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11.
Mortality, seasonal variation, and susceptibility to acute exacerbation of COPD in the pandemic year : a nationwide population study
Irena Šarc, Aleša Lotrič Dolinar, Tina Morgan, Jože Sambt, Kristina Ziherl, Dalibor Gavrić, Julij Šelb, Aleš Rozman, Petra Došenović Bonča, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: Previous studies have suggested that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was associated with a decreased rate of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Data on how the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced mortality, seasonality of, and susceptibility to AECOPD in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) population is scarce. Methods: We conducted a national population-based retrospective study using data from the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia from 2015 to February 2021, with 2015–2019 as the reference. We extracted patient and healthcare data for AECOPD, dividing AECOPD into severe, resulting in hospitalisation, and moderate, requiring outpatient care. The national COPD population was generated based on dispensed prescriptions of inhalation therapies, and moderate AECOPD events were analysed based on dispensed AECOPD medications. We extracted data on all-cause and non-COVID mortality. Results: The numbers of severe and moderate AECOPD were reduced by 48% and 34%, respectively, in 2020. In the pandemic year, the seasonality of AECOPD was reversed, with a 1.5-fold higher number of severe AECOPD in summer compared to winter. The proportion of frequent exacerbators (2 AECOPD hospitalisations per year) was reduced by 9% in 2020, with a 30% reduction in repeated severe AECOPD in frequent exacerbators and a 34% reduction in persistent frequent exacerbators (2 AECOPD hospitalisations per year for 2 consecutive years) from 2019. The risk of two or more moderate AECOPD decreased by 43% in 2020. In the multivariate model, pandemic year follow-up was the only independent factor associated with a decreased risk for severe AECOPD (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61–0.84; p < 0.0001). In 2020, non-COVID mortality decreased (−15%) and no excessive mortality was observed in the COPD population. Conclusion: In the pandemic year, we found decreased susceptibility to AECOPD across severity spectrum of COPD, reversed seasonal distribution of severe AECOPD and decreased non-COVID mortality in the COPD population.
Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease -- mortality, pandemics, seasons, exacerbation, acute exacerbation, seasonal variations, population study
Published in DiRROS: 14.03.2022; Views: 143; Downloads: 81
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12.
Popis sekalnikov 2021
Jaša Saražin, Tina Jemec, Darja Stare, Špela Ščap, Urban Žitko, Nike Krajnc, 2022, professional article

Keywords: gozdarstvo, gozdovi, les, sekalniki, proizvodnja sekancev, gozdna tehnika
Published in DiRROS: 22.02.2022; Views: 260; Downloads: 110
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13.
Buckwheat milling waste effects on root morphology and mycorrhization of Silver fir seedlings inoculated with Black Summer Truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.)
Tina Unuk, Tine Grebenc, Daniel Žlindra, Tanja Mrak, Matevž Likar, Hojka Kraigher, Zlata Luthar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Large amounts of buckwheat waste are generated annually by the industry and are used in several different ways. To date, there has been little research regarding its suitability as a medium for growing seedlings in nurseries. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the suitability of common and Tartary buckwheat wastes (brans and husks) as media used for raising seedlings. A pot experiment with five different treatments was carried out, in which silver fir root parameters were analyzed and compared 6 and 12 months after summer truffle-spore inoculation. A significantly higher concentration of the antioxidant rutin was confirmed in Tartary buckwheat bran compared to other buckwheat waste used. We also confirmed a significantly positive effect of added Tartary buckwheat husks on specific root length, root tip density, and specific root tip density compared to added common buckwheat husks or Tartary buckwheat bran, for which a significantly negative effect on branching density was confirmed. A significantly negative effect of added buckwheat husks and Tartary buckwheat bran was confirmed for summer truffle mycorrhization level.
Keywords: buckwheat waste, root growth, summer truffle, forest nursery, silver fir, inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi
Published in DiRROS: 09.02.2022; Views: 271; Downloads: 228
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14.
Popis sekalnikov 2021 : Gozdarski inštitut Slovenije
Jaša Saražin, Tina Jemec, Darja Stare, Špela Ščap, Urban Žitko, Nike Krajnc, 2021, other monographs and other completed works

Keywords: lesna biomasa, lesni sekanci, sekalniki, lesna goriva, Slovenija
Published in DiRROS: 28.01.2022; Views: 302; Downloads: 80
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15.
Potential link between ectomycorrhizal community composition and host tree phenology
Tina Unuk, Rok Damjanić, Hojka Kraigher, Tine Grebenc, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The timing of leaf phenology tends to be crucial in controlling ecosystem processes such as the acquisition of carbon and water loss as well as in controlling tree nutrient cycling. To date, tree phenology has mostly been associated with environmental control (e.g., temperature and photoperiod) in a relationship with inheritance, while it has rarely been linked with ectomycorrhizal community compositional changes through the host tree’s phenological stages. Seasonal variations of fungal communities have been widely studied, but little is known about mycorrhiza community composition changes along phenological stages. Therefore, we analyzed ectomycorrhizal communities associated with silver fir and their compositional changes during the transition between phenological stages. The phenological stages of each individual tree and time of bud break were monitored weekly for two years and, at the same time, ectomycorrhiza was harvested from selected silver fir trees. In total, 60 soil cores were analyzed for differences in the ectomycorrhizal community between phenological stages using Sanger sequencing of individual ectomycorrhizal morphotypes. A significant difference in beta diversity for an overall ectomycorrhizal community was confirmed between analyzed time periods for both sampled years. Species-specific reactions to transitions between phenological stages were confirmed for 18 different ectomycorrhizal taxa, where a positive correlation of Russula ochroleuca, Russula illota, Tomentella sublilacina, and Tylospora fibrillosa was observed with the phenological stage of bud burst.
Keywords: Abies alba (Mill.), ectomycorrhizal community, phenological stages
Published in DiRROS: 20.12.2021; Views: 320; Downloads: 197
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16.
Snežni leopardi se umikajo pred naraščajočo rejo drobnice
Tina Drolc, 2021, popular article

Keywords: snežni leopardi, Mongolija, Altaj, reja drobnice, razširjenost
Published in DiRROS: 18.12.2021; Views: 363; Downloads: 107
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17.
Ocena tveganja za levkemije zaradi nizkofrekvenčnega magnetnega polja pri slovenskih otrocih in mladostnikih
Tina Žagar, Sonja Tomšič, Sara Korat, Teja Oblak, Vesna Zadnik, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Izhodišča: Raziskave kažejo, da bi lahko nizkofrekvenčno magnetno polje (NF MP) gostote več kot 0,4 µT povečalo tveganje za nastanek otroških levkemij. Raziskali smo to tveganje zaradi izpostavljenosti NF MP zaradi bivanja v bližini daljnovodov in transformatorskih postaj v Sloveniji. Metode: Iz Registra raka Republike Slovenije smo pridobili georeferencirane podatke za vse otroke in mladostnike, stare 0–19 let, zbolele z levkemijo v letih 2005–2016, ter za referenčno populacijo vseh enako starih otrok in mladostnikov. Razdelili smo jih v pet skupin glede na izpostavljenost NF MP v okolici daljnovodov in transformatorskih postaj. Za oceno izpostavljenosti NF MP smo uporabili modelirane vrednosti na drobni prostorski mreži. Relativno tveganje za levkemije smo ocenili s standardiziranim količnikom incidence. Dodatno smo raziskali časovni trend pojavljanja levkemij v obdobju 1967–2016 ter geografsko razporejanje. Rezultati: V letih 1967–2016 je za levkemijami zbolelo 841 otrok in mladostnikov (16 na leto). V letih 2005–2016 je velika večina vseh otrok in mladostnikov (99,5 %) v Sloveniji živela na območjih z NF MP, manjšim od 0,1 μT. Med 195 primeri levkemij se je v 0,1 ≤ NF MP < 0,2 µT blizu daljnovodov razvrstil eden (SKI = 2,4, IZ: 0,1−13,3), v bližini transformatorskih postaj pa pet primerov (SKI = 3,0; IZ: 0,97−7,0). V področju gostote NF MP, večje od 0,2 μT, ni bilo zbolelih. Levkemije se niso statistično značilno geografsko razporejale. Zaključki: V Sloveniji nobenega primera levkemij med slovenskimi otroci in mladostniki, starimi do vključno 19 let, ki živijo v okolici daljnovodov in transformatorskih postaj, ne moremo pripisati vplivu izpostavljenosti NF MP.
Keywords: ocena tveganja, otroci, levkemije, nizkofrekvenčno magnetno polje, daljnovodi, transformatorske postaje
Published in DiRROS: 14.12.2021; Views: 377; Downloads: 196
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18.
Vpliv epidemije covida-19 na genetsko obravnavo Oddelka za onkološko klinično genetiko Onkološkega inštituta Ljubljana
Natalija Klopčič, Simona Hotujec, Tina Kerševan, Ana Blatnik, Ksenija Strojnik, Mateja Krajc, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Izhodišče: Pandemija covida-19 je v začetku leta 2020 močno omajala temelje zdravstvenega sistema ne samo v Sloveniji, ampak tudi po svetu. Povsem nepričakovano nas je postavila pred izzive, ki so jih prinesli ukrepi za zajezitev te nalezljive bolezni. Z njimi smo se spoprijeli tudi zaposleni na Oddelku za onkološko klinično genetiko Onkološkega inštituta Ljubljana (OIL). Ob tem nam je bilo v pomoč učinkovito timsko sodelovanje v kolektivu. Namen: Ugotoviti vpliv epidemije covida-19 na število napotitev preiskovancev na onkološko genetsko svetovanje in testiranje, število opravljenih genetskih posvetov ter število prenaročitev in dobljene rezultate primerjati s podatki pred epidemijo ter ugotoviti razliko v povprečni starosti preiskovancev ob napotitvi v obdobju razglasitve prve in druge epidemije. Metode: Analiza podatkov o številu napotitev, opravljenih genetskih posvetov in številu prenaročanj je bila pripravljena na podlagi podatkovne zbirke Oddelka za onkološko klinično genetiko OIL z opisno statistiko. Rast opravljenih posvetov smo dokazovali z metodo bivariatne regresije, s t-testom pa primerjavo povprečne starosti preiskovancev ob napotitvi med prvo in drugo razglasitvijo epidemije. Rezultati: V obdobju prve razglasitve epidemije smo aprila 2020 imeli 78,8-odstotni upad rednih napotitev na genetsko svetovanje in testiranje glede na april 2019. Obenem smo v istem primerjalnem obdobju zabeležili 70,4-odstotni porast prednostnih napotitev. Starostna struktura napotenih preiskovancev se med obdobjema razglasitve epidemije ne razlikuje. V obdobju prve razglasitve epidemije smo opravili skupno 68 % manj genetskih posvetov kot v istem časovnem obdobju leto prej. V obdobju druge razglasitve epidemije smo opravili 12,7 % manj posvetov glede na enako časovno obdobje v letu pred epidemijo. Skupaj je bilo leta 2020 opravljenih 19,4 % genetskih posvetov manj kot leta 2019. V letu 2021 pa bomo napovedno opravili 21,4 % posvetov več kot v letu 2020. Ne glede na vztrajanje epidemije je število prvih posvetov v porastu. V prvem raziskovanem obdobju je bilo skupno prenaročenih 400 preiskovancev, od tega smo jih zaposleni prenaročili 227, kar znaša 55 %. V drugem raziskovanem obdobju je bilo 550 prenaročitev, zaposleni smo jih prenaročili 91, kar znaša 16 %. Več je bilo teh, ki so želeli nov termin ali pa se posveta niso udeležili brez predhodne odpovedi. Zaključek: Epidemija covida-19 je močno posegla na vsa področja zdravstvenega sistema, kjer smo se bili primorani spopasti z zajezitvenimi ukrepi. Na Oddelku za onkološko klinično genetiko smo v skladu z uradnimi odloki in priporočenimi ukrepi reorganizirali vsakdanjo prakso. Soočili smo se z novimi izzivi, kot so prenaročanje, telegenetskimi posveti, delo od doma in uvajanje novih kliničnih poti genetske obravnave. Kljub epidemiji se onkogenetska dejavnost v nasprotju z drugimi evropskimi državami ni ustavila ne v prvem ne v drugem valu epidemije. V letu 2021 beležimo celo porast tako napotovanja zaradi zdravljenja kot tudi števila opravljenih posvetov.
Keywords: genetsko testiranje, epidemije, covid-19, genetski posveti, napotitve
Published in DiRROS: 14.12.2021; Views: 428; Downloads: 186
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19.
Učinkovitost (in varnost) cepljenja onkoloških bolnikov proti covidu-19 med aktivnim zdravljenjem
Tina Zupančič, Cvetka Grašič-Kuhar, 2021, short scientific article

Abstract: Onkološki bolniki so bili že ob začetku pandemije covida-19 prepoznani kot skupina s povečanim tveganjem zapletov ob morebitni okužbi z virusom SARS-CoV-2, vendar so bili izključeni iz registracijskih raziskav cepiv proti covidu-19. Šele v zadnjih mesecih imamo na voljo več raziskav, ki so preučevale učinkovitost cepljenja pri onkoloških bolnikih z različnimi načini zdravljenja. Te so pokazale dobro učinkovitost (tako z razvojem humoralnega kot celičnega odgovora) in varnost cepiv predvsem pri bolnikih s solidnimi raki. Pričakovano slabši humoralni odziv je bil pri hematoloških bolnikih oziroma ga skoraj ni bilo pri bolnikih na terapiji anti-CD20 in terapiji z zaviralci Brutonove kinaze. Vendar je bil pri hematoloških bolnikih ohranjen celični odgovor in tako je smiselno cepljenje tudi pri tej skupini bolnikov, tudi s tretjim odmerkom. Pri bolnikih, ki so predhodno preboleli okužbo s SARS-CoV-2 ter bili nato cepljeni, so ugotavljali bistveno boljši humoralni odgovor kot pri cepljenju neprebolevnikov.
Keywords: cepljenje, onkološki bolniki, covid-19, humoralni odgovor, celični odgovor
Published in DiRROS: 14.12.2021; Views: 361; Downloads: 169
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20.
Robust saliva-based RNA extraction-free one-step nucleic acid amplification test for mass SARS-CoV-2 monitoring
Eva Rajh, Tina Šket, Arne Praznik, Petra Sušjan, Alenka Šmid, Dunja Urbančič, Irena Mlinarič-Raščan, Polona Kogovšek, Tina Demšar, Mojca Milavec, Katarina Prosenc, Žiga Jensterle, Mihaela Zidarn, Viktorija Tomič, Gabriele Turel, Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc, Roman Jerala, Mojca Benčina, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Early diagnosis with rapid detection of the virus plays a key role in preventing the spread of infection and in treating patients effectively. In order to address the need for a straightforward detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection and assessment of viral spread, we developed rapid, sensitive, extraction-free one-step reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. We analyzed over 700 matched pairs of saliva and nasopharyngeal swab (NSB) specimens from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Saliva, as either an oral cavity swab or passive drool, was collected in an RNA stabilization buffer. The stabilized saliva specimens were heat-treated and directly analyzed without RNA extraction. The diagnostic sensitivity of saliva-based RT-qPCR was at least 95% in individuals with subclinical infection and outperformed RT-LAMP, which had at least 70% sensitivity when compared to NSBs analyzed with a clinical RT-qPCR test. The diagnostic sensitivity for passive drool saliva was higher than that of oral cavity swab specimens (95% and 87%, respectively). A rapid, sensitive one-step extraction-free RT-qPCR test for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in passive drool saliva is operationally simple and can be easily implemented using existing testing sites, thus allowing high-throughput, rapid, and repeated testing of large populations. Furthermore, saliva testing is adequate to detect individuals in an asymptomatic screening program and can help improve voluntary screening compliance for those individuals averse to various forms of nasal collections.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, COVID-19 serological testing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, saliva, oral cavity swab, passive drool, pooling
Published in DiRROS: 09.11.2021; Views: 520; Downloads: 245
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