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Effects of COVID-19 on cognition and mood after hospitalization and at 2-month follow-up
Manca Peskar, Boštjan Šimunič, Luka Šlosar, Saša Pišot, Kaja Teraž, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, Uroš Marušič, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: A plethora of evidence links SARS-CoV-2 infection with concomitant cognitive dysfunction, which often persists weeks to months after the acute stages of illness and affects executive function, attention, memory, orientation, and movement control. It remains largely unclear which conditions or factors exacerbate the recovery. In a cohort of N=37 Slovenian patients (5 females, aged M = 58, SD = 10.7 years) that were hospitalized because of COVID-19, the cognitive function and mood states were assessed immediately after discharge and 2-months later to investigate the early post-COVID recovery changes. We assessed the global Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Simple and Choice Reaction Times, executive functions (Trail-Making Test – TMT-A and TMT-B), short-term memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test – AVLT), and visuospatial memory. We monitored depressive and anxiety symptoms and applied general self-efficacy and cognitive complaints questionnaires. Our results showed a global cognitive impairment (MoCA, Z = 332.5; p = 0.012), poorer performance on executive functions (TMT-A, Z = 188; p = 0.014; and TMT-B, Z = 185; p = 0.012), verbal memory (AVLT, F = 33.4; p < 0.001), and delayed recall (AVLT7, F = 17.1; p < 0.001), and higher depressive (Z = 145; p = 0.015) and anxiety (Z = 141; p = 0.003) symptoms after hospital discharge compared to 2-month follow-up, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 may transiently impair cognitive function and adversely affect the mood. No improvement in MoCA was observed in 40.5% of the patients at follow-up, indicating possible long-term effects of COVID-19 on global cognitive performance. Medical comorbidities (p = 0.035) significantly predicted the change in MoCA score over time, while fat mass (FM, p = 0.518), Mediterranean diet index (p = .0.944), and Florida Cognitive Activities Score (p = 0.927) did not. These results suggest that the patients’ medical comorbidities at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection could importantly contribute to the acute impairment of cognitive function and stress the importance of systemic implementation of countermeasures to limit the negative consequences on public health.
Ključne besede: Coronavirus, recovery, acute respiratory sindrom, cognitive functions, cognitive impairment, MOCA, trail-making test
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 01.06.2023; Ogledov: 23; Prenosov: 6
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Sarcopenia parameters in active older adults – an eight-year longitudinal study
Kaja Teraž, Uroš Marušič, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Primož Pori, Bruno Grassi, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Pietro Enrico Di Prampero, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Gianni Biolo, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background Sarcopenia is a common skeletal muscle syndrome that is common in older adults but can be mitigated by adequate and regular physical activity. The development and severity of sarcopenia is favored by several factors, the most influential of which are a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate changes in sarcopenia parameters, based on the EWGSOP2 definition in a population of active older adults after eight years. It was hypothesized that selected active older adults would perform better on sarcopenia tests than the average population. Methods The 52 active older adults (22 men and 30 women, mean age: 68.4±5.6 years at the time of their first evaluation) participated in the study at two time points eight-years apart. Three sarcopenia parameters were assessed at both time points: Muscle strength (handgrip test), skeletal muscle mass index, and physical performance (gait speed), these parameters were used to diagnose sarcop0enia according to the EWGSOP2 definition. Additional motor tests were also performed at follow-up measurements to assess participants’ overall fitness. Participants self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior using General Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up measurements. Results In the first measurements we did not detect signs of sarcopenia in any individual, but after 8 years, we detected signs of sarcopenia in 7 participants. After eight years, we detected decline in ; muscle strength (-10.2%; p<.001), muscle mass index (-5.4%; p<.001), and physical performance measured with gait speed (-28.6%; p<.001). Similarly, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior declined, too (-25.0%; p=.030 and −48.5%; p<.001, respectively). Conclusions Despite expected lower scores on tests of sarcopenia parameters due to age-related decline, participants performed better on motor tests than reported in similar studies. Nevertheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia was consistent with most of the published literature. Trial registration The clinical trial protocol was registered on, identifier: NCT04899531
Ključne besede: elderly, physical activities, sedentary behavior, skeletal muscle disorder, sarcopenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 29.05.2023; Ogledov: 43; Prenosov: 23
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Interleukin-18 is a potential biomarker linking dietary fatty acid quality and insulin resistance : results from a cross-sectional study in Northern Italy
Domenico Sergi, Juana Maria Sanz, Stefano Lazzer, Gloria Brombo, Giovanni Zuliani, Gianni Biolo, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Edoardo Dalla Nora, Angelina Passaro, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Dietary lipids are pivotal in modulating metabolic inflammation. Among the inflammatory mediators characterizing metabolic inflammation, interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been consistently associated with obesity and insulin resistance. This study aims to evaluate whether the quality of lipid intake impacts upon IL-18 plasma levels and the implications on insulin resistance computed by the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using a cross-sectional design, this study confirmed that IL-18 correlated positively with insulin resistance and individuals with a HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 displayed higher circulating IL-18 levels compared with their insulin-sensitive counterparts. In terms of the effect of the quality of dietary lipids on IL-18 circulating levels, the ratio between monounsaturated, omega-3, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids as well as the intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids correlated negatively with IL-18. Despite this, IL-18 circulating levels, but not dietary fatty acid quality, predicted insulin resistance. Nevertheless, the ratio between omega 3 and saturated fatty acids was a predictor of IL-18 plasma levels. Thus, the downregulation of IL-18 may underpin, at least partially, the beneficial metabolic effects of substituting omega 3 for saturated fatty acids with this cytokine potentially representing a biomarker linking dietary lipids and metabolic outcomes.
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 14.04.2023; Ogledov: 103; Prenosov: 36
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Report of 4th International SPE Balkan Ski Conference, Pamporovo ski resort, Bulgaria, 13-17 March 2022
Kaja Teraž, Rado Pišot, 2022, drugi sestavni deli

Ključne besede: skiing, training, conference, Balkan Ski, reports
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.03.2023; Ogledov: 157; Prenosov: 76
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Time passes, healthy habits stay? : a longitudinal small sample comparison of muscle contractile properties, motor abilities and lifestyle characteristics of athletes and non-athletes
Saša Pišot, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Introduction: Because healthy behaviors learned early in life are more likely to be maintained during adulthood, we aimed to investigate longitudinal changes of partici-pants that were regularly involved in extracurricular sport activities (athletes; N = 7; 4 boys) and those that were not (non-athletes, N = 6; 3 boys)Methods: Participants of both groups were invited for re-assessment at the age of 27, in 2019, 12 years after they participated in a 5-year longitudinal study as adoles-cents (9–14 years of age, in the period 2001‒07). We investigated vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) contractile properties (tensiomyography), maximal running speed (photocells), anthropometric measures (bioimpedance), maximal vertical jump-ing height (squat and countermovement jumps on a ground reaction force plate), and lifestyle characteristics (GPAQ and EHIS surveys).Results: Based on Cohen’s d effect size we found that athletes have lower body mass index, higher maximal running speed, better maximal vertical jumping height, and shorter BF contraction time, not found in VL, compared to non-athletes. Further-more, athletes also exhibit healthier lifestyle characteristics such as lower sedentary time and higher daily energy expenditure than non-athletes. Athletes follow diet regi-mens consisting of more regular meals with more protein and indulge less in health-risk behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption). However, the self-perception of health and quality of life was lower in athletes than in non-athletes. Conclusion: EU regulations and the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemics pre-vented us from conducting a study on a more representative sample. Nevertheless, we could confirm that regular sport participation yields better physical performance and a healthier lifestyle but could also have a negative impact on health (injuries) and quality of life.
Ključne besede: sport, physical exercise, motor development, healthy lifestyle, tensiomyography, longitudinal studies
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 02.03.2023; Ogledov: 240; Prenosov: 65
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Rado Pišot, 2021, predgovor, uvodnik, spremna beseda

Ključne besede: sport, kinesiology, motor activities, sedentarism, society, research
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 02.03.2023; Ogledov: 102; Prenosov: 52
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Sarcopenia, obesity, and their association with selected behavioral factors in active older adults
Kaja Teraž, Miloš Kalc, Manca Peskar, Saša Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Primož Pori, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Introduction: The number of obese people in the world is increasing, as is the number of sarcopenic people among the older adults. Although both states are concerning, they can be positively influenced by selected behavioral factors such as adequate nutrition and physical activity. We were interested in the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in active older people and the influence of behavioral factors on this phenomenon. Methods: The study included 38 older adults (21 women) with a mean age of 75.3 ± 5.0 years. Sarcopenic parameters were determined with different tests: Handgrip Test, Chair Stand Test, Gait Speed, Timed Up and Go Test, and Short Physical Performance Battery. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity level was measured using accelerometers, and nutritional status was assessed using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment and MEDLIFE Index questionnaire. Results: Of all included active participants (the average number of steps per day was 8,916 ± 3,543), 47.4% of them were obese. Of all included women, 52.4% were obese. Sarcopenic obesity was found in three (7.9%) participants. Nutritional status correlated with strength of lower extremities and physical performance tests (gait speed, Timed Up and Go Test and Short Physical performance battery). Higher number of steps per day positively correlates with physical performance. Discussion: Interestingly, we did not find any correlation between the main obesity parameter such as percent body fat or body mass index (and thus sarcopenic obesity) and any of the selected behavioral factors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, or dietary habits). In conclusion, reaching the recommended levels of physical activity in older adults may not be sufficient to prevent the occurrence of obesity and sarcopenic obesity.
Ključne besede: aging, physical activity, nutrition, healthy lifestyle, body composition, sarcopenia
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 02.03.2023; Ogledov: 100; Prenosov: 51
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Impact of 10-day bed rest on serum levels of irisin and markers of musculoskeletal metabolism
Angela Oranger, Giuseppina Storlino, Manuela Dicarlo, Roberta Zerlotin, Patrizia Pignataro, Lorenzo Sanesi, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Graziana Colaianni, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The bed rest (BR) is a ground-based model to simulate microgravity mimicking skeletal-muscle alterations as in spaceflight. Molecular coupling between bone and muscle might be involved in physiological and pathological conditions. Thus, the new myokine irisin and bone-muscle turnover markers have been studied during and after 10 days of BR. Ten young male individuals were subjected to 10 days of horizontal BR. Serum concentrations of irisin, myostatin, sclerostin, and haptoglobin were assessed, and muscle tissue gene expression on vastus lateralis biopsies was determined. During 10-days BR, we observed no significant fluctuation levels of irisin, myostatin, and sclerostin. Two days after BR (R+2), irisin serum levels significantly decreased while myostatin, sclerostin, and haptoglobin were significantly increased compared with BR0. Gene expression of myokines, inflammatory molecules, transcription factors, and markers of muscle atrophy and senescence on muscle biopsies were not altered, suggesting that muscle metabolism of young, healthy subjects is able to adapt to the hypomobility condition during 10-day BR. However, when subjects were divided according to irisin serum levels at BR9, muscle ring finger-1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in subjects with higher irisin serum levels, suggesting that this myokine may prevent the triggering of muscle atrophy. Moreover, the negative correlation between p21 mRNA and irisin at BR9 indicated a possible inhibitory effect of the myokine on the senescence marker. In conclusion, irisin could be a prognostic marker of hypomobility-induced muscle atrophy, and its serum levels could protect against muscle deterioration by preventing and/or delaying the expression of atrophy and senescence cellular markers.
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 13.12.2022; Ogledov: 205; Prenosov: 138
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Inter-person differences in isometric coactivations of triceps surae and tibialis anterior decrease in young, but not in older adults after 14 days of bed rest
Matjaž Divjak, Gašper Sedej, Nina Murks, Mitja Gerževič, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Aleš Holobar, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: We examined activation patterns of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), soleus (SO), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in eight older (58.4 ± 3.3 years) and seven young (23.1 ± 2.9 years) participants, before and after 14 days of horizontal bed rest. Visual feedback on the exerted muscle torque was provided to the participants. The discharge patterns of individual motor units (MUs) were studied in three repetitions of isometric plantar flexion at 30 and 60% of Maximum Voluntary Contraction (MVC), before, and 1 day after the 14-day bed rest, respectively. In the GL and GM muscles, the older participants demonstrated higher MU discharge rates than the young, regardless of the contraction level, both before and after the bed rest. In the TA and SO muscles, the differences between the older and young participants were less consistent. Detailed analysis revealed person-specific changes in the MU discharge rates after the bed rest. To quantify the coactivation patterns we calculated the correlation coefficients between the cumulative spike trains of identified MUs from each muscle, and measured the root mean square difference of the correlation coefficients between the trials of the same session (intra-session variability) and between different sessions (inter-session variability) in each participant (intra-person comparison) and across participants (inter-person comparison). In the intra-person comparison, the inter-session variability was higher than the intra-session variability, either before or after the bed rest. At 60% MVC torque, the young demonstrated higher inter-person variability of coactivation than the older participants, but this variability decreased significantly after the bed rest. In older participants, inter-person variability was consistently lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque. In young participants, inter-person variability became lower at 60% than at 30% MVC torque only after the bed rest. Precaution is required when analyzing the MU discharge and coactivation patterns, as individual persons demonstrate individual adaptations to aging or bed rest.
Ključne besede: high density electromyography, muscle disuse, motor units, discharge rate, aging
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 05.09.2022; Ogledov: 244; Prenosov: 115
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