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Efects of chronic physical exercise on executive functions and episodic memory in clinical and healthy older adult populations : a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol
Soledad Ballesteros, Andreea Badache, Vera Belkin, Christoforos D. Giannaki, Antonia Kaltsatou, Uroš Marušič, Mohammad Mosaferi Ziaaldini, Manca Peskar, José M. Reales, Jennifer A. Rieker, 2024, review article

Abstract: Background Executive functions (EFs) and episodic memory are fundamental components of cognition that deteriorate with age and are crucial for independent living. While numerous reviews have explored the effect of exercise on these components in old age, these reviews screened and analyzed selected older adult populations, or specific exercise modes, thus providing only limited answers to the fundamental question on the effect of exercise on cognition in old age. This article describes the protocol for a systematic review and multilevel meta-analytic study aiming at evaluating the effectiveness of different types of chronic exercise in improving and/or maintaining EFs and long-term episodic memory in older adults. Methods and analysis The study protocol was written in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Several databases will be searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in older adults aged ≥ 60 years providing any kind of planned, structured, and repetitive exercise interventions, and EFs and/or episodic memory measures as outcomes, published in English in peer-reviewed journals and doctoral dissertations will be included. Two independent reviewers will screen the selected articles, while a third reviewer will resolve possible conflicts. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool will be used to assess the quality of the studies. Finally, data will be extracted from the selected articles, and the formal method of combining individual data from the selected studies will be applied using a random effect multilevel meta-analysis. The data analysis will be conducted with the metafor package in R. Discussion and conclusion This review will synthesize the existing evidence and pinpoint gaps existing in the literature on the effects of exercise on EFs and episodic memory in healthy and unhealthy older adults. Findings from this meta-analysis will help to design effective exercise interventions for older adults to improve and/or maintain EFs and episodic memory. Its results will be useful for many researchers and professionals working with older adults and their families.
Keywords: diseased older adults, healthy older adultsi, episodic memory, executive functions, exercises, three level meta analysis, tri-nivojska meta-analiza
Published in DiRROS: 03.04.2024; Views: 200; Downloads: 79
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Dose-response relationship between endurance training prescription variables and increases in aerobic performance of healthy and unhealthy middle and very old individuals aged 70 years and older : a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Sarah Cheour, Chouaib Cheour, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Liye Zou, Armin Paravlić, Maamer Slimani, Foued Cheour, 2021, review article

Abstract: Background: The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to quantify the effectiveness of endurance training (ET) on aerobic performance (i.e., peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)) in healthy and unhealthy middle and very old adults aged 70 years and older, and to provide dose response relationships of training prescription variables (in terms of frequency, and volume). Methods: Several scholarly databases (i.e., PubMed/MEDLINE, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect Journals, and Taylor & Francis Online Journals) were searched, identifying randomized controlled studies that investigated the effectiveness of ET on VO2peak in older adults. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated. Results: In terms of changes differences between experimental and control group, ET produced significant large effects on VO2peak performance (SMD = 2.64 (95%CI 0.97%4.31)). The moderator analysis revealed that health status variable moderated ET effect onVO2peak performance. More specifically, ET produced larger SMD magnitudes on VO2peak performance in healthy compared with unhealthy individuals. With regard to the dose response relationships, findings from the meta-regression showed that none of the included training prescription variables predicted ET effects on VO2peak performance. Conclusions: ET is an effective mean for improving aerobic performance in healthy older adults when compared with their unhealthy counterparts.
Keywords: aging, elderly, physical activities, physical endurance, exercises, training prescriptions, meta analysis
Published in DiRROS: 16.09.2022; Views: 641; Downloads: 337
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Increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy by more frequent administration or sequential scheduling : a patient-level meta-analysis of 37 298 women with early breast cancer in 26 randomised trials
2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Background: Increasing the dose intensity of cytotoxic therapy by shortening the intervals between cycles, or by giving individual drugs sequentially at full dose rather than in lower-dose concurrent treatment schedules, might enhance efficacy. Methods: To clarify the relative benefits and risks of dose-intense and standard-schedule chemotherapy in early breast cancer, we did an individual patient-level meta-analysis of trials comparing 2-weekly versus standard 3-weekly schedules, and of trials comparing sequential versus concurrent administration of anthracycline and taxane chemotherapy. The primary outcomes were recurrence and breast cancer mortality. Standard intention-to-treat log-rank analyses, stratified by age, nodal status, and trial, yielded dose-intense versus standard-schedule first-event rate ratios (RRs). Findings: Individual patient data were provided for 26 of 33 relevant trials identified, comprising 37,298 (93%) of 40,070 women randomised. Most women were aged younger than 70 years and had node-positive disease. Total cytotoxic drug usage was broadly comparable in the two treatment arms; colony-stimulating factor was generally used in the more dose-intense arm. Combining data from all 26 trials, fewer breast cancer recurrences were seen with dose-intense than with standard-schedule chemotherapy (10-year recurrence risk 28.0% vs 31.4%; RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.89; p<0.0001). 10-year breast cancer mortality was similarly reduced (18.9% vs 21.3%; RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92; p<0.0001), as was all-cause mortality (22.1% vs 24.8%; RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.91; p<0.0001). Death without recurrence was, if anything, lower with dose-intense than with standard-schedule chemotherapy (10-year risk 4.1% vs 4.6%; RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99; p=0.034). Recurrence reductions were similar in the seven trials (n=10,004) that compared 2-weekly chemotherapy with the same chemotherapy given 3-weekly (10-year risk 24.0% vs 28.3%; RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.91; p<0.0001), in the six trials (n=11,028) of sequential versus concurrent anthracycline plus taxane chemotherapy (28.1% vs 31.3%; RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.94; p=0.0006), and in the six trials (n=6532) testing both shorter intervals and sequential administration (30.4% vs 35.0%; RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74-0.90; p<0.0001). The proportional reductions in recurrence with dose-intense chemotherapy were similar and highly significant (p<0.0001) in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative disease and did not differ significantly by other patient or tumour characteristics. Interpretation: Increasing the dose intensity of adjuvant chemotherapy by shortening the interval between treatment cycles, or by giving individual drugs sequentially rather than giving the same drugs concurrently, moderately reduces the 10-year risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer without increasing mortality from other causes.
Keywords: breast neoplasms, women, drug therapy, clinical protocols, meta-analysis, breast cancer, chemotherapy, treatment schedule, randomized trials
Published in DiRROS: 22.10.2020; Views: 1370; Downloads: 1163
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