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1.
The time course of quadriceps strength recovery after total knee arthroplasty is influenced by body mass index, sex, and age of patients
Armin Paravlić, Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, Kristina Drole, 2022, review article

Abstract: Introduction: For patients with osteoarthritis who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA), quadriceps strength is a major determinant of general physical function regardless of the parameters adopted for functional assessment. Understanding the time course of quadriceps strength recovery and effectiveness of different rehabilitation protocols is a must. Therefore, the aim of this study was to: (i) determine the magnitude of maximal voluntary strength (MVS) loss and the time course of recovery of the quadriceps muscle following TKA, (ii) identify potential moderators of strength outcomes, and (iii) investigate whether different rehabilitation practices can moderate the strength outcomes following TKA, respectively. Design: General scientific databases and relevant journals in the field of orthopedics were searched, identifying prospective studies that investigated quadriceps’ MVS pre-to post-surgery. Results: Seventeen studies with a total of 832 patients (39% males) were included. Results showed that in the early post-operative days, the involved quadriceps’ MVS markedly declined, after which it slowly recovered over time in a linear fashion. Thus, the greatest decline of the MVS was observed 3 days after TKA. When compared to pre-operative values, the MVS was still significantly lower 3 months after TKA and did not fully recover up to 6 months following TKA. Furthermore, a meta-regression analysis identified that the variables, time point of evaluation, patient age, sex, and BMI, significantly moderate the MVS of the quadriceps muscle. Conclusion: The analyzed literature data showed that the decrease in strength of the involved quadriceps muscles following TKA is considerable and lasts for several months post-surgery. Therefore, we recommend to specifically target the strengthening of knee extensor muscles, preserve motor control, and apply appropriate nutrition to ensure a holistic quadriceps muscle recovery. Since age, sex, and BMI were found to be moderating factors in patients’ recovery, further research should include specific analyses considering these moderators.
Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, total knee arthroplasty, rehabilitation, functional performance, voluntary activation, obesity, body mass index
Published in DiRROS: 26.05.2022; Views: 140; Downloads: 78
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2.
Tissue flossing around the thigh does not provide acute enhancement of neuromuscular function
Armin Paravlić, Jure Segula, Kristina Drole, Vedran Hadžić, Maja Pajek, Janez Vodičar, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Nowadays, various methods are used for acute performance enhancement. The most recent of these is tissue flossing, which is becoming increasingly popular for both performance enhancement and rehabilitation. However, the effects of flossing on athletic performance have not been clearly demonstrated, which could be due to differences in the methodology used. In particular, the rest periods between the end of the preconditioning activity and the performance of the criterion task or assessment tools varied considerably in the published literature. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of applying tissue flossing to the thigh on bilateral countermovement jump performance and contractile properties of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle. Nineteen recreational athletes (11 males; aged 23.1 ± 2.7 years) were randomly assigned to days of flossing application (3 sets for 2 min of flossing with 2 min rest between sets) with preset experimental pressure (EXP = 95 ± 17.4 mmHg) or control condition (CON = 18.9 ± 3.5 mmHg). The first part of the measurements was performed before and after warm-up consisting of 5 min of cycling followed by dynamic stretching and specific jumping exercises, while the second part consisted of six measurement points after flossing application (0.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 min). The warm-up improved muscle response time (VL = -5%), contraction time (VL = -3.6%) muscle stiffness (VL = 17.5%), contraction velocity (VL = 23.5%), jump height (13.9%) and average power (10.5%). On the contrary, sustain time, half-relaxation time and take-off velocity stayed unaltered. Flossing, however, showed negative effects for muscle response time (F = 18.547, p < 0.001), contraction time (F = 14.899, p < 0.001), muscle stiffness (F = 8.365, p < 0.001), contraction velocity (F = 11.180, p < 0.001), jump height (F = 14.888, p < 0.001) and average power (F = 13.488, p < 0.001), whereas sustain time, half-relaxation time and take-off velocity were unaffected until the end of the study protocol regardless of condition assigned and/or time points of the assessment. It was found that the warm-up routine potentiated neuromuscular function, whereas the flossing protocol used in the current study resulted in fatigue rather than potentiation. Therefore, future studies aimed to investigate the doseresponse relationship of different configurations of preconditioning activities on neuromuscular function are warranted.
Keywords: tensiomyography, countermovement jump, potentation, athletic performance, ischemic precoditioning, functional performance
Published in DiRROS: 03.05.2022; Views: 131; Downloads: 99
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3.
Additional exergames to regular tennis training improves cognitive-motor functions of children but may temporarily affect tennis technique : a single-blind randomized controlled trial
Luka Šlosar, Eling D. de Bruin, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes, Matej Plevnik, Rado Pišot, Boštjan Šimunič, Uroš Marušič, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of an exergame program (TennisVirtua-4, Playstation Kinect) combined with traditional tennis training on autonomic regulation, tennis technique, gross motor skills, clinical reaction time, and cognitive inhibitory control in children. Sixty-three children were randomized into four groups (1st % two exergame and two regular trainings sessions/week, 2nd % one exergame and one regular training sessions/week, 3rd % two regular trainings sessions/week, and 4th % one regular training session/week) and compared at baseline, 6-month immediately post intervention and at 1-year follow-up post intervention. At 6-month post intervention the combined exergame and regular training sessions revealed: higher breathing frequency, heart rate (all ps % 0.001) and lower skin conductance levels (p = 0.001) during exergaming; additional benefits in the point of contact and kinetic chain elements of the tennis forehand and backhand technique (all ps % 0.001); negative impact on the shot preparation and the follow-through elements (all ps % 0.017); higher ball skills (as part of the gross motor skills) (p < 0.001); higher percentages of clinical reaction time improvement (1st %9.7% vs 3rd group %7.4% and 2nd %6.6% vs 4th group %4.4%, all ps % 0.003) and cognitive inhibitory control improvement in both congruent (1st %20.5% vs 3rd group %18.4% and 2nd %11.5% vs 4th group %9.6%, all ps % 0.05) and incongruent (1st group %19.1% vs 3rd group %12.5% and 2nd group %11.4% vs 4th group %6.5%, all ps % 0.001) trials. The 1-year follow-up test showed no differences in the tennis technique, clinical reaction time and cognitive inhibitory control improvement between groups with the same number of trainings per week. The findings support exergaming as an additional training tool, aimed to improve important cognitive-motor tennis skills by adding dynamics to the standardized training process. Caution should be placed to planning this training, e.g., in a mesocycle, since exergaming might decrease the improvement of specific tennis technique parts of the trainees. (ClinicalTrials.gov; ID: NCT03946436).
Keywords: tennis, training, performance, children, motor learning, cognitive learning, teaching, strategies
Published in DiRROS: 17.03.2021; Views: 699; Downloads: 472
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