovaya, Matevž Novak, Dieter Weyer, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Studies of upper Palaeozoic corals from the Southern Alps (Karavanke Mountains in Slovenia and Carnic Alps along the Austrian/Italian border) started at the end of the 19th century. Since the mid-20th century, corals of the Karavanke Mountains have been studied in detail by several authors. Recently, several coral type localities and the coral groups occurring therein have been einvestigated. This paper deals in particular with the study of Carinthiaphyllum Heritsch, 1936 and all previously known data have been revised within this study. Most specimens of Carinthiaphyllum originate from museum collections and from new findings in the Dovžanova Soteska area of northern Slovenia. Additional material is represented by newly found samples from the locality of Mt. Boč in eastern Slovenia. The stratigraphic position and age of the Carinthiaphyllum occurrences are determined by fusulinid and conodont assemblages. Two species, Carinthiaphyllum crasseseptatum Gräf & Ramovš, 1965 and C. ramovsi n. sp., are described herein. New morphological features, including root-like protrusions and connecting stereoplasmic tubes, have been found for the first time in gregaria growth mode. Therefore, these new observations provide evidence of a solitary gregaria growth mode: individuals are invariably separated with contact and reciprocal support only by root-like, sometimes channeled tubes occurring as outgrowths of the archaeothecal wall. An emended diagnosis of Carinthiaphyllum is proposed herein. The studied collection is housed in the Museum für Naturkunde (Leibniz-Institut) at the Humboldt University in Berlin.
Ključne besede: Gregaria corals, Carinthiaphyllum, Asselian-Sakmarian, Southern Alps
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.03.2022; Ogledov: 270; Prenosov: 101
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,42 MB)

Assessing the protective role of alpine forests against rockfall at regional scale
Christian Scheidl, Micha Heiser, Sonja Vospernik, Elisabeth Lauss, Frank Perzl, Andreas Kofler, Karl Kleemayr, Francesco Bettella, Emanuele Lingua, Matteo Garbarino, Mitja Skudnik, Daniel Trappmann, Frédéric Berger, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Worldwide, mountain forests represent a significant factor in reducing rockfall risk over long periods of time on large potential disposition areas. While the economic value of technical protection measures against rockfall can be clearly determined and their benefits indicated, there is no general consensus on the quantification of the protective effect of forests. Experience shows that wherever there is forest, the implementation of technical measures to reduce risk of rockfall might often be dispensable or cheaper, and large deforestations (e.g. after windthrows, forest fires, clear-cuts) often show an increased incidence of rockfall events. This study focussed on how the protective effect of a forest against rockfall can be quantified on an alpine transregional scale. We therefore estimated the runout length, in terms of the angle of reach, of 700 individual rockfall trajectories from 39 release areas from Austria, Germany, Italy and Slovenia. All recorded rockfall events passed through forests which were classified either as coppice forests or, according to the CORINE classification of land cover, as mixed, coniferous or broadleaved dominated high forest stands. For each individual rockfall trajectory, we measured the forest structural parameters stem number, basal area, top height, ratio of shrub to high forest and share of coniferous trees. To quantify the protective effect of forests on rockfall, a hazard reduction factor is introduced, defined as the ratio between an expected angle of reach without forest and the back-calculated forest-influenced angles of reach. The results show that forests significantly reduce the runout length of rockfall. The highest reduction was observed for mixed high forest stands, while the lowest hazard reduction was observed for high forest stands dominated either by coniferous or broadleaved tree species. This implies that as soon as one tree species dominates, the risk reduction factor becomes lower. Coppice forests showed the lowest variability in hazard reduction. Hazard reduction due to forests increases, on average, by 7% for an increase in the stem number by 100 stems per hectare. The proposed concept allows a global view of the effectiveness of protective forests against rockfall processes and thus enable to value forest ecosystem services for future transregional assessments on a European level. Based on our results, general cost%benefit considerations of nature-based solutions against rockfall, such as protective forests as well as first-order evaluations of rockfall hazard reduction effects of silvicultural measures within the different forest types, can be supported.
Ključne besede: protection forests, rockfall, European Alps, rockfall hazard
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.07.2020; Ogledov: 1183; Prenosov: 684
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,03 MB)
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