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1.
Seasonal radial growth of Black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) from Bosnia and Herzegovina, monitored by the pinning method and manual band dendrometers
Simon Poljanšek, Jernej Jevšenak, Jožica Gričar, Tom Levanič, 2019

Abstract: Despite numerous dendroclimatological investigations into different tree species from Bosnia and Herzegovina, information is lacking on intra-annual wood formation patterns, which would help us to interpret the climate signal in tree rings better. Using the pinning method and manual band dendrometers, we investigated the seasonal dynamics of radial growth of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees in two successive growing seasons: 2011 and 2012. The up to 60-year-old trees grew in a stand at the base of a hill in the western, mountainous part of the Balkan Peninsula. The seasonal dynamics of wood formation and final number of cells differed between the studied years. Wood formation started in both years in early to mid-March. Differences were noticed in the wood production culmination; in 2011 it occurred at the end of May and beginning of June in 2012 and 2011, respectively. Xylem growth finished in 2012 in the middle of August and in 2011 in the middle of September. Based on the first derivative of the Gompertz function calculated rate of xylem growth was lowest in 2011. The dendrometers recorded a slow increment rate in spring, higher in summer and a decreasing rate again in the late summer in both growing seasons. In comparison with pinning, dendrometers showed a delay in the start of radial growth of up to 20 days in 2012. Additionally, dendrometers showed an increase in stem girth after the end of both growing seasons, when wood formation was already completed. Deviations between the two methods could be ascribed to the influence of water storage dynamics in the main stem and numerous structural processes in bark tissue, which are captured in dendrometer data. The influence of weather conditions on xylem phenology is also indicated by differences between the two studied years, although it is difficult to identify the influence of particular short-term weather events.
Keywords: pinning, manual dendrometers, radial growth, Pinus nigra, cambium, Balkan Peninsula
DiRROS - Published: 11.09.2019; Views: 27; Downloads: 15
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2.
Situation of Armillaria spp. and Heterobasidion spp. in Slovenia
Ana Brglez, Nikica Ogris, 2019

Abstract: Species of the genus Armillaria and Heterobasidion are among the most common causes of stem and root rot in Slovenia. Armillaria spp. infects deciduous and coniferous trees, while Heterobasidion spp. mainly threatens Norway spruce (Picea abies), pines (Pinus spp.), and silver fir (Abies alba). On the basis of the data about the sanitary felling of infected trees, we estimated the current state and calculated the proportions represented in total felling, total sanitary felling, total sanitary felling due to diseases, in wood stock, and in increments from 2013 to 2017. Since 2014, there has been a constant increase in the sanitary felling of deciduous and coniferous trees due to infections with Armillaria spp. In 2017, 32,849 m3 of timber were harvested due to Armillaria spp. Given the present situation, we assume that the amount of sanitary felling will continue to increase, but it will not account for large shares in wood stock or increment (< 1 %). In 2017, sanitary felling of infected conifers represented 27.6 % of all sanitary felling due to diseases. In the case of deciduous trees, the share was lower, i.e. 7.1 %. Armillaria spp. was the main cause of sanitary felling due to disease (51.9 %) in the Postojna forest management unit (FMU), while elsewhere shares of up to 10 % were recorded. With Heterobasidion spp., the amount of felling is decreasing over the years. In 2017, 33,922 m3 of wood, accounting for 15.7 % of the total sanitary felling due to disease, were felled due to Heterobasidion spp. A comparison of the felling of Norway spruce, silver fir, and Scots pine due to Heterobasidion spp. shows the different proportions of felling within the total sanitary felling due to the diseases. In Norway spruce, it is on average 79.5 %, in silver fir 12.9 %, and in Scots pine 34.3 %. We assume that the volume of timber harvested due to Heterobasidion spp. will gradually decrease over the years due to the lower wood stocks of Norway spruce, which has recently been hit by numerous natural disasters and infestation of bark beetles. However, the incidence will be higher due to climate change affects.
DiRROS - Published: 30.08.2019; Views: 49; Downloads: 6
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3.
Pseudodidymella fagi in Slovenia : first report and expansion of host range
Nikica Ogris, Ana Brglez, Barbara Piškur, 2019

Abstract: The fungus Pseudodidymella fagi is spreading in Europe and causing leaf blotch of European beech, Fagus sylvatica. Between 2008 and 2017, outbreaks of P. fagi were observed on European beech in Switzerland, Germany (also on F. orientalis), Austria, and Slovakia. In Slovenia, leaf blotch symptoms were first observed on F. sylvatica in 2018. P. fagi was identified as the causal agent of the observed symptoms in Slovenia by morphological examinations together with sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA. This study links the fungus to the expansion of the known distribution of the disease to Slovenia, and based on in vitro pathogenicity trials, also to a new potential host, Quercus petraea. The pathogenicity tests confirmed F. sylvatica and F. orientalis as hosts for P. fagi, but not Castanea sativa, where pathogenicity to F. orientalis was proved for first time in vitro. Although Koch%s postulates could not be proven for C. sativa, it seems to be partially susceptible in vitro because some of the inoculation points developed lesions. Additionally, damage to Carpinus betulus related to P. fagi near heavily infected beech trees was observed in vivo but was not tested in laboratory trials. Based on the results and our observations in the field, it is likely that P. fagi has a wider host range than previously thought and that we might be witnessing host switching.
Keywords: Pycnopleiospora fagi, leaf blotch, pathogenicity test, inoculation test, Fagus orientalis, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, mycopappus-like propagule, Carpinus betulus, host switching
DiRROS - Published: 23.08.2019; Views: 70; Downloads: 25
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Coppice forests in Europe
2018

DiRROS - Published: 21.08.2019; Views: 42; Downloads: 2
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Sestojna karta in gozdni fondi za gozdno posest občine Pivka
Anže Martin Pintar, Gal Kušar, Mitja Skudnik, 2019

DiRROS - Published: 19.08.2019; Views: 64; Downloads: 4
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