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Participation in youth sports influences sarcopenia parameters in older adults
Kaja Teraž, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Uroš Marušič, Primož Pori, Saša Pišot, Rado Pišot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Background The degree of deterioration in sarcopenia parameters may be affected by a person’s level of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Our study focused on examining the PA and SB of active older adults including those with and without history of sports in youth. Methods Forty-four participants (20 men and 24 women, mean age of total sample 76.1 ± 5.2 years) were included in analysis of PA, SB habits and sarcopenia parameters, determined by skeletal muscle index, hand-grip strength, gait speed, Timed Up and Go tests (TUG). PA and SB were recorded with accelerometers. Our primary aim was to compare participants with (AH) or without a sport history in youth (NAH), in their sarcopenia parameters and PA and SB habits. Results When divided participants in two groups (AH and NAH) and adjusting for age, we have detected the differences for skeletal muscle index (p = 0.007) and hand-grip strength (p = 0.004) in favor of participants who were engaged in sports in youth. We did not find any differences in PA and SB habits between the AH and NAH groups. After adjusting for age, participants with a higher number of daily steps, longer moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) bouts, a higher number of MVPA bouts in a day and higher overall MVPA engagement achieved better results in hand-grip strength and TUG. Participants with lower SB had better TUG and gait speed results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that engaging in sports activities in youth can make a difference with sarcopenia parameters. Although we found no differences in PA and SB habits between participants with AH and NAH, participants with an athlete history performed better results in sarcopenia parameters.
Keywords: muscles, muscle disorder, elderly, exercise, sedentarism
Published in DiRROS: 10.11.2023; Views: 80; Downloads: 32
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The use of tensiomyography in older adults : a systematic review
Katarina Puš, Armin Paravlić, Boštjan Šimunič, 2023, review article

Abstract: Introduction: Aging of skeletal muscles results in a cascade of events negatively affecting muscle mass, strength, and function, leading to reduced mobility, increased risk of falls, disability, and loss of independence. To date, different methods are used to assess muscle mechanical function, tensiomyography (TMG) being one of them. The aim of this review was twofold: to summarize the evidence-based usefulness of tensiomyography in older adults and to establish reference values for the main tensiomyography parameters in older adults. Methods: The PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and tensiomyography databases were searched from inception until 25 December 2022. Studies investigating older adults (aged 60+ years) that reported tensiomyographyderived parameters such as contraction time (Tc) and/or maximal displacement (Dm) were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Results: In total, eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Tensiomyography has been used on different groups of older adults, including asymptomatic, master athletes, patients with peripheral arterial disease, and patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis with a mean age of 71.5 ± 5.38 (55.7% male subjects). The most evaluated were leg muscles such as vastus lateralis (VL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and biceps femoris (BF). The present review demonstrates that tensiomyography is used to assess neuromuscular function in asymptomatic and diseased older adults. When compared to asymptomatic individuals, power master athletes, knee osteoarthritis patients, and patients diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease have the shortest Tc in BF, VL, and GM muscles, respectively. On the other hand, endurance master athletes showed the longest Tc in all three evaluated muscles. Less mobile, nursing-home residents showed higher Dm in VL and BF, while lower Dm in GM than the asymptomatic group. The knee osteoarthritis group showed the largest Dm in BF and VL while having the smallest Dm in GM. Conclusion: Tensiomyography can serve as a valuable tool for assessing neuromuscular function in older adults. The method is sensitive to muscle composition, architecture, and (pre) atrophic changes of the skeletal muscles and might be responsive to muscle quality changes in aging and diseased populations.
Keywords: sport, muscle function, elderly, neuromuscular function, normative values, TMG
Published in DiRROS: 27.06.2023; Views: 196; Downloads: 123
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Sarcopenia parameters in active older adults – an eight-year longitudinal study
Kaja Teraž, Uroš Marušič, Miloš Kalc, Boštjan Šimunič, Primož Pori, Bruno Grassi, Stefano Lazzer, Marco Vicenzo Narici, Mojca Gabrijelčič Blenkuš, Pietro Enrico Di Prampero, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Gianni Biolo, Mladen Gasparini, Rado Pišot, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Background Sarcopenia is a common skeletal muscle syndrome that is common in older adults but can be mitigated by adequate and regular physical activity. The development and severity of sarcopenia is favored by several factors, the most influential of which are a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity. The aim of this observational longitudinal cohort study was to evaluate changes in sarcopenia parameters, based on the EWGSOP2 definition in a population of active older adults after eight years. It was hypothesized that selected active older adults would perform better on sarcopenia tests than the average population. Methods The 52 active older adults (22 men and 30 women, mean age: 68.4±5.6 years at the time of their first evaluation) participated in the study at two time points eight-years apart. Three sarcopenia parameters were assessed at both time points: Muscle strength (handgrip test), skeletal muscle mass index, and physical performance (gait speed), these parameters were used to diagnose sarcop0enia according to the EWGSOP2 definition. Additional motor tests were also performed at follow-up measurements to assess participants’ overall fitness. Participants self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior using General Physical Activity Questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up measurements. Results In the first measurements we did not detect signs of sarcopenia in any individual, but after 8 years, we detected signs of sarcopenia in 7 participants. After eight years, we detected decline in ; muscle strength (-10.2%; p<.001), muscle mass index (-5.4%; p<.001), and physical performance measured with gait speed (-28.6%; p<.001). Similarly, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior declined, too (-25.0%; p=.030 and −48.5%; p<.001, respectively). Conclusions Despite expected lower scores on tests of sarcopenia parameters due to age-related decline, participants performed better on motor tests than reported in similar studies. Nevertheless, the prevalence of sarcopenia was consistent with most of the published literature. Trial registration The clinical trial protocol was registered on, identifier: NCT04899531
Keywords: elderly, physical activities, sedentary behavior, skeletal muscle disorder, sarcopenia
Published in DiRROS: 29.05.2023; Views: 186; Downloads: 99
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On the influence of aging on classification performance in the visual EEG oddball paradigm using statistical and temporal features
Nina Omejc, Manca Peskar, Aleksandar Miladinović, Voyko Kavcic, Sašo Džeroski, Uroš Marušič, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The utilization of a non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) as an input sensor is a common approach in the field of the brain–computer interfaces (BCI). However, the collected EEG data pose many challenges, one of which may be the age-related variability of event-related potentials (ERPs), which are often used as primary EEG BCI signal features. To assess the potential effects of aging, a sample of 27 young and 43 older healthy individuals participated in a visual oddball study, in which they passively viewed frequent stimuli among randomly occurring rare stimuli while being recorded with a 32-channel EEG set. Two types of EEG datasets were created to train the classifiers, one consisting of amplitude and spectral features in time and another with extracted time-independent statistical ERP features. Among the nine classifiers tested, linear classifiers performed best. Furthermore, we show that classification performance differs between dataset types. When temporal features were used, maximum individuals’ performance scores were higher, had lower variance, and were less affected overall by within-class differences such as age. Finally, we found that the effect of aging on classification performance depends on the classifier and its internal feature ranking. Accordingly, performance will differ if the model favors features with large within-class differences. With this in mind, care must be taken in feature extraction and selection to find the correct features and consequently avoid potential age-related performance degradation in practice.
Keywords: aging, elderly, machine learning, visual oddball study, brain-computer interface
Published in DiRROS: 01.02.2023; Views: 247; Downloads: 142
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Dose-response relationship between endurance training prescription variables and increases in aerobic performance of healthy and unhealthy middle and very old individuals aged 70 years and older : a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Sarah Cheour, Chouaib Cheour, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Liye Zou, Armin Paravlić, Maamer Slimani, Foued Cheour, 2021, review article

Abstract: Background: The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to quantify the effectiveness of endurance training (ET) on aerobic performance (i.e., peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)) in healthy and unhealthy middle and very old adults aged 70 years and older, and to provide dose response relationships of training prescription variables (in terms of frequency, and volume). Methods: Several scholarly databases (i.e., PubMed/MEDLINE, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect Journals, and Taylor & Francis Online Journals) were searched, identifying randomized controlled studies that investigated the effectiveness of ET on VO2peak in older adults. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were calculated. Results: In terms of changes differences between experimental and control group, ET produced significant large effects on VO2peak performance (SMD = 2.64 (95%CI 0.97%4.31)). The moderator analysis revealed that health status variable moderated ET effect onVO2peak performance. More specifically, ET produced larger SMD magnitudes on VO2peak performance in healthy compared with unhealthy individuals. With regard to the dose response relationships, findings from the meta-regression showed that none of the included training prescription variables predicted ET effects on VO2peak performance. Conclusions: ET is an effective mean for improving aerobic performance in healthy older adults when compared with their unhealthy counterparts.
Keywords: aging, elderly, physical activities, physical endurance, exercises, training prescriptions, meta analysis
Published in DiRROS: 16.09.2022; Views: 405; Downloads: 208
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Impact of motor-cognitive interventions on selected gait and balance outcomes in older adults : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Kaja Teraž, Luka Šlosar, Armin Paravlić, Eling D. de Bruin, Uroš Marušič, 2022, review article

Abstract: Background: Efficient performance of most daily activities requires intact and simultaneous execution of motor and cognitive tasks. To mitigate age-related functional decline, various combinations of motor and cognitive training have shown promising results. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy of different types of motor-cognitive training interventions (e.g., sequential and simultaneous) on selected functional outcomes in healthy older adults. Methods: Six online academic databases were used to retrieve eligible RCTs up to April 2021, following PRISMA guidelines and PICO criteria. A random-effects model was used for all meta-analyses conducted on selected functional outcomes: single- and dual-task gait speed, the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score. Effect size (ES) was calculated as Hedges' g and interpreted as: trivial: <0.20, small: 0.20–0.60, moderate: 0.61–1.20, large: 1.21–2.00, very large: 2.01–4.00 or extremely large >4.00. Results: From 2,546 retrieved records, 91 RCTs were included for meta-analysis (n = 3,745 participants; 64.7–86.9 years). The motor-cognitive interventions included differed according to the type of training (e.g., sequential, simultaneous with additional cognitive task or exergame training. The results showed that motor-cognitive interventions can improve gait speed under single-task conditions (small ES = 0.34, P = 0.003). The effect of the intervention was moderated by the type of control group (Q = 6.203, P = 0.013): passive (moderate ES = 0.941, P = 0.001) vs. active controls (trivial ES = 0.153, P = 0.180). No significant effect was found for dual-task walking outcomes (P = 0.063). Motor-cognitive intervention had a positive effect on TUG (small ES = 0.42, P < 0.001), where the effect of intervention was moderated by control group [passive (moderate ES = 0.73, P = 0.001) vs. active (small ES = 0.20, P = 0.020)], but not by the type of training (P = 0.064). Finally, BBS scores were positively affected by motor-cognitive interventions (small ES = 0.59, P < 0.001) with however no significant differences between type of control group (P = 0.529) or intervention modality (P = 0.585). Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of various types of motor-cognitive interventions on performance-based measures of functional mobility in healthy older adults. With respect to significant effects, gait speed under single-task condition was improved by motor-cognitive interventions, but the evidence shows that this type of intervention is not necessarily more beneficial than motor training alone. On the other hand, motor-cognitive interventions are better at improving multicomponent tasks of dynamic balance and mobility function, as measured by the TUG. Because of substantial heterogeneity and the current limited availability of different types of interventions, the conclusions should be interpreted with caution.
Keywords: motor-cognitive interventions, dual-task, elderly, mobility, postural control
Published in DiRROS: 21.06.2022; Views: 403; Downloads: 307
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