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Iskalni niz: "avtor" (Jernej Jevšenak) .

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1.
Different wood anatomical and growth responses in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) at three forest sites in Slovenia
Domen Arnič, Jožica Gričar, Jernej Jevšenak, Gregor Božič, Georg von Arx, Peter Prislan, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) adapts to local growing conditions to enhance its performance. In response to variations in climatic conditions, beech trees adjust leaf phenology, cambial phenology, and wood formation patterns, which result in different treering widths (TRWs) and wood anatomy. Chronologies of tree ring width and vessel features [i.e., mean vessel area (MVA), vessel density (VD), and relative conductive area (RCTA)] were produced for the 1960%2016 period for three sites that differ in climatic regimes and spring leaf phenology (two early- and one late-flushing populations). These data were used to investigate long-term relationships between climatic conditions and anatomical features of four quarters of tree-rings at annual and intra-annual scales. In addition, we investigated how TRW and vessel features adjust in response to extreme weather events (i.e., summer drought). We found significant differences in TRW, VD, and RCTA among the selected sites. Precipitation and maximum temperature before and during the growing season were the most important climatic factors affecting TRW and vessel characteristics. We confirmed differences in climate-growth relationships between the selected sites, late flushing beech population at Idrija showing the least pronounced response to climate. MVA was the only vessel trait that showed no relationship with TRW or other vessel features. The relationship between MVA and climatic factors evaluated at intra-annual scale indicated that vessel area in the first quarter of tree-ring were mainly influenced by climatic conditions in the previous growing season, while vessel area in the second to fourth quarters of tree ring width was mainly influenced by maximum temperature and precipitation in the current growing season. When comparing wet and dry years, beech from all sites showed a similar response, with reduced TRW and changes in intra-annual variation in vessel area. Our findings suggest that changes in temperature and precipitation regimes as predicted by most climate change scenarios will affect tree-ring increments and wood structure in beech, yet the response between sites or populations may differ.
Ključne besede: Fagus sylvatica, wood anatomy, tracheograms, dendrochronology, intra specific plasticity
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 22.07.2022; Ogledov: 120; Prenosov: 93
.pdf Celotno besedilo (15,28 MB)
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2.
Modelling seasonal dynamics of secondary growth in R
Jernej Jevšenak, Jožica Gričar, Sergio Rossi, Peter Prislan, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: The monitoring of seasonal radial growth of woody plants addresses the ultimate question of when, how and why trees grow. Assessing the growth dynamics is important to quantify the effect of environmental drivers and understand how woody species will deal with the ongoing climatic changes. One of the crucial steps in the analyses of seasonal radial growth is to model the dynamics of xylem and phloem formation based on increment measurements on samples taken at relatively short intervals during the growing season. The most common approach is the use of the Gompertz equation, while other approaches, such as general additive models (GAMs) and generalised linear models (GLMs), have also been tested in recent years. For the first time, we explored artificial neural networks with Bayesian regularisation algorithm (BRNNs) and show that this method is easy to use, resistant to overfitting, tends to yield s-shaped curves and is therefore suitable for deriving temporal dynamics of secondary tree growth. We propose two data processing algorithms that allow more flexible fits. The main result of our work is the XPSgrowth() function implemented in the radial Tree Growth (rTG) R package, that can be used to evaluate and compare three modelling approaches: BRNN, GAM and the Gompertz function. The newly developed function, tested on intra-seasonal xylem and phloem formation data, has potential applications in many ecological and environmental disciplines where growth is expressed as a function of time. Different approaches were evaluated in terms of prediction error, while fitted curves were visually compared to derive their main characteristics. Our results suggest that there is no single best fitting method, therefore we recommend testing different fitting methods and selection of the optimal one.
Ključne besede: artificial neural networks, cambium, generalized additive model, Gompertz function, growing season, intra-annual time series
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.07.2022; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 95
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,11 MB)
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3.
Artificial neural networks as an alternative method to nonlinear mixed-effects models for tree height predictions
Mitja Skudnik, Jernej Jevšenak, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Tree heights are one of the most important aspects of forest mensuration, but data are often unavailable due to costly and time-consuming field measurements. Therefore, various types of models have been developed for the imputation of tree heights for unmeasured trees, with mixed-effects models being one of the most commonly applied approaches. The disadvantage here is the need of sufficient sample size per tree species for each plot, which is often not met, especially in mixed forests. To avoid this limitation, we used principal component analysis (PCA) for the grouping of similar plots based on the most relevant site descriptors. Next, we compared mixed-effects models with height-diameter models based on artificial neural networks (ANN). In terms of root mean square error (RMSE), mixed-effects models provided the most accurate tree height predictions at the plot level, especially for tree species with a smaller number of tree height measurements. When plots were grouped using the PCA and the number of observations per category increased, ANN predictions improved and became more accurate than those provided by mixed-effects models. The performance of ANN also increased when the competition index was included as an additional explanatory variable. Our results show that in the pursuit of the most accurate modelling approach for tree height predictions, ANN should be seriously considered, especially when the number of tree measurements and their distribution is sufficient.
Ključne besede: height-diameter models, national forest inventory, permanent sample plot, mixed forests, model comparison, principal component analysis
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 08.06.2022; Ogledov: 135; Prenosov: 55
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Climatic regulation of leaf and cambial phenology in Quercus pubescens : their interlinkage and impact on xylem and phloem conduits
Jožica Gričar, Jernej Jevšenak, Polona Hafner, Peter Prislan, Mitja Ferlan, Martina Lavrič, Dominik Vodnik, Klemen Eler, 2022, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Increased frequency and severity of stressful events affects the growth patterns and functioning of trees which adjust their phenology to given conditions. Here, we analysed environmental effects (temperature, precipitation, VPD and SWC) on the timing of leaf phenology, seasonal stem radial growth patterns, and xylem and phloem anatomy of Quercus pubescens in the sub-Mediterranean in the period 2014%2019, when various adverse weather events occurred, i.e. spring drought in 2015, summer fire in 2016 and summer drought in 2017. Results showed that the timings of leaf and cambium phenology do not occur simultaneously in Q. pubescens, reflecting different environmental and internal constraints. Although year-to-year variability in the timings of leaf and cambial phenology exists, their chronological sequence is fairly fixed. Different effects of weather conditions on different stages of leaf development in spring were observed. Common climatic drivers (i.e., negative effect of hot and dry summers and a positive effect of increasing moisture availability in winter and summer) were found to affect the widths of xylem and phloem increments with more pronounced effect on late formed parts. A legacy effect of the timing of leaf and cambial phenology of the previous growing season on the timing of phenology of the following spring was confirmed. Rarely available phloem data permitted a comprehensive insight into the interlinkage of the timing of cambium and leaf phenology and adjustment strategies of vascular tissues in Mediterranean pubescent oak to various environmental constraints, including frequent extreme events (drought, fire). Our results suggest that predicted changes in autumn/winter and spring climatic conditions for this area could affect the timings of leaf and stem cambial phenology of Q. pubescens in the coming years, which would affect stem xylem and phloem structure and hydraulic properties, and ultimately its performance.
Ključne besede: pubescent oak, leaf development, radial growth, initial earlywood vessel, sieve tube, anatomy, cambial cell production, extreme weather events
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 06.09.2021; Ogledov: 480; Prenosov: 96
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,00 MB)
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7.
Stanje in spremembe slovenskih gozdov v zadnjih dveh desetletjih - rezultati velikoprostorskega monitoringa gozdov
Mitja Skudnik, Jernej Jevšenak, Aleš Poljanec, Gal Kušar, 2021, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: V prispevku so predstavljeni rezultati velikoprostorskega monitoringa gozdov in gozdnih ekosistemov (MGGE), ki je na sistematični mreži trajnih vzorčnih ploskev (4 km x 4 km) prek celotne Slovenije potekal v letih 2000, 2007, 2012 in 2018. Predstavljeni so osnovni znaki o stanju (lesna zaloga in volumen odmrlih lesnih kosov) in spremembah (prirastek, posek, volumen novih sušic) slovenskih gozdov. Lesna zaloga merskega drevja se je med letoma 2000 in 2012 povečala iz 299 na 334 m3 ha-1. V letu 2018 je bila ocena za povprečno lesno zalogo 330 m3 ha-1. Vzorčna napaka ocene lesne zaloge je znašala od 4 do 5 %. Med letoma 2012 in 2018 se je predvsem zmanjšala lesna zaloga iglavcev, in sicer iz 156 na 144 m3 ha-1. Poglavitni razlog je bil povečan posek, ki je bil posledica številnih ujm in gradacij podlubnikov. Tako se je povečal posek, in sicer iz 4,3 v obdobju 2007/12 na 6.3 m3 ha-1 leto v obdobju 2012/18. K povečanemu poseku večinski delež prispevajo iglavci. V zadnjem obdobju je bil bruto prirastek z vrastjo in prirastkom posekanih dreves ocenjen na 7,9 m3 ha-1 leto. Ocena volumna odmrlih lesnih kosov za leto 2018 je znašala 24 m3 ha-1. V prispevku je podrobno predstavljena tudi metodologija izračunov ocen povprečij na podlagi sistematičnega vzorčenja. Podatki MGGE so bili uporabljeni predvsem za potrebe mednarodnega poročanja o stanju in razvoju slovenskih gozdov ter v omejenem obsegu tudi za nacionalno poročanje o trajnostnem razvoju slovenskih gozdov. Prednost vzpostavljenega sistema je mednarodno usklajena metodologija popisa na sistematični mreži ploskev preko celotne države. Trenutni sistem ima tudi določene omejitve, in sicer malo vzorčnih ploskev, kar vodi v večjo vzorčno napako pri izračunih nekaterih dendrometrijskih kazalnikov. V letu 2020 smo sistem MGGE nadgradili v kontinuiran panelni sistem, katerega osnova bodo nove trajne vzorčne ploskve na neuravnani sistematični mreži gostote 2 km x 2 km, kar je dobro izhodišče za uvedbo Nacionalne gozdne inventure (NGI) v Sloveniji.
Ključne besede: monitoring gozdov in gozdnih ekosistemov, lesna zaloga, prirastek, mortaliteta, odmrla biomasa, posek, sušice
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 12.07.2021; Ogledov: 715; Prenosov: 318
.pdf Celotno besedilo (686,93 KB)

8.
Growth-limiting factors and climate response variability in Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) along an elevation and precipitation gradients in Slovenia
Jernej Jevšenak, Ivan Tychkov, Jožica Gričar, Tom Levanič, Jan Tumajer, Peter Prislan, Domen Arnič, Margarita Popkova, Vladimir V. Shishov, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) is among the most sensitive coniferous species to ongoing climate change. However, previous studies on its growth response to increasing temperatures have yielded contrasting results (from stimulation to suppression), suggesting highly site-specific responses. Here, we present the first study that applies two independent approaches, i.e. the nonlinear, process-based Vaganov-Shashkin (VS) model and linear daily response functions. Data were collected at twelve sites in Slovenia differing in climate regimes and ranging elevation between 170 and 1300 m a.s.l. VS model results revealed that drier Norway spruce sites at lower elevations are mostly moisture limited, while moist high-elevation sites are generally more temperature limited. Daily response functions match well the pattern of growth-limiting factors from the VS model and further explain the effect of climate on radial growth: prevailing growth-limiting factors correspond to the climate variable with higher correlations. Radial growth correlates negatively with rising summer temperature and positively with higher spring precipitation. The opposite response was observed for the wettest site at the highest elevation, which positively reacts to increased summer temperature and will most likely benefit from a warming climate. For all other sites, the future radial growth of Norway spruce largely depends on the balance between spring precipitation and summer temperature.
Ključne besede: Vaganov-Shashkin model, climate-growth correlations, tree rings, process-based modelling, dendroTools, dendroclimatology
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 21.10.2020; Ogledov: 826; Prenosov: 621
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,94 MB)
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New features in the dendroTools R package : bootstrapped and partial correlation coefficients for monthly and daily climate data
Jernej Jevšenak, 2020, izvirni znanstveni članek

Povzetek: Climate-growth relationships are usually analysed using monthly climate data. The dendroTools R package also provides methodological approaches that enable climate-growth analysis for daily climate data. Such analysis reveals more complete climate signal patterns. In this article, new functions of the dendroTools R package are presented. Partial correlation coefficients are now implemented and can be used to calculate the strength of a linear relationship between two variables, while controlling for a third variable. Bootstrapped correlations can then be used to provide insights into the confidence intervals of statistical estimates. The calculation of partial and bootstrapped correlations is available for daily and monthly data. Finally, data transformation, S3 generic plotting and summary functions are also presented here.
Ključne besede: dendroTools, daily climate data, partial correlations, bootstrap, dendroclimatology
Objavljeno v DiRROS: 24.09.2020; Ogledov: 822; Prenosov: 291
.pdf Celotno besedilo (604,66 KB)
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