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Query: "keywords" (gene electrotransfer) .

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Gene electrotransfer of IL-2 and IL-12 plasmids effectively eradicated murine B16.F10 melanoma
Tilen Komel, Maša Bošnjak, Simona Kranjc Brezar, Mariangela De Robertis, M. Mastrodonato, G. Scillitani, G. Pesole, Emanuella Signori, Gregor Serša, Maja Čemažar, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Gene therapy has become an important approach for treating cancer, and electroporation represents a technology for introducing therapeutic genes into a cell. An example of cancer gene therapy relying on gene electrotransfer is the use of immunomodulatory cytokines, such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) and 12 (IL-12), which directly stimulate immune cells at the tumour site. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of gene electrotransfer with two plasmids encoding IL-2 and IL-12 in vitro and in vivo. Two different pulse protocols, known as EP1 (600 V/cm, 5 ms, 1 Hz, 8 pulses) and EP2 (1300 V/cm, 100 %s, 1 Hz, 8 pulses), were assessed in vitro for application in subsequent in vivo experiments. In the in vivo experiment, gene electrotransfer of pIL-2 and pIL-12 using the EP1 protocol was performed in B16.F10 murine melanoma. Combined treatment of tumours using pIL2 and pIL12 induced significant tumour growth delay and 71% complete tumour regression. Furthermore, in tumours coexpressing IL-2 and IL-12, increased accumulation of dendritic cells and M1 macrophages was obtained along with the activation of proinflammatory signals, resulting in CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocyte recruitment and immune memory development in the mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated high antitumour efficacy of combined IL-2 and IL-12 gene electrotransfer protocols in low-immunogenicity murine B16.F10 melanoma.
Keywords: gene therapy, gene electrotransfer, IL-12, immunotherapy, melanoma
Published in DiRROS: 23.09.2022; Views: 329; Downloads: 110
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Potentiation of electrochemotherapy effectiveness by immunostimulation with IL-12 gene electrotransfer in mice is dependent on tumor immune status
Katja Uršič Valentinuzzi, Špela Kos, Urška Kamenšek, Maja Čemažar, Simona Miceska, Boštjan Markelc, Simon Buček, Barbara Starešinič, Veronika Kloboves-Prevodnik, Richard Heller, Gregor Serša, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) exhibits high therapeutic effectiveness in the clinic, achieving up to 80% local tumor control but without a systemic (abscopal) effect. Therefore, we designed a combination therapy consisting of ECT via intratumoral application of bleomycin, oxaliplatin or cisplatin with peritumoral gene electrotransfer of a plasmid encoding interleukin-12 (p. t. IL-12 GET). Our hypothesis was that p. t. IL-12 GET potentiates the effect of ECT on local and systemic levels and that the potentiation varies depending on tumor immune status. Therefore, the combination therapy was tested in three immunologically different murine tumor models. In poorly immunogenic B16F10 melanoma, IL-12 potentiated the antitumor effect of ECT with biologically equivalent low doses of cisplatin, oxaliplatin or bleomycin. The most pronounced potentiation was observed after ECT using cisplatin, resulting in a complete response rate of 38% and an abscopal effect. Compared to B16F10 melanoma, better responsiveness to ECT was observed in more immunogenic 4%T1 mammary carcinoma and CT26 colorectal carcinoma. In both models, p. t. IL-12 GET did not significantly improve the therapeutic outcome of ECT using any of the chemotherapeutic drugs. Collectively, the effectiveness of the combination therapy depends on tumor immune status. ECT was more effective in more immunogenic tumors, but GET exhibited greater contribution in less immunogenic tumors. Thus, the selection of the therapy, namely, either ECT alone or combination therapy with p. t. IL-12, should be predominantly based on tumor immune status.
Keywords: electrochemotherapy, gene electrotransfer, interleukin-12
Published in DiRROS: 21.09.2022; Views: 347; Downloads: 102
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Evaluation of a novel plasmid for simultaneous gene electrotransfer-mediated silencing of CD105 and CD146 in combination with irradiation
Monika Savarin, Urška Kamenšek, Katarina Žnidar, Vesna Todorović, Gregor Serša, Maja Čemažar, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Targeting tumor vasculature through specific endothelial cell markers represents a promising approach for cancer treatment. Here our aim was to construct an antibiotic resistance gene-free plasmid encoding shRNAs to simultaneously target two endothelial cell markers, CD105 and CD146, and to test its functionality and therapeutic potential in vitro when delivered by gene electrotransfer (GET) and combined with irradiation (IR). Functionality of the plasmid was evaluated by determining the silencing of the targeted genes using qRT-PCR. Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects were determined by the cytotoxicity assay tube formation assay and wound healing assay in murine endothelial cells 2H-11. The functionality of the plasmid construct was also evaluated in malignant melanoma tumor cell line B16F10. Additionally, potential activation of immune response was measured by induction of DNA sensor STING and proinflammatory cytokines by qRT-PCR in endothelial cells 2H-11. We demonstrated that the plasmid construction was successful and can efficiently silence the expression of the two targeted genes. As a consequence of silencing, reduced migration rate and angiogenic potential was confirmed in 2H-11 endothelial cells. Furthermore, induction of DNA sensor STING and proinflammatory cytokines were determined, which could add to the therapeutic effectiveness when used in vivo. To conclude, we successfully constructed a novel plasmid DNA with two shRNAs, which holds a great promise for further in vivo testing.
Keywords: CD105, CD146, plasmid, gene electrotransfer
Published in DiRROS: 21.09.2022; Views: 299; Downloads: 147
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Mutational burden, MHC-I expression and immune infiltration as limiting factors for in situ vaccination by TNF[alfa] and IL-12 gene electrotransfer
Urška Kamenšek, Katja Uršič Valentinuzzi, Boštjan Markelc, Maja Čemažar, Vita Šetrajčič Dragoš, Gregor Serša, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: In situ vaccination is a promising immunotherapeutic approach, where various local ablative therapies are used to induce an immune response against tumor antigens that are released from the therapy-killed tumor cells. We recently proposed using intratumoral gene electrotransfer for concomitant transfection of a cytotoxic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-% (TNF%) to induce in situ vaccination, and an immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12) to boost the primed immune response. Here, our aim was to test the local and systemic effectiveness of the approach in tree syngeneic mouse tumor models and associate it with tumor immune profiles, characterized by tumor mutational burden, immune infiltration and expression of PD-L1 and MHC-I on tumor cells. While none of the tested characteristic proved predictive for local effectiveness, high tumor mutational burden, immune infiltration and MHC-I expression were associated with higher abscopal effectiveness. Hence, we have confirmed that both the abundance and presentation of tumor antigens as well as the absence of immunosuppressive mechanisms are important for effective in situ vaccination. These findings provide important indications for future development of in situ vaccination based treatments, and for the selection of tumor types that will most likely benefit from it.
Keywords: in situ vaccination, gene electrotransfer, interleukin 12, tumor necrosis factor [alfa]
Published in DiRROS: 19.09.2022; Views: 323; Downloads: 110
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Gene electrotransfer of proinflammatory chemokines CCL5 and CCL17 as a novel approach of modifying cytokine expression profile in the tumor microenvironment
Tim Božič, Gregor Serša, Simona Kranjc Brezar, Maja Čemažar, Boštjan Markelc, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The effectiveness of immunotherapy highly correlates with the degree and the type of infiltrated immune cells in the tumor tissue. Treatments based on modifying the immune cell infiltrate of the tumor microenvironment are thus gaining momentum. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of gene therapy with two proinflammatory chemokines CCL5 and CCL17 on inflammatory cytokine expression profile and immune cell infiltrate in two murine breast tumor models, 4T1 and E0771, and two murine colon tumor models, CT26 and MC38. In vitro, lipofection of plasmid DNA encoding CCL5 or CCL17 resulted in changes in the cytokine expression profile similar to control plasmid DNA, implying that the main driver of these changes was the entry of foreign DNA into the cell%s cytosol. In vivo, gene electrotransfer resulted in high expression levels of both Ccl5 and Ccl17 transgenes in the 4T1 and CT26 tumor models. Besides a minor increase in the survival of the treated mice, the therapy also resulted in increased expression of Cxcl9 and Ifn%, potent activators of the immune system, in CT26 tumors. However, this was not recapitulated in changes of TME, implying that a further refinement of the dosing schedule is needed.
Keywords: chemokines, cytokine expression, gene electrotransfer, CCL5
Published in DiRROS: 19.09.2022; Views: 300; Downloads: 90
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Non-clinical in vitro evaluation of antibiotic resistance gene-free plasmids encoding human or murine IL-12 intended for first-in-human clinical study
Špela Kos, Maša Bošnjak, Tanja Jesenko, Boštjan Markelc, Urška Kamenšek, Katarina Žnidar, Urška Matkovič, Andrej Renčelj, Gregor Serša, Rosana Hudej, Aneja Tuljak, Matjaž Peterka, Maja Čemažar, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a key cytokine that mediates antitumor activity of immune cells. To fulfill its clinical potential, the development is focused on localized delivery systems, such as gene electrotransfer, which can provide localized delivery of IL-12 to the tumor microenvironment. Gene electrotransfer of the plasmid encoding human IL-12 is already in clinical trials in USA, demonstrating positive results in the treatment of melanoma patients. To comply with EU regulatory requirements for clinical application, which recommend the use of antibiotic resistance gene-free plasmids, we constructed and developed the production process for the clinical grade quality antibiotic resistance gene-free plasmid encoding human IL-12 (p21-hIL-12-ORT) and its ortholog encoding murine IL-12 (p21-mIL-12-ORT). To demonstrate the suitability of the p21-hIL-12-ORT or p21-mIL-12-ORT plasmid for the first-in-human clinical trial, the biological activity of the expressed transgene, its level of expression and plasmid copy number were determined in vitro in the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line FaDu and the murine colon carcinoma cell line CT26. The results of the non-clinical evaluation in vitro set the basis for further in vivo testing and evaluation of antitumor activity of therapeutic molecules in murine models as well as provide crucial data for further clinical trials of the constructed antibiotic resistance gene-free plasmid in humans.
Keywords: interleukin 12, gene electrotransfer, antibiotic resistance, plasmids
Published in DiRROS: 07.09.2022; Views: 264; Downloads: 147
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