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Title:Cryoglobulins, cryofibrinogens, and cold agglutinins in cold urticaria : literature review, retrospective patient analysis, and observational study in 49 patients
Authors:ID Ginter, Katharina (Author)
ID Ahsan, Dalia Melina (Author)
ID Bizjak, Mojca, Klinika Golnik (Author)
ID Krause, Karoline (Author)
ID Maurer, Marcus (Author)
ID Altrichter, Sabine (Author)
ID Terhorst, Dorothea (Author)
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Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:Logo UKPBAG - University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases Golnik
Abstract:Introduction: Cryoproteins, such as cryoglobulins, cryofibrinogens and cold agglutinins, precipitate at low temperatures or agglutinate erythrocytes and dissolve again when warmed. Their pathogenetic and diagnostic importance in cold urticaria (ColdU) is unclear. In this study, we aimed to characterize the prevalence of cryoproteins in patients with ColdU. Methods: We conducted 3 analyses: i) a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data using an adapted version of the Johanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal tool for case series, ii) a retrospective analysis of 293 ColdU patients treated at our Urticaria Center of Reference and Excellence (UCARE) from 2014 to 2019, and iii) a prospective observational study, from July 2019 to July 2020, with 49 ColdU patients as defined by the EAACI/GA2LEN/EDF/UNEV consensus recommendations. Results: Our systematic review identified 14 relevant studies with a total of 1151 ColdU patients. The meta-analyses showed that 3.0% (19/628), 1.1% (4/357) and 0.7% (2/283) of patients had elevated levels of cryoglobulins, cryofibrinogens, and cold agglutinins, respectively. Our retrospective analyses showed that cryoproteins were assessed in 4.1% (12/293) of ColdU patients. None of nine ColdU patients had cryoglobulins, and one of 5 had cold agglutinins. In our prospective study, none of our patients had detectable cryoglobulins (0/48) or cryofibrinogens (0/48), but 4.3% (2/46) of patients had cold agglutinins (without any known underlying autoimmune or hematological disorder). Conclusion: Our investigation suggests that only very few ColdU patients exhibit cryoproteins and that the pathogenesis of ColdU is driven by other mechanisms, which remain to be identified and characterized in detail.
Keywords:urticaria, review, observational study, retrospective studies, cold urticaria, cryoglobulins, cryofibrinogens, cold agglutinins, retrospective analysis
Publication status in journal:Published
Article version:Publisher's version of article
Place of publishing:Švica
Publisher:Frontiers Media SA
Year of publishing:2021
Number of pages:str. 1-9
Numbering:[Vol.] 12
PID:20.500.12556/DiRROS-14089 New window
ISSN on article:1664-3224
DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2021.675451 New window
COBISS.SI-ID:63217155 New window
Copyright:© 2021 Ginter, Ahsan, Bizjak, Krause, Maurer, Altrichter and Terhorst-Molawi
Note:Nasl. z nasl. zaslona; Soavtorica iz Slovenije: Mojca Bizjak; Opis vira z dne 14. 5. 2021; Št. prispevka:;
Publication date in DiRROS:28.05.2021
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Frontiers in immunology
Shortened title:Front. immunol.
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
COBISS.SI-ID:30774233 New window


License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:25.05.2021

Secondary language

Keywords:urtikarija, pregled literature, opazovalna študija, retrospektivne študije, urtikarija zaradi mraza, koprivnica, krioglobulini, kriofibrinogeni, hladni aglutinini, retrospektivna analiza