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A data-driven machine learning approach for brain-computer interfaces targeting lower limb neuroprosthetics
Arnau Dillen, Elke Lathouwers, Aleksandar Miladinović, Uroš Marušič, Fakhredinne Ghaffari, Olivier Romain, Romain Meeusen, Kevin De Pauw, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Prosthetic devices that replace a lost limb have become increasingly performant in recent years. Recent advances in both software and hardware allow for the decoding of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to improve the control of active prostheses with brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Most BCI research is focused on the upper body. Although BCI research for the lower extremities has increased in recent years, there are still gaps in our knowledge of the neural patterns associated with lower limb movement. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to show the feasibility of decoding lower limb movements from EEG data recordings. The second aim is to investigate whether well-known neuroplastic adaptations in individuals with an amputation have an influence on decoding performance. To address this, we collected data from multiple individuals with lower limb amputation and a matched able-bodied control group. Using these data, we trained and evaluated common BCI methods that have already been proven effective for upper limb BCI. With an average test decoding accuracy of 84% for both groups, our results show that it is possible to discriminate different lower extremity movements using EEG data with good accuracy. There are no significant differences (p = 0.99) in the decoding performance of these movements between healthy subjects and subjects with lower extremity amputation. These results show the feasibility of using BCI for lower limb prosthesis control and indicate that decoding performance is not influenced by neuroplasticity-induced differences between the two groups.
Keywords: neuroprosthetics, brain-computer interface, machine learning, electroencephalography, data-driven learning, lower limb amputation
Published in DiRROS: 21.07.2022; Views: 72; Downloads: 45
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Treatment outcome clustering patterns correspond to discrete asthma phenotypes in children
Ivana Banić, Mario Lovrić, Gerald Cuder, Roman Kern, Matija Rijavec, Peter Korošec, Mirjana Kljajić-Turkalj, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Despite widely and regularly used therapy asthma in children is not fully controlled. Recognizing the complexity of asthma phenotypes and endotypes imposed the concept of precision medicine in asthma treatment. By applying machine learning algorithms assessed with respect to their accuracy in predicting treatment outcome, we have successfully identified 4 distinct clusters in a pediatric asthma cohort with specific treatment outcome patterns according to changes in lung function (FEV1 and MEF50), airway inflammation (FENO) and disease control likely affected by discrete phenotypes at initial disease presentation, differing in the type and level of inflammation, age of onset, comorbidities, certain genetic and other physiologic traits. The smallest and the largest of the 4 clusters- 1 (N = 58) and 3 (N = 138) had better treatment outcomes compared to clusters 2 and 4 and were characterized by more prominent atopic markers and a predominant allelic (A allele) effect for rs37973 in the GLCCI1 gene previously associated with positive treatment outcomes in asthmatics. These patients also had a relatively later onset of disease (6 + yrs). Clusters 2 (N = 87) and 4 (N = 64) had poorer treatment success, but varied in the type of inflammation (predominantly neutrophilic for cluster 4 and likely mixed-type for cluster 2), comorbidities (obesity for cluster 2), level of systemic inflammation (highest hsCRP for cluster 2) and platelet count (lowest for cluster 4). The results of this study emphasize the issues in asthma management due to the overgeneralized approach to the disease, not taking into account specific disease phenotypes.
Keywords: asthma, allergy and immunology, pediatrics, machine learning, treatment outcome, phenotypes, childhood asthma, clustering
Published in DiRROS: 16.08.2021; Views: 457; Downloads: 279
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A comparison of models for forecasting the residential natural gas demand of an urban area
Rok Hribar, Primož Potočnik, Jurij Šilc, Gregor Papa, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Forecasting the residential natural gas demand for large groups of buildings is extremely important for efficient logistics in the energy sector. In this paper different forecast models for residential natural gas demand of an urban area were implemented and compared. The models forecast gas demand with hourly resolution up to 60 h into the future. The model forecasts are based on past temperatures, forecasted temperatures and time variables, which include markers for holidays and other occasional events. The models were trained and tested on gas-consumption data gathered in the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Machine-learning models were considered, such as linear regression, kernel machine and artificial neural network. Additionally, empirical models were developed based on data analysis. Two most accurate models were found to be recurrent neural network and linear regression model. In realistic setting such trained models can be used in conjunction with a weather-forecasting service to generate forecasts for future gas demand.
Keywords: demand forecasting, buildings, energy modeling, forecast accuracy, machine learning
Published in DiRROS: 15.03.2019; Views: 1675; Downloads: 747
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