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Iskalni niz: "avtor" (Peter Kopač) .

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1.
Patch testing with the European baseline series and 10 added allergens : single centre study of 748 patients
Mojca Bizjak, Katja Adamič, Nisera Bajrović, Renato Eržen, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Mitja Košnik, Nika Lalek, Mihaela Zidarn, Dejan Dinevski, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. The European baseline series (EBS) of contact allergens is subject to change. An allergen is considered for inclusion when routine patch testing of patients with suspected contact dermatitis results in ≥ 0.5% prevalence rate. Objectives. We aimed to determine the frequency of sensitizations to 30 EBS allergens and 10 locally added allergens. Additionally, we assessed the strength and evolution of reactions to all tested allergens and co-reactivity of additional allergens. Methods. Patch testing with our baseline series of 40 allergens was done in 748 consecutive adults. Tests were applied to the upper back and removed by patients after 48 hours. Readings were done on day 3 (D3) and D6 or D7 (D6/7). Positive reactions fulfilled the criteria of at least one plus (+) reaction. Retrospective analysis was done. Results. Eight allergens not listed in the EBS had ≥ 0.5% prevalence rate (i.e., cocamidopropyl betaine, thiomersal, disperse blue mix 106/124, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, diazolidinyl urea, propylene glycol, Compositae mix II, and dexamethasone-21-phosphate), and 16.6% of positive reactions would have been missed without D6/7 readings. Conclusion. We propose further studies to evaluate whether cocamidopropyl betaine, disperse blue mix 106/124, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, diazolidinyl urea, and Compositae mix II need to be added to the EBS.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, hypersensitivity -- diagnosis, skin tests, clinical epidemiology, baseline series, contact sensitization, patch tests, simultaneous reactivity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.06.2022; Ogledov: 124; Prenosov: 46
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2.
Mnenje za spremljanje bolnikov po preboleli covidni pljučnici
Matjaž Turel, Natalija Edelbaher, Matjaž Fležar, Matevž Harlander, Peter Kecelj, Izidor Kern, Majda Kočar, Peter Kopač, Mitja Košnik, Robert Marčun, Igor Požek, Mirjana Rajer, Irena Šarc, Jurij Šorli, Dušanka Vidovič, Katarina Osolnik, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Pljučnica je najpogostejši vzrok za težji potek okužbe z virusom SARS-CoV-2 in s hospitalizacijo. Potek covidne pljučnice je lahko različen; infiltrati, vidni na rentgenski sliki, se lahko resorbirajo spontano, včasih pa je potrebno zdravljenje s sistem-skimi glukokortikoidi. Ob odpustu iz bolnišnice zdravljenje običajno še ni končano, zato je Združenje pulmologov Slovenije v želji po enotnem obravnavanju bolnikov s covidno pljučnico izdelalo mnenje za obravnavo in sledenje bolnikov po od-pustu iz bolnišnice. Zavedamo se, da ob novi bolezni ne gre za dokončno priporočilo, saj bodo nova spoznanja o covidni pljučnici zanesljivo zahtevala obnavljanje priporočil.
Ključne besede: covid-19, mnenja, pljučnica, pulmologija, sistemski glukokortikoidi, covidna pljučnica
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 15.12.2021; Ogledov: 556; Prenosov: 68
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3.
Initial presenting manifestations in 16,486 patients with inborn errors of immunity include infections and noninfectious manifestations
Julian Thalhammer, Gerhard Kindle, Alexandra Nieters, Stephan Rusch, Mikko R. J. Seppänen, Alain Fischer, Bodo Grimbacher, David Edgar, Matthew Buckland, Nizar Mahlaoui, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background. Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are rare diseases, which makes diagnosis a challenge. A better description of the initial presenting manifestations should improve awareness and avoid diagnostic delay. Although increased infection susceptibility is a well-known initial IEI manifestation, less is known about the frequency of other presenting manifestations. Objective. We sought to analyze age-related initial presenting manifestations of IEI including different IEI disease cohorts. Methods. We analyzed data on 16,486 patients of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies Registry. Patients with autoinflammatory diseases were excluded because of the limited number registered. Results. Overall, 68% of patients initially presented with infections only, 9% with immune dysregulation only, and 9% with a combination of both. Syndromic features were the presenting feature in 12%, 4% had laboratory abnormalities only, 1.5% were diagnosed because of family history only, and 0.8% presented with malignancy. Two-third of patients with IEI presented before the age of 6 years, but a quarter of patients developed initial symptoms only as adults. Immune dysregulation was most frequently recognized as an initial IEI manifestation between age 6 and 25 years, with male predominance until age 10 years, shifting to female predominance after age 40 years. Infections were most prevalent as a first manifestation in patients presenting after age 30 years. Conclusions. An exclusive focus on infection-centered warning signs would have missed around 25% of patients with IEI who initially present with other manifestations.
Ključne besede: immunity, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, signs and symptoms, registries, inborn error of immunity, primary immunodeficiency, immune dysregulation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.05.2021; Ogledov: 576; Prenosov: 110
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4.
Nrf2-interacting nutrients and COVID-19 : time for research to develop adaptation strategies
Jean Bousquet, Jean-Paul Cristol, Wienczyslawa Czarlewski, Josep M. Antò i Boquè, Adrian Martineau, Tari Haahtela, Susana C. Fonseca, Guido Iaccarino, Hubert Blain, Alessandro Fiocchi, Nisera Bajrović, Natalija Edelbaher, Maja Jošt, Peter Kopač, Anja Koren, Mitja Košnik, Karmen Kramer Vrščaj, Samo Kreft, Nika Lalek, Bojan Madjar, Tonka Poplas-Susič, Irma Rozman Sinur, Tanja Soklič, Katja Triller Vadnal, Nadja Triller, Jure Urbančič, Mihaela Zidarn, 2020, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: There are large between- and within-country variations in COVID-19 death rates. Some very low death rate settings such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe, the Balkans and Africa have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods whose intake is associated with the activation of the Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) anti-oxidant transcription factor. There are many Nrf2-interacting nutrients (berberine, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, sulforaphane) that all act similarly to reduce insulin resistance, endothelial damage, lung injury and cytokine storm. They also act on the same mechanisms (mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin, PPAR[gamma]:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, NF[kappa]B: Nuclear factor kappa B, ERK: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases and eIF2[alpha]:Elongation initiation factor 2[alpha]). They may as a result be important in mitigating the severity of COVID-19, acting through the endoplasmic reticulum stress or ACE-Angiotensin-II-AT1R axis (AT1R) pathway. Many Nrf2-interacting nutrients are also interacting with TRPA1 and/or TRPV1. Interestingly, geographical areas with very low COVID-19 mortality are those with the lowest prevalence of obesity (Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia). It is tempting to propose that Nrf2-interacting foods and nutrients can re-balance insulin resistance and have a significant effect on COVID-19 severity. It is therefore possible that the intake of these foods may restore an optimal natural balance for the Nrf2 pathway and may be of interest in the mitigation of COVID-19 severity.
Ključne besede: Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2, food, insulin resistance, obesity, Nrf2, nutrients, TRPA1
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 25.01.2021; Ogledov: 983; Prenosov: 359
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,61 MB)

5.
Chemokines during anaphylaxis : the importance of CCL2 and CCL2-dependent chemotactic activity for basophils
Romana Vantur, Maruša Rihar, Ana Koren, Matija Rijavec, Peter Kopač, Urška Bidovec, Renato Eržen, Peter Korošec, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background: The role of chemokines in anaphylaxis is unclear. Methods: We prospectively recruited 49 patients presenting to the emergency department with an acute episode of anaphylaxis and 28 healthy subjects. We measured serum levels of the chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CCL8, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL21, CCL22, CCL24, and CCL26, tryptase, the absolute number of circulating basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and PMNs, and whole blood FCER1A, CPA3 and HDC gene expression at two time points: during the anaphylactic episode and in convalescent samples collected approximately 3 months later. We then investigated the in vitro chemotactic activity of chemokines induced during anaphylaxis for the in vitro migration of the corresponding cells. Results: Only CCL2 chemokine levels were signifcantly increased in anaphylaxis samples (median 514 pg/ml) compared to convalescent samples (284 pg/ml, P<0.0001) and healthy subjects (279 pg/ml, P<0.0001); there was no signifcant diference in any of the other chemokines. There was a signifcant positive correlation between the rates of increase of serum CCL2 (median [range]: 106.0% [-44.7% to 557.4%]) and tryptase (133.8% [-6.6% to 893.4%]; r=0.68, P<0.0001) and between the acute concentration of serum CCL2 and the acute concentration of serum tryptase (r=0.77, P<0.0001). The number of circulating basophils, but not other blood cells, signifcantly decreased during anaphylaxis (median 5.0 vs. 19.1 cells/[micro]l in convalescent samples; P<0.0001); a decrease in whole-blood gene expression of basophil markers (PKljučne besede: anaphylaxis, chemokines, tryptases, basophils, chemotaxis, CCL2, cell migration
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 18.01.2021; Ogledov: 864; Prenosov: 355
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,04 MB)

6.
Functional complement analysis can predict genetic testing results and long-term outcome in patients with complement deficiencies
Štefan Blazina, Maruša Debeljak, Mitja Košnik, Saša Simčič, Sanja Stopinšek, Gašper Markelj, Nataša Toplak, Peter Kopač, Breda Zakotnik, Marko Pokorn, Tadej Avčin, 2018, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Background: Prevalence of complement deficiencies (CDs) is markedly higher in Slovenian primary immunodeficiency (PID) registry in comparison to other national and international PID registries. Objective: The purposes of our study were to confirm CD and define complete and partial CD in registered patients in Slovenia, to evaluate frequency of clinical manifestations, and to assess the risk for characteristic infections separately for subjects with complete and partial CD. Methods: CD was confirmed with genetic analyses in patients with C2 deficiency, C8 deficiency, and hereditary angioedema or with repeated functional complement studies and measurement of complement components in other CD. Results of genetic studies (homozygous subjects vs. heterozygous carriers) and complement functional studies were analyzed to define complete (complement below the level of heterozygous carriers) and partial CD (complement above the level of homozygous patients). Presence of characteristic infections was assessed separately for complete and partial CD. Results: Genetic analyses confirmed markedly higher prevalence of CD in Slovenian PID registry (26% of all PID) than in other national and international PID registries (0.5–6% of all PID). Complement functional studies and complement component concentrations reliably distinguished between homozygous and heterozygous CD carriers. Subjects with partial CD had higher risk for characteristic infections than previously reported. Conclusion: Results of our study imply under-recognition of CD worldwide. Complement functional studies and complement component concentrations reliably predicted risk for characteristic infections in patients with complete or partial CD. Vaccination against encapsulated bacteria should be advocated also for subjects with partial CD and not limited to complete CD.
Ključne besede: complement deficiency, primary immunodeficiency, laboratory analysis, genetic analysis, clinical manifestations
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 12.11.2020; Ogledov: 872; Prenosov: 351
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1000,60 KB)

7.
8.
An EAACI position paper on the investigation of perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions
Lene Heise Garvey, Didier G. Ebo, Paul Michel Mertes, Pascale Dewachter, Tomaz Garcez, Peter Kopač, Jose Julio Laguna, Anca Chiriac, Ingrid Terreehorst, Susanna Voltolini, K Scherer, 2019, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Perioperative immediate hypersensitivity reactions are rare. Subsequent allergy investigation is complicated by multiple simultaneous drug exposures, the use of drugs with potent effects and the many differential diagnoses to hypersensitivity in the perioperative setting. The approach to the investigation of these complex reactions is not standardized and it is becoming increasingly apparent that collaboration between experts in the field of allergy/immunology/dermatology and anaesthesiology is needed to provide the best possible care for these patients. The EAACI task force behind this position paper has therefore combined the expertise of allergists, immunologists and anaesthesiologists. The aims of this position paper are to provide recommendations for the investigation of immediate type perioperative hypersensitivity reactions and to provide practical information that can assist clinicians in planning and carrying out investigations.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology -- diagnosis, drug hypersensitivity -- diagnosis, anaphylaxis, anesthesia, anesthetics, opioid analgesics, anti-bacterial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal opioids, antibiotics
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 975; Prenosov: 235
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9.
Comparative epidemiology of suspected perioperative hypersensitivity reactions
Paul Michel Mertes, Didier G. Ebo, Tomaz Garcez, Michael Rose, Vito Sabato, Tomonori Takazawa, Peter J. Cooke, Russel C. Clarke, Pascale Dewachter, Lene Heise Garvey, Anne Berit Guttormsen, David L. Hepner, Philip M. Hopkins, David A. Khan, Peter Kopač, Peter R. Platt, Louise C. Savic, 2019, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Suspected perioperative hypersensitivity reactions are rare but contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of surgical procedures. Recent publications have highlighted the differences between countries concerning the respective risk of different drugs, and changes in patterns of causal agents and the emergence of new allergens. This review summarises recent information on the epidemiology of perioperative hypersensitivity reactions, with specific consideration of differences between geographic areas for the most frequently involved offending agents.
Ključne besede: anaphylaxis, anti-bacterial agents, blood, chlorhexidine, latex, neuromuscular blocking agents, hypersensitivity, drug hypersensitivity, sugammadex, antibiotics, blood products, perioperative anaphylaxis, perioperative hypersensitivity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 974; Prenosov: 224
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10.
Management of a surgical patient with a label of penicillin allergy : narrative review and consensus recommendations
Louise C. Savic, David A. Khan, Peter Kopač, Russel C. Clarke, Peter J. Cooke, Pascale Dewachter, Didier G. Ebo, Tomaz Garcez, Lene Heise Garvey, Anne Berit Guttormsen, 2019, pregledni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Unsubstantiated penicillin-allergy labels are common in surgical patients, and can lead to significant harm through avoidance of best first-line prophylaxis of surgical site infections and increased infection with resistant bacterial strains. Up to 98% of penicillin-allergy labels are incorrect when tested. Because of the scarcity of trained allergists in all healthcare systems, only a minority of surgical patients have the opportunity to undergo testing and de-labelling before surgery. Testing pathways can be modified and shortened in selected patients. A variety of healthcare professionals can, with appropriate training and in collaboration with allergists, provide testing for selected patients. We review how patients might be assessed, the appropriate testing strategies that can be used, and the minimum standards of safe testing.
Ključne besede: allergy and immunology, drug hypersensitivity, penicillins, antibiotic prophylaxis, surgery, operative surgical procedures, bacterial infections, surgical wound infection, drug provocation testing, surgical procedures
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.10.2020; Ogledov: 911; Prenosov: 278
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