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Quantification of the link between timed up-and-go test subtasks and contractile muscle properties
Andreas Ziegl, Dieter Hayn, Peter Kastner, Ester Fabiani, Boštjan Šimunič, Kerstin Löffler, Lisa Weidinger, Bianca Brix, Nandu Goswami, Günter Schreier, 2021

Povzetek: Frailty and falls are a major public health problem in older adults. Muscle weakness of the lower and upper extremities are risk factors for any, as well as recurrent falls including injuries and fractures. While the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test is often used to identify frail members and fallers, tensiomyography (TMG) can be used as a non-invasive tool to assess the function of skeletal muscles. In a clinical study, we evaluated the correlation between the TMG parameters of the skeletal muscle contraction of 23 elderly participants (22 f, age 86.74 % 7.88) and distance-based TUG test subtask times. TUG tests were recorded with an ultrasonic-based device. The sit-up and walking phases were significantly correlated to the contraction and delay time of the muscle vastus medialis (% = 0.55%0.80, p < 0.01). In addition, the delay time of the muscles vastus medialis (% = 0.45, p = 0.03) and gastrocnemius medialis (% = %0.44, p = 0.04) correlated to the sit-down phase. The maximal radial displacements of the biceps femoris showed significant correlations with the walk-forward times (% = %0.47, p = 0.021) and back (% = %0.43, p = 0.04). The association of TUG subtasks to muscle contractile parameters, therefore, could be utilized as a measure to improve the monitoring of elderly people%s physical ability in general and during rehabilitation after a fall in particular. TUG test subtask measurements may be used as a proxy to monitor muscle properties in rehabilitation after long hospital stays and injuries or for fall prevention.
Ključne besede: timed up-and-go test, tensiomyography, biomedical engineering, biomedical sensors, health
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.10.2021; Ogledov: 5; Prenosov: 9
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,34 MB)

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Regijska društva in njihovo delovanje v 0asu epidemije COVID-19
Ksenija Noč, 2020

Ključne besede: preventiva, rak, covid-19
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 21.09.2021; Ogledov: 40; Prenosov: 26
.pdf Celotno besedilo (121,73 KB)

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Climatic regulation of leaf and cambial phenology in Quercus pubescens : their interlinkage and impact on xylem and phloem conduits
Jožica Gričar, Jernej Jevšenak, Polona Hafner, Peter Prislan, Mitja Ferlan, Martina Lavrič, Dominik Vodnik, Klemen Eler, 2022

Povzetek: Increased frequency and severity of stressful events affects the growth patterns and functioning of trees which adjust their phenology to given conditions. Here, we analysed environmental effects (temperature, precipitation, VPD and SWC) on the timing of leaf phenology, seasonal stem radial growth patterns, and xylem and phloem anatomy of Quercus pubescens in the sub-Mediterranean in the period 2014%2019, when various adverse weather events occurred, i.e. spring drought in 2015, summer fire in 2016 and summer drought in 2017. Results showed that the timings of leaf and cambium phenology do not occur simultaneously in Q. pubescens, reflecting different environmental and internal constraints. Although year-to-year variability in the timings of leaf and cambial phenology exists, their chronological sequence is fairly fixed. Different effects of weather conditions on different stages of leaf development in spring were observed. Common climatic drivers (i.e., negative effect of hot and dry summers and a positive effect of increasing moisture availability in winter and summer) were found to affect the widths of xylem and phloem increments with more pronounced effect on late formed parts. A legacy effect of the timing of leaf and cambial phenology of the previous growing season on the timing of phenology of the following spring was confirmed. Rarely available phloem data permitted a comprehensive insight into the interlinkage of the timing of cambium and leaf phenology and adjustment strategies of vascular tissues in Mediterranean pubescent oak to various environmental constraints, including frequent extreme events (drought, fire). Our results suggest that predicted changes in autumn/winter and spring climatic conditions for this area could affect the timings of leaf and stem cambial phenology of Q. pubescens in the coming years, which would affect stem xylem and phloem structure and hydraulic properties, and ultimately its performance.
Ključne besede: pubescent oak, leaf development, radial growth, initial earlywood vessel, sieve tube, anatomy, cambial cell production, extreme weather events
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 06.09.2021; Ogledov: 97; Prenosov: 19
.pdf Celotno besedilo (7,00 MB)

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The aging muscle in experimental bed rest : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis
Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Nicola Fiotti, Zoran Milanović, Roberta Situlin, Filippo Mearelli, Pierandrea Vinci, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Gianni Biolo, 2021

Povzetek: Background: Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function in aging is crucial for preserving the quality of life and health. An experimental bed rest (BR) protocol is a suitable model to explore muscle decline on aging during inactivity. Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was, therefore, to carry out an up-to-date evaluation of bed rest, with a specific focus on the magnitude of effects on muscle mass, strength, power, and functional capacity changes as well as the mechanisms, molecules, and pathways involved in muscle decay. Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Data sources: We used PubMed, Medline; Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library, all of which were searched prior to April 23, 2020. A manual search was performed to cover bed rest experimental protocols using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: %Elderly Bed rest,% %Older Bed rest,% %Old Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Bed-rest,% and %Bedrest%. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, participants, interventions, and outcome measures. The primary outcome measures were: body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, leg lean mass, cross-sectional area, knee extension power, cytokine pattern, IGF signaling biomarkers, FOXO signaling biomarkers, mitochondrial modulation biomarkers, and muscle protein kinetics biomarkers. Results: A total of 25 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, while 17 of them were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 118 healthy elderly volunteers underwent 5-, 7-, 10-, or 14-days of BR and provided a brief sketch on the possible mechanisms involved. In the very early phase of BR, important changes occurred in the skeletal muscle, with significant loss of performance associated with a lesser grade reduction of the total body and muscle mass. Meta-analysis of the effect of bed rest on total body mass was determined to be small but statistically significant (ES = %0.45, 95% CI: %0.72 to %0.19, P < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant effects were observed for total lean body mass (ES = %0.67, 95% CI: %0.95 to %0.40, P < 0.001) after bed rest intervention. Overall, total lean body mass was decreased by 1.5 kg, while there was no relationship between bed rest duration and outcomes (Z = 0.423, p = 672). The meta-analyzed effect showed that bed rest produced large, statistically significant, effects (ES = %1.06, 95% CI: %1.37 to %0.75, P < 0.001) in terms of the knee extension power. Knee extension power was decreased by 14.65 N/s. In contrast, to other measures, meta-regression showed a significant relationship between bed rest duration and knee extension power (Z = 4.219, p < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant, effects were observed after bed rest intervention for leg muscle mass in both old (ES = %0.68, 95% CI: %0.96 to %0.40, P < 0.001) and young (ES = %0.51, 95% CI: %0.80 to %0.22, P < 0.001) adults. However, the magnitude of change was higher in older (MD = %0.86 kg) compared to younger (MD = %0.24 kg) adults. Conclusion: Experimental BR is a suitable model to explore the detrimental effects of inactivity in young adults, old adults, and hospitalized people. Changes in muscle mass and function are the two most investigated variables, and they allow for a consistent trend in the BR-induced changes. Mechanisms underlying the greater loss of muscle mass and function in aging, following inactivity, need to be thoroughly investigated.
Ključne besede: bed rest, aging, muscles, muscle physiopathology, muscle function
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.08.2021; Ogledov: 106; Prenosov: 63
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,32 MB)

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Empirical approach for modelling tree phenology in mixed forests using remote sensing
Koffi Dodji Noumonvi, Gal Oblišar, Ana Žust, Urša Vilhar, 2021

Povzetek: : Phenological events are good indicators of the effects of climate change, since phenological phases are sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Although several national phenological networks monitor the phenology of different plant species, direct observations can only be conducted on individual trees, which cannot be easily extended over large and continuous areas. Remote sensing has often been applied to model phenology for large areas, focusing mostly on pure forests in which it is relatively easier to match vegetation indices with ground observations. In mixed forests, phenology modelling from remote sensing is often limited to land surface phenology, which consists of an overall phenology of all tree species present in a pixel. The potential of remote sensing for modelling the phenology of individual tree species in mixed forests remains underexplored. In this study, we applied the seasonal midpoint (SM) method with MODIS GPP to model the start of season (SOS) and the end of season (EOS) of six different tree species in Slovenian mixed forests. First, substitute locations were identified for each combination of observation station and plant species based on similar environmental conditions (aspect, slope, and altitude) and tree species of interest, and used to retrieve the remote sensing information used in the SM method after fitting the best of a Gaussian and two double logistic functions to each year of GPP time series. Then, the best thresholds were identified for SOS and EOS, and the results were validated using cross-validation. The results show clearly that the usual threshold of 0.5 is not best in most cases, especially for estimating the EOS. Despite the difficulty in modelling the phenology of different tree species in a mixed forest using remote sensing, it was possible to estimate SOS and EOS with moderate errors as low as <8 days (Fagus sylvatica and Tilia sp.) and <10 days (Fagus sylvatica and Populus tremula), respectively.
Ključne besede: phenology modelling, start of season, end of season, remote sensing, MODIS GPP, vegetation indices, threshold methods
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.08.2021; Ogledov: 103; Prenosov: 66
.pdf Celotno besedilo (2,63 MB)

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