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Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure assessment among active daily commuters to induce behaviour change to reduce air pollution
Anja Ilenič, Alenka Mauko Pranjić, Nina Zupančič, Radmila Milačič, Janez Ščančar, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a detrimental urban air pollutant primarily emitted by traffic and biomass burning, poses disproportionately significant health risks at relatively limited exposure during commuting. Previous studies have mainly focused on fixed locations when assessing PM2.5 exposure, while neglecting pedestrians and cyclists, who often experience higher pollution levels. In response, this research aimed to independently validate the effectiveness of bicycle-mounted low-cost sensors (LCS) adopted by citizens, evaluate temporal and spatial PM2.5 exposure, and assess associated health risks in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The LCS quality assurance results, verified by co-location field tests by air quality monitoring stations (AQMS), showed comparable outcomes with an average percentage difference of 21.29 %, attributed to humidity-induced nucleation effects. The colder months exhibited the highest air pollution levels (μ = 32.31 μg/m3) due to frequent thermal inversions and weak wind circulation, hindering vertical air mixing and the adequate dispersion of pollutants. Additionally, PM2.5 levels in all sampling periods were lowest in the afternoon (μ = 12.09 μg/m3) and highest during the night (μ = 61.00 μg/m3) when the planetary boundary layer thins, leading to the trapping of pollutants near the surface, thus significantly affecting diurnal and seasonal patterns. Analysis of exposure factors revealed that cyclists were approximately three times more exposed than pedestrians. However, the toxicological risk assessment indicated a minimal potential risk of PM2.5 exposure. The collaborative integration of data from official AQMS and LCS can enhance evidence-based policy-making processes and facilitates the realignment of effective regulatory frameworks to reduce urban air pollution.
Ključne besede: air pollution monitoring, PM2.5 exposure, citizen science, bicycle-mounted low-cost sensors
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 30.01.2024; Ogledov: 300; Prenosov: 112
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,57 MB)
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Heavy minerals as indicators of source material in soils on carbonates
Barbara Čeplak, Miloš Miler, Nina Zupančič, Simona Jarc, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The origin of the soils formed on carbonate rocks remains uncertain, as they are probably of polygenetic origin. Of particular interest are the elevated contents of some trace elements detected in these soils, as they can hardly be attributed to insoluble residues of carbonate rock. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between heavy minerals in bedrock and soil and to identify other sources that influence the mineral and chemical composition of soil. We investigated representative samples of soils and dolomite bedrock as well as sandstones and marlstones from the nearby flysch basin as an expected source of the aeolian contribution. XRD and SEM/EDS showed that mineral diversity is higher in soils compared to the dolomites. Heavy minerals found in dolomite insoluble residue include sphalerite, Ti-oxide (probably rutile), zircon, fluorite, pyrite, minerals of REE phosphates and apatite group, interpreted as terrigenous detrital material. The mineral composition of soil heavy fraction is only partly following insoluble residues of bedrock and indicates possible aeolian contribution. Comparison with nearby flysch sandstones and marlstones showed similarities in mineralogical diversity by the presence of chromite and Fe-Cr(Mn) oxides (probably carmichaelite). Other minerals present in soils and flysch layers, such as Ti-oxide (probably rutile), zircon, REE phosphates, and pyrite grains, however, show similarities in mode of occurrence and transport indications. Signs of aeolian transport on the grains detected in soils were further confirmed by SEM/EDS.
Ključne besede: Phaeozem, Upper Triassic dolomite, flysch layers, trace elements, SEM/EDS
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 04.01.2024; Ogledov: 321; Prenosov: 67
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,60 MB)

Remediation of contaminated soil by red mud and paper ash
Primož Oprčkal, Ana Mladenovič, Nina Zupančič, Janez Ščančar, Radmila Milačič, Vesna Zalar Serjun, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Remediation of contaminated soil can be performed by using various techniques, which must be adequately tailored for each specific case. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the potential use of red mud and paper ash and a combination of the two as immobilization additives for the remediation of contaminated soil from one of the most polluted sites in Slovenia. The proposed procedure involves the preparation of geotechnical composites made from contaminated soil and mixed with 25 wt% of immobilization additives and an optimal quantity of water to achieve consistency, at which maximum compaction according to the Proctor Compaction Test procedure can be achieved. The results reveal a positive, time-dependent trend for the immobilization of potentially toxic elements in the composite with paper ash, because of the formation of the new hydration products with potentially toxic elements. In a composite containing only red mud, potentially toxic elements were immobilized by sorption mechanisms with no general time-dependent trends. The composite with a combination of additives demonstrates the remediation characteristics of both red mud and paper ash. Using this approach excavated contaminated soil, red mud and paper ash can be successfully recycled in the proposed composites, which can be beneficially used in situ for rehabilitation of contaminated sites. Nevertheless, mobilization of some potentially toxic elements at high pHs may represent a limiting factor and has to be taken into the consideration when a combination of red mud and paper ash is used as immobilization additive.
Ključne besede: red mud, paper ash, contaminated soil, potentially toxic elements, geotechnical composites
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.08.2023; Ogledov: 392; Prenosov: 282
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,28 MB)
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Solid carriers of potentially toxic elements and their fate in stream sediments in the area affected by iron ore mining and processing
Saša Kos, Nina Zupančič, Mateja Gosar, Miloš Miler, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The potential environmental impact of historical mining and ore processing on stream sediments and water was studied in a small siderite iron ore deposit with diverse sulfide mineral paragenesis. The main aim was to characterize solid carriers of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in stream sediments and mine waste, to understand their fate in fluvial systems. General mineralogy (X-ray powder diffraction) and individual solid PTE carriers (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy) were correlated with the geochemical composition of stream sediments, mine waste, and stream waters (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Primary solid PTE carriers were pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, Hg-bearing sphalerite, galena, and siderite. Slightly alkaline and oxidizing conditions in stream water promoted the transformation of primary phases into secondary PTE carriers. Fe(Mn)-oxide/oxyhydroxides were major sinks for Pb, Zn, and As. Compared to background levels, Co (14.6 ± 2.1 mg/kg), Cu (30 ± 2.9 mg/kg), Ni (32.1 ± 2.9 mg/kg), Pb (64.5 ± 16.4 mg/kg), Zn (175.3 ± 22.5 mg/kg), As (81.1 ± 63.7 mg/kg), and Hg (2 ± 0.8 mg/kg) were elevated in mining area. Mine waste contained similar PTE carriers as stream sediments, but much higher PTE contents. Prevailingly low PTE concentrations in streams, with the exception of As (1.97 ± 2.4 µg/L) and Zn (4.5 ± 5.7 µg/L), indicate the stability of PTE carriers. Environmental effects were not significant, and additional monitoring is recommended.
Ključne besede: environmental mineralogy, environmental geochemistry, potentially toxic elements, stream sediments, solid phases, iron ore deposit, SEM/EDS
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 16.11.2022; Ogledov: 605; Prenosov: 181
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,07 MB)

Celostna obravnava geokemije trdnih anorganskih delcev v urbanem okolju
Martin Gaberšek, 2020, doktorska disertacija

Povzetek: Biogeokemično kroženje elementov je v urbanih okoljih zaradi velikega števila prebivalcev in njihovih različnih dejavnosti precej drugačno kot v naravnih. Zaradi kompleksnosti urbanih okolij, je pri geokemičnih raziskavah treba uporabiti celosten pristop. To pomeni, da s kombinacijo različnih metod preučujemo vsebnosti in pojavljanje potencialno strupenih elementov (PSE) v več urbanih materialih. V okviru doktorske disertacije smo na urbanem območju Maribora raziskovali tla, podstrešni, stanovanjski in cestni prah ter trdne delce nakopičene v snegu in delce v zraku. Opredelili smo lastnosti obravnavanih materialov in geokemične značilnosti Maribora ter vpeljali analizo trdnih delcev v zraku s SEM/EDS. Prevladujoč mineral v tleh je kremen (geogen vpliv), v cestnem prahu dolomit (zimsko posipanje cest) in v podstrešnem prahu sadra, ki je najverjetneje sekundarnega nastanka. Analiza vsebnosti 65 elementov v tleh in vseh treh tipih prahov je pokazala, da se ti materiali po kemični sestavi medsebojno močno razlikujejo. Prevladujoč antropogen izvor smo v vseh materialih, z izjemo stanovanjskega prahu, pripisali Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn in Zn. Dodatno so v posameznih materialih pretežno antropogenega izvora še nekateri drugi PSE. Na dveh industrijskih območjih (Melje in Tezno) so vsebnosti PSE običajno najvišje, zato predvidevamo, da so večinoma posledica pretekle in sedanje kovinske industrije. V primerjavi s tlemi, so vsebnosti PSE višje v prahovih, kar je deloma posledica razlik v njihovem nastanku in v fizikalno-kemičnih lastnostih, vpliva antropogenih virov ter različnega zadrževalnega časa materialov. Podstrešni prah odraža zgodovinske vplive, cestni prah predvsem današnje vplive industrije in prometa ter stanovanjski prah vplive znotraj stanovanj. Z analizo prahov in delcev v snegu ter zraku s SEM/EDS smo ugotovili, da izmed delcev s PSE v vseh materialih prevladujejo oglati Fe-oksidi. Samo na industrijskem območju Melje se pojavljajo Cu-Zn ostružki, ki najverjetneje izvirajo iz livarne in Fe-Cr (Cu, Mn, Ni) ostružki, najverjetneje iz tovarne kovinskega pohištva ter livarne. Za Tezno so značilni predvsem visoki deleži Fe-oksidov in kroglastih Fe-oksidov, pogosto z nizkimi vsebnostmi Mn in drugih PSE. Glede na rezultate, kemična sestava stanovanjskega prahu odraža predvsem vire znotraj stanovanj in manj zunanje vplive. Izmed notranjih virov smo najbolj jasno prepoznali uporabo vžigalnikov v stanovanjih v katerih stanovalci kadijo, kar se odraža v visokih vsebnostih Ce, Fe in La ter pojavljanju Fe-Ce-La-O kroglic. Biodostopni deleži (BAF) PSE se močno razlikujejo med različnimi elementi, vzorci in materiali. V tleh, cestnem in podstrešnem prahu so večinoma večji v želodčni fazi kot v želodčno-črevesni. Za stanovanjski prah velja obratno. Med najbolj biodostopnimi PSE v želodčni fazi so Cd, Cu, Pb in Zn, katerih povprečni BAF je pogosto nad 40 %, ter v želodčno-črevesni As, Cd, Cu in Ni.
Ključne besede: urbana geokemija, trdni delci, potencialno strupeni elementi, biodostopnost, tla, podstrešni prah, stanovanjski prah, cestni prah, SEM/EDS
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 03.03.2022; Ogledov: 1184; Prenosov: 381
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Razmejitev provenienčnih območij gozdnih drevesnih vrst v Sloveniji na osnovi ekoloških regij
Lado Kutnar, Mitja Zupančič, Dušan Robič, Nina Zupančič, Sašo Žitnik, Tone Kralj, Irena Tavčar, Mojca Dolinar, Ciril Zrnec, Hojka Kraigher, 2002, strokovni članek

Povzetek: Zakon o gozdnem reprodukcijskem materialu, ki je bil sprejet junija 2002, v skladu z Direktivo EU o gozdnem reprodukcijskem materialu, zahteva določitev provenienčnih območij za pridobivanje in uporabo gozdnega reprodukcijskega materiala. V prispevku je predstavljen predlog oblikovanja ekoloških regij in podregij, ki so osnova za predlagano razmejitev provenienčnih območij. Meje ekoloških regij so lahko prehodne ali mozaično razporejene. Zaradi lažjega določanja provenienčnih območij na terenu in lažjega nadzora nad sadnjo oziroma setvijo so meje provenienčnih območij čimbolj prilagojene gospodarsko-ureditvenim in administrativnim mejam, ki so po možnosti označene na terenu. Predstavljene so osnove za oblikovanje in predlog razmejitve 7 provenienčnih območij, razdeljenih na štiri višinske pasove.
Ključne besede: ekološka regija, provenienčno območje, fitogeografska delitev, gozdni reprodukcijski material, uporaba, Slovenija
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 17.11.2020; Ogledov: 1462; Prenosov: 540
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,97 MB)

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