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121 - 130 / 2882
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121.
Growing stock monitoring by European National Forest Inventories : historical origins, current methods and harmonisation
Thomas Gschwantner, Iciar Alberdi, Sébastien Bauwens, Susann Bender, Dragan Borota, Michal Bošela, Olivier Bouriaud, Johannes Breidenbach, Janis Donis, Christoph Fischer, Mitja Skudnik, 2022

Abstract: Wood resources have been essential for human welfare throughout history. Also nowadays, the volume of growing stock (GS) is considered one of the most important forest attributes monitored by National Forest Inventories (NFIs) to inform policy decisions and forest management planning. The origins of forest inventories closely relate to times of early wood shortage in Europe causing the need to explore and plan the utilisation of GS in the catchment areas of mines, saltworks and settlements. Over time, forest surveys became more detailed and their scope turned to larger areas, although they were still conceived as stand-wise inventories. In the 1920s, the first sample-based NFIs were introduced in the northern European countries. Since the earliest beginnings, GS monitoring approaches have considerably evolved. Current NFI methods differ due to country-specific conditions, inventory traditions, and information needs. Consequently, GS estimates were lacking international comparability and were therefore subject to recent harmonisation efforts to meet the increasing demand for consistent forest resource information at European level. As primary large-area monitoring programmes in most European countries, NFIs assess a multitude of variables, describing various aspects of sustainable forest management, including for example wood supply, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity. Many of these contemporary subject matters involve considerations about GS and its changes, at different geographic levels and time frames from past to future developments according to scenario simulations. Due to its historical, continued and currently increasing importance, we provide an up-to-date review focussing on large-area GS monitoring where we i) describe the origins and historical development of European NFIs, ii) address the terminology and present GS definitions of NFIs, iii) summarise the current methods of 23 European NFIs including sampling methods, tree measurements, volume models, estimators, uncertainty components, and the use of air- and space-borne data sources, iv) present the recent progress in NFI harmonisation in Europe, and v) provide an outlook under changing climate and forest-based bioeconomy objectives.
Keywords: forest history, natural resources, sustainability, timber volume, sampling, remote sensing, bioeconomy, climate change
DiRROS - Published: 14.12.2021; Views: 235; Downloads: 133
.pdf Fulltext (17,73 MB)

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Ectomycorrhizal fungal community in mature white poplar plantation
Marina Milović, Saša Orlović, Tine Grebenc, Marko Bajc, Branislav Kovačević, Hojka Kraigher, 2021

Abstract: Ectomycorrhizal communities are rarely studied on seasonal basis, especially in poplar plantations. In this study we analysed the ectomycorrhizal community in a mature twenty-year-old white poplar (Populus alba L.) plantation during four consecutive seasons. Using morpho-anatomical and molecular identification 30 taxa of ectomycorrhizal fungi were recorded of which 15 were identified to the species level, 12 to the genus level, 2 to the family, and one morphotype of ectomycorrhizae remained unidentified. The most abundant among identified ectomycorrhizal fungi were: Inocybe griseovelata, Inocybe splendens, Tuber rufum, and Tomentella sp. 2, which together represented up to 50% of all ectomycorrhizal root tips. The number of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa and the percentage of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips were highest in winter and spring, respectively. The diversity indices of ectomycorrhizae, number of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips, and total fine roots in the studied poplar plantation did not differ between seasons. Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Inocybaceae family and the short-distance exploration strategy were dominant in all four seasons. On the other hand, the abundance of ectomycorrhizal root tips belonging to the medium-distance exploration strategy type was significantly higher in spring in comparison with autumn and winter.
Keywords: Populus alba L., Ectomycorrhizal diversity, morpho-anatomical characterization, molecular identification, seasons
DiRROS - Published: 03.12.2021; Views: 256; Downloads: 101
.pdf Fulltext (847,82 KB)

125.
Priraščanje navadne smreke (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in evropskega macesna (Larix decidua Mill.) na nekdanjih novinah v Koprivni v Karavankah
Janez Golob, Tom Levanič, David Hladnik, 2021

Abstract: Na podlagi meritev v obdobju 1962–2017 smo na raziskovalnih ploskvah na nekdanjih novinah v katastrski občini Koprivna izračunali debelinske, višinske in volumenske prirastke za najpomembnejši drevesni vrsti - smreko in macesen. Na raziskovalnih ploskvah, ki so bile prepuščene naravnemu razvoju, so srednjetemeljnični premeri manjši, število dreves pa večje od tistih v primerljivih gospodarskih gozdovih. V zadnjih tridesetih letih se je zaradi visokih sestojnih gostot zmanjšalo debelinsko priraščanje dreves smreke in macesna. Z dendrokronološko analizo smo ocenili vpliv klimatskih dejavnikov na priraščanje smreke in macesna. Na podlagi dendrokronološke analize smo ugotovili, da se leta z negativnim odzivom dreves v debelinskem prirastku od leta 1984 pojavljajo pogosteje.
Keywords: raziskovalne ploskve, smreka, macesen, debelinski prirastek, volumenski prirastek, indeks gostote SDI, dendrokronološka analiza
DiRROS - Published: 02.12.2021; Views: 1005; Downloads: 644
.pdf Fulltext (1,27 MB)

126.
Primerjava različnih regresijskih modelov za napovedovanje debelinskega priraščanja jelke
Andrej Ficko, Vasilije Trifković, 2021

Abstract: V prispevku na primeru jelke predstavljamo sedem regresijskih modelov za modeliranje priraščanja dreves s podatki periodičnih meritev na stalnih vzorčnih ploskvah. Poleg polinomske regresije, modela z dodanim šumom in mešanega linearnega modela, predstavljamo regresijo z naravnimi zlepki in tri modele z omejenimi odvisnimi spremenljivkami: truncated regression, tobit regression in grouped data regression. Modele lahko uporabimo, kadar se zaradi načina merjenja in zaokroževanja podatkov ter hierarhičnosti podatkov srečamo z rezanimi ali krnjenimi slučajnostnimi spremenljivkami, nezveznostjo odvisne spremenljivke in pristransko oceno prirastka. Pri pojasnitvi debelinskega priraščanja 21.013 jelk na 4.405 ploskvah v obdobju 1990–2014 v raznomernih gozdovih v dinarskih jelovo-bukovjih so vsi modeli pokazali podoben vpliv prsnega premera, sestojne temeljnice, temeljnice debelejših dreves, raznomernosti, nagiba, nadmorske višine in le manjše razlike v regresijskih koeficientih in merah prileganja. Največje povprečne napovedi prirastka daje tobit model, mešani model pa se najbolj prilega podatkom. V primerjavi z drugimi modeli model z zlepki kaže na počasnejše zmanjševanje prirastka zelo debelih jelk po kulminaciji prirastka.
Keywords: prirastek, multipla regresija, statistične metode, tobit model, krnjenje, mešani modeli, jelka, modeli z omejenimi odvisnimi spremenljivkami, stalne vzorčne ploskve
DiRROS - Published: 01.12.2021; Views: 983; Downloads: 671
.pdf Fulltext (2,97 MB)

127.
Assessment of the condition of Balsam poplar trees (Populus balsamifera L.) in a residental area of Bratsk
Elena Runova, Vasilij Verkhoturov, Lyudmila Anoshkina, Ivan Garus, 2021

Abstract: In this study, we investigated the health status of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) trees in a residential area of the city of Bratsk (Irkutsk Oblast, Russia). Visual and instrumental assessment of the health status of pruned and unpruned trees was performed. The identified internal defects in the tree were analyzed with a Resistograph device, which enabled the extent of decayed wood to be determined. Visual analysis revealed various types of damage: dried branches, brittle crowns, frost cracks, mechanical damage, curvature of trunks, decay and inclusions of foreign bodies. We compared trees with and without canopy pruning. We found that pruned trees were significantly more damaged than non-pruned trees. Decomposing wood at different stages of development was found in all the trees studied. A tree passport combining the visual and instrumental assessment data was compiled for each tree. The results of the research were used to formulate conclusions and recommendations for improving the management of urban trees in order to restore their ecological and aesthetic functions.
Keywords: Populus balsamifera L., visual analysis, Resistograph, urban area, wood, decay
DiRROS - Published: 01.12.2021; Views: 933; Downloads: 653
.pdf Fulltext (1,84 MB)

128.
Phenological variability and resistance to late spring frost of common beech in the international provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić, Almedin Hebibović, Dalibor Ballian, 2021

Abstract: The research aimed to determine the start, end and duration of leafing phases, the degree of plant damage caused by late spring frost, and the retention of leaves in autumn. The research was conducted in the international common beech provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The test contains eight provenances from Bosnia and Herzegovina, four from Germany, three from Serbia, two each from Croatia, Romania and Switzerland, and one from Hungary. Leafing phenology, canopy damage caused by late spring frost, and leaf retention were assessed in 2019. Most provenances started opening buds on 17 April 2019. Complete canopy damage affected the highest percentage of plants in provenance BW Bad Wildbad, Germany (68 %), and the lowest in provenance Konjuh Kladanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina (3.2 %). Provenance Herzogenbuchsee from Switzerland had the highest percentage of winter leaf retention (37.5 % of plants). The results can be used in choosing provenances that are resistant to low temperatures in zones of late spring and early autumn frost.
Keywords: common beech, international provenance test, leafing phenophases, frost damage, winter leaf retention
DiRROS - Published: 01.12.2021; Views: 1132; Downloads: 672
.pdf Fulltext (1,61 MB)

129.
Participativni pristop pri pripravi upravljavskih načrtov na primeru izbranih gozdnih habitatnih tipov in živalskih vrst ob Muri
Andreja Ferreira, Petra Grošelj, Špela Planinšek, 2021

Abstract: Evropska komisija za območja Natura 2000 priporoča izdelavo upravljavskih načrtov, ki vključujejo lokacijsko specifične cilje in na njih temelječe ukrepe ohranjanja narave. Da bi se izognili morebitnim poznejšim konfliktom, je treba v proces pravočasno in smiselno vključiti vse zainteresirane deležnike. V okviru projekta GoForMura sta bila kot vzorčni primer oblikovana upravljavska načrta za gozdni območji Natura 2000 na študijskih območjih Gornja Bistrica in Murska šuma v Prekmurju. Posebno težo v procesu nastajanja prvih tovrstnih dokumentov je imelo sodelovanje zainteresiranih deležnikov, še posebej lastnikov oz. upravljavcev gozdov.
Keywords: participacija, gozdnogospodarsko načrtovanje, upravljanje, Natura 2000, Mura, gozdovi, večkriterijsko odločanje, SMART
DiRROS - Published: 01.12.2021; Views: 998; Downloads: 661
.pdf Fulltext (1,05 MB)

130.
Vplivi na obisk gozda v splošnih in gozdnih vrtcih
Aleš Golob, Mojca Nastran, 2021

Abstract: Predšolski otroci preživijo velik del vsakdanjika v vrtcih, zato je treba umestiti obisk gozda, kot najobsežnejšega naravnega okolja v Sloveniji, v programe predšolskega varstva otrok. Na podlagi anket vzgojiteljev javnih vrtcev v Sloveniji (N = 133) smo analizirali navade, namene, ovire in skrbi pri obiskovanju gozda. V največji meri sta pogostost in dolžina obiska gozda odvisni od njegove oddaljenosti. Navade obiska gozda med gozdnimi vrtci, vključeni mi v Mrežo gozdnih vrtcev, ki jo organizira Inštitut za gozdno pedagogiko, se večinoma ne razlikujejo značilno od splošnih javnih vrtcev. Najpomembnejša razlika med njimi je pogostejši obisk v slabšem vremenu in sam namen obiska gozda. Glavne skrbi pri obisku gozda so klopi, strah pred poškodbami in neprimerna oprema otrok. Za manj pogostejši obisk gozda vzgojitelji navajajo med drugim tudi druge vzgojne prioritete vrtcev in premalo podpore s strani vodstva ter staršev, kar nakazuje potrebo po strateški promociji, izobraževanju in implementaciji preživljanja časa v gozdu v okviru predšolske vzgoje.
Keywords: gozdni vrtci, gozdna pedagogika, obisk gozda, razvoj otrok, klopi, predšolska vzgoja, okoljska vzgoja, naravna učna okolja
DiRROS - Published: 01.12.2021; Views: 1228; Downloads: 724
.pdf Fulltext (950,31 KB)

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