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Query: "keywords" (non-native tree species) .

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1.
Stakeholders' views on the global guidelines for the sustainableuse of non-native trees
Ana Novoa, Giovanni Vimercati, Giuseppe Brundu, David M. Richardson, Urs Schaffner, Antonio Brunori, Thomas Campagnaro, Susan Canavan, Laura Celesti-Grapow, Michele de Sá Dechoum, Marjana Westergren, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: 1. A large number of non-native trees (NNTs) have been introduced globally andwidely planted, contributing significantly to the world's economy. Although someof these species present a limited risk of spreading beyond their planting sites, agrowing number of NNTs are spreading and becoming invasive leading to diversenegative impacts on biodiversity, ecosystem functions and human well- being. Tohelp minimize the negative impacts and maximize the economic benefits of NNTs,Brundu et al. developed eight guidelines for the sustainable use of NNTs glob-ally—the Global Guidelines for the Use of NNTs (GG-NNTs).2. Here, we used an online survey to assess perceptions of key stakeholders to-wards NNTs, and explore their knowledge of and compliance with the GG-NNTs.3. Our results show that stakeholders are generally aware that NNTs can providebenefits and cause negative impacts, often simultaneously and they consider thattheir organization complies with existing regulations and voluntary agreementsconcerning NNTs. However, they are not aware of or do not apply most of theeight recommendations included in the GG-NNTs.4. We conclude that effectively managing invasions linked to NNTs requires bothmore communication efforts using an array of channels for improving stakeholderawareness and implementation of simple measures to reduce NNT impacts (e.g. via GG-NNTs), and a deeper understanding of the barriers and reluctance ofstakeholders to manage NNT invasions.
Keywords: agroforestry, alien species, forestry, invasion risk, online survey, ornamental trees, perceptions, stakeholder engagement, sustainability, tree invasions
Published in DiRROS: 21.06.2024; Views: 127; Downloads: 64
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2.
Importance of habitat context in modelling risk maps for two established invasive alien plant species : the case of Ailanthus altissima and Phytolacca americana in Slovenia (Europe)
Maarten De Groot, Erika Kozamernik, Janez Kermavnar, Marija Kolšek, Aleksander Marinšek, Andreja Nève Repe, Lado Kutnar, 2024, original scientific article

Abstract: Forests are important ecosystems that face threats from climate change and global environmental shifts, with invasive alien plant species being a significant concern. Some of these invasive species have already become established, while others are in the process of naturalisation. Although forests are a relatively stable ecosystem, extreme weather events increase their vulnerability to change, and clearings left after natural disturbances are particularly susceptible to invasion by alien plant species (IAPS). We created risk maps of two species that have spread rapidly in the last decade: American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) and the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima). We prepared a generalised linear model based on the occurrence data collected within the LIFE ARTEMIS project. Eleven environmental variables were used to determine habitat characteristics. We constructed two models for each species: one covering the entirety of Slovenia and the other specifically for the forested areas in Slovenia, with the latter incorporating forest-specific variables (such as forest sanitation felling and monocultures). We observed the presence of both species at lower altitudes and in close proximity to water sources. American pokeweed tends to occur nearer to railways, while the presence of the tree of heaven is associated with areas lacking carbonate parent material and influenced by land use patterns. In forested areas, the occurrence of American pokeweed is influenced by forest habitat characteristics, such as disturbances caused by extreme weather events or the prevalence of Norway spruce monocultures. In contrast, the occurrence of the tree of heaven is influenced by more general environmental variables, such as altitude and proximity to railways. Consequently, we have generated risk maps for the entirety of Slovenia and separately for forested areas, both of which indicate similar levels of risk, particularly for the tree of heaven. The risk map for American pokeweed highlights numerous vulnerable areas, especially forest edges, which are highly susceptible to invasion. Furthermore, there is a higher likelihood of this species occurring in areas that have undergone sanitation felling. This study suggests that the production of risk maps of IAPS could be improved by focussing on habitat types and taking into account habitat-specific variables. This approach could enhance the early detection and management of these invasive species.
Keywords: American pokeweed, tree of heaven, species distribution modelling, forests, forest disturbance, habitat suitability
Published in DiRROS: 26.03.2024; Views: 317; Downloads: 1738
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3.
Transnational strategy on the sustainable management and responsible use of non-native trees in the Alpine Space
Katharina Lapin, Anja M. Bindewald, Giuseppe Brundu, Aleksander Marinšek, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Janine Oettel, Janine Oettel, Konrad Heino, Nicola La Porta, Ajša Alagić, 2023, review article

Abstract: Non-native tree species – defined as those species intentionally or unintentionally introduced by humans – have long been a part of the Alpine Space, providing numerous benefits, but also posing a potential threat to native biodiversity and related ecosystem services. Compared to the urban space where non-native trees comprise most tree species, the number of non-native trees in forests and plantations is relatively low. To evaluate potential risks and benefits of non-native trees in the Alpine Space, a transnational strategy for the responsible use and management of non-native trees is needed. The goals of the strategy are to tailor management practices for a sustainable and responsible use or admixture of non-native trees, to reduce the risks connected with the invasive potential of some non-native tree species, to help forests and urban areas to adapt to climate change, and to improve coordination and cooperation regarding best practices between different regions of the Alpine Space. A proposal was developed in a four-step process including expert-based assessment, stakeholder mapping, an extensive data review, and a public consultation. For implementing the strategy fully, strong collaboration among diverse stakeholders is anticipated and robust governance and an adequate long-term and fair funding scheme is needed.
Keywords: adaptive forest management, non-native tree species, Alpine Space, biosecurity, green infrastructure
Published in DiRROS: 19.01.2024; Views: 341; Downloads: 184
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4.
Forest managers’ perspectives on environmental changes in the biosphere reserve Mura-Drava-Danube
Marcus Sallmannshofer, Rok Damjanić, Harald Vacik, Marjana Westergren, Tjaša Baloh, Gregor Božič, Mladen Ivanković, Gyula Kovács, Miran Lanšćak, Katharina Lapin, Laszlo Nagy, Silvija Krajter Ostoić, Saša Orlović, Srđan Stojnić, Peter Železnik, Milica Zlatković, Silvio Schueler, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Riparian forests are particularly vulnerable to environmental change and anthropogenic influences because they are highly dynamic ecosystems, thus proper adaptation measures are crucial. The implementation of these measures, however, strongly depends on the actors’ perceptions of the specific problems occurring in such forests. For understanding the constraints of specific interest groups toward different adaptation activities, information in this field is essential. By conducting a questionnaire survey we explore how different types of forest managers, i.e., forestry professionals, forest owners, and conservation managers, perceive the effects of environmental change on forest management in the recently established Transboundary Biosphere Reserve Mura-Drava-Danube. We show that these forest managers are highly aware of ongoing environmental changes and appraise deteriorating forest conditions, especially after observing changes themselves. Abiotic damage is expected to increase the most, followed by biotic damage, the spread of non-native species, and tree dieback. Nearly 80% of the survey respondents expect further changes and almost all of them intend to adapt their management of forests to mitigate or prepare for these changes. Nevertheless, we show differences in sensitivity to change and willingness to initiate adaptation actions by assessing adaptation thresholds: conservation managers appear generally more tolerant to changes, which results in higher thresholds to initiate management adaptation than forestry professionals
Keywords: biosphere reserve Mura-Drava-Danube, forest management, sensitivity to environmental change, stakeholder perception, adaptation thresholds, riparian forest tree species
Published in DiRROS: 31.05.2023; Views: 523; Downloads: 361
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5.
Ecological factors affecting the recent Picea abies decline in Slovenia : the importance of bedrock type and forest naturalness
Janez Kermavnar, Lado Kutnar, Anže Martin Pintar, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) has been at the centre of controversy for many decades. Recent evidence of its profound disturbance-induced damage and consequent stock depletions across forest landscapes in Europe has reinforced doubts regarding the sustainability and prospects of this tree species in the future. Like many other European countries, Slovenia has experienced significant Norway spruce mortality and a decrease in growing stock primarily as the result of several disturbance agents (bark beetle outbreaks, an ice storm, windthrows). We investigated a countrywide spruce growing stock decline based on data between 2010 and 2018. Particular focus was placed on identifying the main ecological drivers of this decline, namely geological conditions, climatic parameters, soil attributes, topographic factors and forest stand characteristics. The effects of potential predictors on the relative change (%) in spruce volume (m3 ha-1) during the period 2010-2018 were analysed with Generalized Additive Models. Based on a national dataset including forest compartments (n = 6355) with a spruce growing stock decline > 10%, we found mixed support for ecology-based hypotheses. While spruce decline responded to bedrock type as predicted (i.e., greater relative decline in carbonate compared to silicate compartments), higher forest naturalness (preservation of tree species composition) was not associated with a lower decline. Spruce decline was amplified by higher potential evapotranspiration and soil clay content but showed a strong negative relationship with spruce proportion in the year 2010. General trends along the gradients of other selected predictors (stoniness/rockiness and heat load index) were less pronounced. The results suggest that most of these ecological predictors interact with geology and forest naturalness in affecting Norway spruce decline. Our analysis reveals that bedrock type can play an important role due to its mitigating effects. However, forest naturalness is of secondary significance as intensified large-scale forest disturbances likely override its buffering potential.
Keywords: Norway Spruce, bark beetle outbreaks, ice storm, soil-geology, relationship, tree species composition, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 05.04.2023; Views: 898; Downloads: 301
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Non-native forest tree species in Europe : ǂthe ǂquestion of seed origin in afforestation
Paraskevi Alizoti, Jean-Charles Bastien, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Marcin Miroslav Klisz, Johan Kroon, Charalambos Neophytou, Silvio Schueler, Marcela van Loo, Marjana Westergren, Monika Konnert, Robert Brus, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Non-native forest tree species have been introduced in Europe since the 16th century, but only in the second half of the 20th century the significance of the seed source origin for their economic use was recognized, resulting in the establishment of numerous provenance trials at a national, regional, European and International level, as those led by IUFRO. Breeding programs have also been launched in the continent for the most economically important species. Aim of this work is the formulation of provenance recommendations for planting of five non-native tree species in Europe (Douglas fir, grand fir, Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine and black locust), based on the information obtained from twenty countries, in the frame of the EU FP-1403 NNEXT Cost Action. The survey revealed that official and non-official national recommendations, based on provenance research results, have been elaborated and followed at a different level and extend for the above five species, but only for Douglas fir recommendations exist in almost all the participating to the survey countries. The compilation of provenance recommendations across Europe for each species is presented in the current work. Besides the recommended introduced seed sources, European seed sources are also preferred for planting, due to ease of access and high availability of forest reproductive material. European breeding programs yielding genetic material of high productivity and quality constitute currently the seed source of choice for several species and countries. Consolidation of trial data obtained across countries will allow the joint analysis that is urgently needed to draw solid conclusions, and will facilitate the development of ‘Universal-Response-Functions’ for the species of interest, rendering possible the identification of the genetic material suitable for global change. New provenance trial series that will test seed sources from the entire climatic range of the species, established in sites falling within and outside the environmental envelopes of their natural ranges, are urgently needed to pinpoint and understand the species-specific climate constraints, as well as to correlate functional traits to the seed origin and the environmental conditions of the test sites, so that the selection of suitable forest reproductive material of non-native tree species in the face of climate change can be feasible.
Keywords: provenance recommendations, provenance testing, breeding programs, adaptation, exotic tree species, Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, grand fir, lodgepole pine, black locust
Published in DiRROS: 09.02.2022; Views: 971; Downloads: 769
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10.
Climate change and disturbances will shape future temperate forests in the transition zone between Central and SE Europe
Lado Kutnar, Janez Kermavnar, Anže Martin Pintar, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: It is expected that climate change as well as abiotic and anthropogenic disturbances will strongly influence temperate forests. Besides changes in the main climate variables, various disturbance factors may significantly worsen conditions for mesic Slovenian forests (SE Europe) dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba). In Slovenia, the climate has warmed in recent decades, with an average annual rate of increase of about 0.4°C per decade or even more than 0.5°C per decade in summer. In addition, disturbances have caused considerable damage to trees in the most extensive forest types in Slovenia, starting with a widespread ice storm in 2014, followed by bark beetle outbreaks, windthrows and salvage logging interventions. After 2014, salvage logging increased from about one third to two thirds of the total annual felling. Over the last two decades, we have observed a decline in Norway spruce growing stock, with the highest rate of decrease in areas below 500 m a.s.l., and an increasing trend for European beech. Overall, the three dominant species (beech, spruce, silver fir), which together account for more than 70% of the total growing stock, have shown a declining trend over the last 20 years. The patterns observed are broadly consistent with earlier predictions developed for different climate change scenarios and with those reported in many other European countries. Adaptive forest management, which implements close-to-nature silviculture, has been traditionally practised in the region under study and has the potential to play an important role in reducing the risks associated with the impacts of climate change and disturbances in the future.
Keywords: climate warming, disturbance factors, ice storm, bark beetle outbreaks, spruce decline, salvage logging, tree species composition, temperate forest, Slovenia
Published in DiRROS: 03.01.2022; Views: 886; Downloads: 711
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