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Iskalni niz: "avtor" (Majda Pavlin) .

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Analysis of alkali-activated mineral wool-slag binders : evaluating the differences between one-part and two-part variations
Elijah Adesanya, Rawia Dabbebi, Christine Rößler, Majda Pavlin, Zhenming Li, Tero Luukkonen, Juho Yliniemi, Mirja Illikainen, 2024, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Two synthesis pathways (one- and two-part) in alkali-activated binders were compared using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), mineral wool (MW) activated using dry and liquid alkali activators with similar Na2O/SiO2 modulus. The effect of activator type on reaction kinetics, strength development, setting times, and durability shows that one-part synthesis does not only improve early strength, but also provide better durability properties. While the highest compressive strength (56 MPa, 90 days) was achieved for the one-part mix (DM), the reaction products (presence of Mg–Al layered double hydroxide and C–S–H-like phases) observed for both mortar mixes were similar. The DM mortars showed better resistance to sulfate attack than two-part mix (WM) mortars and sets faster. The results highlight the significance of the one-part pathways in the synthesis of alkali-activated materials.
Ključne besede: recycling, alkali activated material, mineral wool
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 11.03.2024; Ogledov: 157; Prenosov: 97
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,28 MB)
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Fibre reinforced alkali-activated rock wool
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Mineral wool, i.e. rock and glass wool, represents considerable challenge after its functional-time runs out due to its small density leading to large volume consumption during transport and in landfills where it usually ends. Because rock wool is mineralogically and chemically a promising precursor material for alkali-activation, it was milled from few centimetres-decimeters long fibres to micron-sized fibres. Since fibres in alkali-activated materials generally show an increase in mechanical strength, especially the bending strength, 1 m% of additional fibres (basalt, cellulose (2 types), glass, polypropylene, polyvinyl alcohol and steel fibres) was used in the alkali mixture, that was curred at 40 °C for 3 days. Time dependence of the mechanical strengths of alkali- activated materials with and without additional fibres was followed. Maximal increase of compressive and bending strength after 28 days was reached with polypropylene fibres, i.e. it was 20% and 30% higher than compressive and bending strength of alkali- activated material without additional fibres respectively.
Ključne besede: secondary raw material, alkali activated material, foaming, homogenization, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 252; Prenosov: 88
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,39 MB)
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Influence of homogenization of alkali-activated slurry on mechanical strength
Barbara Horvat, Mark Češnovar, Katja Traven, Majda Pavlin, Katja Koenig, Vilma Ducman, 2022, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: Alkali-activated materials are promising materials for the construction industry due to the accessibility of the precursors, which are mainly secondary industrial by-products, and their cost- effective and energy-efficient production. Although these materials are not new, some of the parameters in the technological process are not yet fully understood and tested. Therefore, in this paper in the means of mechanical strength, the preparation of alkali-activated pastes by using a three-roll mill homogenization method is discussed. The influence of homogenization of alkali- activated slurry has been evaluated on different waste materials (fly ash, fly ash with metakaolin, slag mixture (electric arc furnace slag and ladle slag), glass wool, waste green ceramics), which are treated with different alkali activators (NaOH, commercial sodium silicate solution, laboratory-produced alkali activators based on waste cathode- ray tube glass) with different curing regimes (60 °C and 70 °C) and different drying methods (drying at room temperature, drying at 105 °C). The viscosity of the slurry before homogenization was higher than after homogenization, the distribution of elements was more uniform and the compressive strength higher in all homogenized alkali activated materials, regardless of other parameters.
Ključne besede: secondary raw material, alkali activated material, foaming, homogenization, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.12.2023; Ogledov: 271; Prenosov: 92
.pdf Celotno besedilo (15,82 MB)
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Pilot production of façade panels : variability of mix design
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: As part of the WOOL2LOOP project, the Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute (ZAG), in collaboration with Termit d.d. were responsible for the production of façade panels. An initial mix design was developed at ZAG, where alkali-activated façade panels were produced, primarily from stone wool waste, while production took place at Termit. The mix design was changed twice during the pilot production, before a final product with suitable durability was developed. A compressive strength of up to 60 MPa and bending strength of approximately 20 MPa was achieved. The mechanical properties, however, varied, due to the unevenly milled batches of the milled mineral wool. Milling on a larger scale is very challenging, and it is difficult to obtain consistent quality of the milled material. Once the correct curing process had been found, however, the panels produced showed good performance. Moreover, the results from leaching tests showed that the elevated concentrations of certain elements (Cr, As and Mo) did not exceed the legal limits for non- hazardous waste.
Ključne besede: waste mineral wool, alkali activated material, façade panels, pilot production, circular economy
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.11.2023; Ogledov: 298; Prenosov: 112
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Microwave irradiation of alkali - activated metakaolin slurry
Barbara Horvat, Branka Mušič, Majda Pavlin, Vilma Ducman, 2023, objavljeni znanstveni prispevek na konferenci

Povzetek: The building and civil engineering industry generates more than 40% of man-caused carbon emissions, consumes a lot of energy just to produce building materials, generates a large amount of waste through construction and demolition, and consumes a large amount of natural resources. One of the possible solutions is to use alkali-activated materials, which can use waste instead of raw materials and are produced at lower temperatures, with less energy consumption and in less time than traditional building products. All of this lowers the carbon footprint, which could be further reduced by the timely-short implementation of microwave irradiation in the early stages of alkali-activation synthesis. Therefore, metakaolin activated with Na-water glass in a theoretically optimal ratio was irradiated with microwaves of 2.45 GHz at powers of 100 W and 1000 W for 1 min, and compared to non-irradiated reference cured only at room conditions. Samples prepared at higher power, i.e., 1000 W, solidified completely and foamed. TG-DTA was performed on all samples in the early stages of curing, mechanical strengths were measured on 3 and 28-day- old samples, and leaching tests on aged samples.
Ključne besede: metakaolin, alkali activated material, alkali activated foams, microwave irradiation
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 28.11.2023; Ogledov: 275; Prenosov: 112
.pdf Celotno besedilo (791,17 KB)
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Evaluation of locally available amorphous waste materials as a source for alternative alkali activators
Katja Koenig, Katja Traven, Majda Pavlin, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The production of alkali-activated materials with excellent mechanical performance requires the use of waterglass, which has a significant carbon footprint. Such materials can have a lower carbon footprint if we replace water glass with alternative activators sourced from waste. In this study, we assessed the suitability of locally available amorphous waste materials (stone wool, glass wool, bottle glass and cathode-ray tube glass) as a source for the preparation of alternative alkali activators. We quantified the amount of silicon and aluminium dissolved in the activator solutions via inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The alternative activators were then used to produce alkali-activated fly ash and slag. The compressive strength values of alkali-activated fly ash specimens upon the addition of NaOH, water glass and the most promising alternative activator were 38.98 MPa, 31.34 MPa and 40.37 MPa, respectively. The compressive strength of slag specimens activated with alternative activators with the highest concentration of dissolved silicon (21 g/L) was, however, 70% higher than the compressive strength of slag specimens activated with only 10 M sodium hydroxide. The compressive strength of slag specimens with the addition of the most promising alternative activator was significantly lower (3.5 MPa) than the compressive strength of those that had been activated by commercial water glass (34.3 MPa).
Ključne besede: alkalijsko aktivirani materiali, alternativni aktivatorji, lastnosti, alkali activated materials/geopolimers, alternative activators, properties
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.08.2023; Ogledov: 256; Prenosov: 163
.pdf Celotno besedilo (6,02 MB)
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Mechanical, microstructural and mineralogical evaluation of alkali-activated waste glass and stone wool
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Ana Frankovič, Vilma Ducman, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Mineral waste wool represents a significant part of construction and demolition waste (CDW) not yet being successfully re-utilized. In the present study, waste stone wool (SW) and glass wool (GW) in the form received, without removing the binder, were evaluated for their potential use in alkali activation technology. It was confirmed that both can be used in the preparation of alkali-activated materials (AAMs), whether cured at room temperature or at an elevated temperature in order to speed up the reaction. The results show that it is possible to obtain a compressive strength of over 50 MPa using SW or GW as a precursor. A strength of 53 MPa was obtained in AAM based on GW after curing for 3 days at 40 °C, while a similar compressive strength (58 MPa) was achieved after curing the GW mixture for 56 days at room temperature. In general, the mechanical properties of samples based on GW are better than those based on SW. The evolution of mechanical properties and recognition of influential parameters were determined by various microstructural analyses, including XRD, SEM, MIP, and FTIR. The type of activator (solely NaOH or a combination of NaOH and sodium silicate), and the SiO2/Na2O and liquid to solid (L/S) ratios were found to be the significant parameters. A lower SiO2/Na2O ratio and low L/S ratio significantly improve the mechanical strength of AAMs made from both types of mineral wool.
Ključne besede: alkali activation, waste mineral wool, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 31.07.2023; Ogledov: 272; Prenosov: 254
.pdf Celotno besedilo (9,79 MB)
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Influence of microwaves in the early stage of alkali activation on the mechanical strength of alkali-activated materials
Barbara Horvat, Majda Pavlin, Vilma Ducman, 2023, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: This study focuses on the influence of microwave irradiation dosimetry on alkali-activated slurry in its early stages. The impact on the chemistry and mineralogy along with the mechanical properties were evaluated by changing the power of microwaves and their duration of exposure. This influenced the dissolution of amorphous content, diffusion, and self-assembly into an aluminosilicate network. The precursors used in this study were metakaolin, a non-waste material commonly used in geopolymerisation technology, and local fly ash and ladle furnace slag as secondary materials. Furthermore, they were chemically and mineralogically analysed, and their mixtures with NaOH and Na-water glass provided the optimal ratio of the amount of elements obtained using the pre-calculation approach. However, the potential extra addition of water was experimentally determined to allow complete wetting of the material and solid workability during moulding. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the influence of water was further investigated in alkali-activated slag and fly ash irradiated with microwaves, which resulted in the highest values of mechanical strength in the dosimetry-mapping part of the analysis. In addition to the time dependence of the expected mechanical strength on the ageing of the alkali- activated material, the synthesised material exhibited a significant dependence on the dose of microwave irra- diation, which was different for every precursor as well as every mixture with different chemistries.
Ključne besede: odpadni material, alkalijska aktivacija, obsevanje z mikrovalovi, mehanska trdnost, waste material, alkali activation, microwave irradiation, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 12.07.2023; Ogledov: 399; Prenosov: 291
.pdf Celotno besedilo (8,99 MB)
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Preparation of façade panels based on alkali-activated waste mineral wool, their characterization and durability aspects
Majda Pavlin, Barbara Horvat, Vilma Ducman, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Mineral wool is a widely used insulation material and one of the largest components of construction and demolition waste, yet it mainly ends up in landfills. In this work, we explored the potential recycling of waste stone wool in the pilot production of alkali-activated façade panels. The current work shows mechanical properties, SEM-EDS and mercury intrusion porosimetry analyses for three different mix designs used for the preparation of façade panels. They are all composed of waste stone wool and differ in the amount of co-binders (local slag, lime, metakaolin and/or fly ash) selected by the preliminary studies. In this study, co-binders were added to increase early strength and improve the mechanical properties and freeze-thaw resistance. The mechanical properties of each were measured up to 256 days, different durability tests were executed, and, by evaluating the mechanical properties, microstructure and workability of the mortar, the most suitable mix was selected to be used for pilot production. In addition, the leaching test of the selected mixture showed no exceeded toxic trace elements and therefore got classified as non-hazardous waste after its use.
Ključne besede: alkali activation, waste mineral wool, SEM, XRF, XRD, mechanical strength
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 19.06.2023; Ogledov: 346; Prenosov: 147
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,27 MB)
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