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1.
Pomen analize dominantnih dreves za gozdnogospodarsko načrtovanje na primeru kisloljubnega bukovja z rebrenjačo
Andrej Bončina, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Poznavanje razvoja dominantnega drevja je pomembno za spremljavo razvoja enomernih sestojev, določanje režima redčenj, ciljnih premerov drevesnih vrst in optimalnega razmerja razvojnih faz ter ocenjevanje produkcijske sposobnosti gozdnih rastišč. S podatki stalnih vzorčnih ploskev smo analizirali debelinsko in višinsko rast dominantnih dreves petih drevesnih vrst kisloljubnega bukovja z rebrenjačo (smreka, bukev, graden, rdeči bor in kostanj). Za vrste smo ocenili rastiščni produkcijski indeks (SPI), ki je dominanta višina drevja pri prsnem premeru 45 cm, rastiščni indeks (SI) in prikazali postopek določanja optimalnega razmerja razvojnih faz glede na drevesno sestavo sestojev ter odločitev o ciljnih premerih drevja in pomlajevanju sestojev. Vrednosti SPI za bukev, smreko, graden, rdeči bor in kostanj so 28,4; 31,1; 25,1; 26,1 in 23,2, vrednosti SI pa 27,9; 32,5; 20,9; 22,9 in 21,7. Optimalni deleži razvojnih faz so odvisni od izbrane drevesne sestave gozdov ter odločitev glede ciljnih premerov in pomlajevanja sestojev. Model debelinskega priraščanja bukve kaže, da na njeno debelinsko rast pozitivno vplivajo prsni premer, produktivnost rastišča in raznomernost sestojev, negativno pa delež bukve v sestoju, sestojna temeljnica in naklon terena.
Keywords: višinska rast, debelinska rast, rastiščni indeks, rastiščni produkcijski indeks, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, Quercus petraea, Pinus sylvestris, Castanea sativa
Published in DiRROS: 11.08.2022; Views: 223; Downloads: 59
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2.
Different wood anatomical and growth responses in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) at three forest sites in Slovenia
Domen Arnič, Jožica Gričar, Jernej Jevšenak, Gregor Božič, Georg von Arx, Peter Prislan, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) adapts to local growing conditions to enhance its performance. In response to variations in climatic conditions, beech trees adjust leaf phenology, cambial phenology, and wood formation patterns, which result in different treering widths (TRWs) and wood anatomy. Chronologies of tree ring width and vessel features [i.e., mean vessel area (MVA), vessel density (VD), and relative conductive area (RCTA)] were produced for the 1960%2016 period for three sites that differ in climatic regimes and spring leaf phenology (two early- and one late-flushing populations). These data were used to investigate long-term relationships between climatic conditions and anatomical features of four quarters of tree-rings at annual and intra-annual scales. In addition, we investigated how TRW and vessel features adjust in response to extreme weather events (i.e., summer drought). We found significant differences in TRW, VD, and RCTA among the selected sites. Precipitation and maximum temperature before and during the growing season were the most important climatic factors affecting TRW and vessel characteristics. We confirmed differences in climate-growth relationships between the selected sites, late flushing beech population at Idrija showing the least pronounced response to climate. MVA was the only vessel trait that showed no relationship with TRW or other vessel features. The relationship between MVA and climatic factors evaluated at intra-annual scale indicated that vessel area in the first quarter of tree-ring were mainly influenced by climatic conditions in the previous growing season, while vessel area in the second to fourth quarters of tree ring width was mainly influenced by maximum temperature and precipitation in the current growing season. When comparing wet and dry years, beech from all sites showed a similar response, with reduced TRW and changes in intra-annual variation in vessel area. Our findings suggest that changes in temperature and precipitation regimes as predicted by most climate change scenarios will affect tree-ring increments and wood structure in beech, yet the response between sites or populations may differ.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, wood anatomy, tracheograms, dendrochronology, intra specific plasticity
Published in DiRROS: 22.07.2022; Views: 160; Downloads: 113
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3.
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A comparison of radial increment and wood density from beech provenance trials in Slovenia and Hungary
Luka Krajnc, Peter Prislan, Gregor Božič, Marjana Westergren, Domen Arnič, Csaba Mátyás, Jožica Gričar, Hojka Kraigher, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Provenance trials are a valuable source of information, especially in species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), which will likely increase its distribution due to global warming. The current study compares radial increment and wood density of beech provenances in the juvenile development stage from contrasting environments in Europe (Belgium, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Italy) planted at a mesic to wet site in Slovenia and a xeric site in Hungary. Existing data (past measurements of diameters and height) were combined with new measurements of tree height, diameter, dendrochronological and resistance drilling density measurements to assess differences in provenance radial growth. The wood density data were evaluated using a Bayesian general linear model. In order to study the differences in radial increment in more detail, two weather-wise contrasting years (2014 and 2017) were selected from the last decade, based on calculations of the 12-month Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index. The differences in average tree-ring width among provenances at each sampled site appeared to be relatively small when averaged over a whole decade of data. However, according to year-to-year data, some provenances grew faster than others, especially in favorable weather conditions. In unfavorable conditions, the differences in tree-ring widths among provenances were smaller. For most provenances, variation in tree-ring widths within the same provenance increased in unfavorable conditions. The difference between the provenances with the highest and lowest wood densities at both locations did not exceed 5%. The model results indicate that the Idrija (Slovenia) provenance probably has a higher median wood density than other studied provenances at both sites. Although the current study confirmed some differences in wood density between provenances and trial locations, the differences are negligible in practice due to their low magnitude and the fact that the analyzed trees were still juvenile. As beech has a diffuse-porous wood, negligible differences in wood density would also be expected in adult trees. Beech provenances for planting in relation to changing weather should probably be chosen for their ability to survive more extreme weather events rather than to improve radial increment or wood density, especially as the differences in wood density of juvenile trees are relatively small.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, tree-ring width, common garden, resistance drilling
Published in DiRROS: 15.04.2022; Views: 216; Downloads: 265
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5.
Relationships between wood-anatomical features and resistance drilling density in Norway spruce and European beech
Domen Arnič, Luka Krajnc, Jožica Gričar, Peter Prislan, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Environmental conditions affect tree-ring width (TRW), wood structure, and, consequently, wood density, which is one of the main wood quality indicators. Although studies on inter- and intra-annual variability in tree-ring features or density exist, studies demonstrating a clear link between wood structure on a cellular level and its effect on wood density on a macroscopic level are rare. Norway spruce with its simple coniferous structure and European beech, a diffuse-porous angiosperm species were selected to analyze these relationships. Increment cores were collected from both species at four sites in Slovenia. In total, 24 European beech and 17 Norway spruce trees were sampled. In addition, resistance drilling measurements were performed just a few centimeters above the increment core sampling. TRW and quantitative wood anatomy measurements were performed on the collected cores. Resistance drilling density values, tree-ring (TRW, earlywood width–EWW, transition-TWW, and latewood width–LWW) and wood-anatomical features (vessel/tracheid area and diameter, cell density, relative conductive area, and cell wall thickness) were then averaged for the first 7 cm of measurements. We observed significant relationships between tree-ring and wood-anatomical features in both spruce and beech. In spruce, the highest correlation values were found between TRW and LWW. In beech, the highest correlations were observed between TRW and cell density. There were no significant relationships between wood-anatomical features and resistance drilling density in beech. However, in spruce, a significant negative correlation was found between resistance drilling density and tangential tracheid diameter, and a positive correlation between resistance drilling density and both TWW + LWW and LWW. Our findings suggest that resistance drilling measurements can be used to evaluate differences in density within and between species, but they should be improved in resolution to be able to detect changes in wood anatomy.
Keywords: wood structure, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, quantitative wood anatomy, xylem anatomy, wood density, increment borer
Published in DiRROS: 08.04.2022; Views: 227; Downloads: 200
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6.
Modeliranje višinske in debelinske rasti dominantnih dreves ter ocenjevanje indeksov produkcijske sposobnosti gozdnih rastišč
Andrej Bončina, Vasilije Trifković, Živa Bončina, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Modeli višinskega in debelinskega priraščanja dreves so pomembni za upravljanje gozdov, saj so podlaga za določanje režima redčenj, ciljnih premerov drevesnih vrst in optimalnega razmerja razvojnih faz ter ocenjevanje produkcijske sposobnosti goz%dnih rastišč. S podatki s stalnih vzorčnih ploskev smo za dva gozdna tipa (gradnovo bukovje na izpranih tleh in predalpsko jelovo bukovje) modelirali višinsko rast dominantnih bukev in smrek glede na njihov premer. Za obe vrsti smo ocenili rastiščni produkcijski indeks (SPI), ki je dominanta višina drevja pri prsnem premeru 45 cm. Na podlagi debelinskega priraščanja do%minantnih dreves smo ocenili prehodne dobe in povprečno starost dreves glede na njihovo debelino. To so bili vhodni podatki za določitev regresijskega modela višine dominantnih dreves glede na njihovo starost. SPI je za smreko v primerjavi z bukvijo pričakovano višji, pri bukvi je vrednost SPI višja na rastišču gradnovega bukovja na izpranih tleh (28,7 m proti 27,9 m), pri smreki pa na rastišču predalpskega jelovega bukovja (31,3 m proti 29,7 m). Vrednosti rastiščnih indeksov (SI; dominantna višina drevja pri starosti 100 let) smreke na rastiščih gradnovega bukovja in predalpskega jelovega bukovja so 33,4 in 32,0, bukve pa 29,0 in 27,0. Z opisanim postopkom smo za izbrana gozdna rastiščna tipa določili indekse produkcijske sposobnosti gozdnih smreke in bukve (SI in SPI); uporabnost postopka je treba preveriti še za druge drevesne vrste in gozdne rastiščne tipe.
Keywords: dominantna drevesa, višinska rast, debelinska rast, rastiščni indeks, rastiščni produkcijski indeks, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies
Published in DiRROS: 17.08.2021; Views: 2154; Downloads: 1350
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8.
V Sloveniji se povečuje osutost bukove krošnje
Nikica Ogris, Mitja Skudnik, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: V zadnjem času po vsej Sloveniji opažamo hiranje navadne bukve (Fagus sylvatica L.). Cilj prispevka je predstaviti dolgoročen trend osutosti krošnje navadne bukve v Sloveniji in pojasniti delež osutosti bukove krošnje s pomočjo podatkov iz popisa povzročiteljev poškodb v okviru vsakoletnega popisa razvrednotenja in poškodovanosti gozdov. Pri tem smo uporabili podatkovno zbirko o spremljanju osutosti in poškodovanosti dreves na M6 stalnih vzorčnih ploskvah (Nivo I) na sistematični mreži 16 % 16 km v obdobju 1993%2020. Rezultati kažejo, da se je povprečna osutost bukove krošnje od leta 1993 do 2020 povečala iz 13,9 % na 32,2 %. Dolgoročen linearen trend je pokazal, da se je povprečna osutost bukove krošnje povečala za 0,63 % na leto. Za trend povprečne osutosti bukve je bilo prelomno izjemno sušno leto 2003, ko se je trend osutosti povečal iz 0,61 % na 0,94 % na leto. Trend večanja osutosti bukve smo zaznali na vseh obravnavanih lokacijah. Ugotovili smo, da se povprečna osutost bukve hitreje veča na jugu in zahodu države. Katastrofalen žledolom leta 2014 je povzročil drastično spremembo povzročiteljev osutosti bukve. V obdobju pred žledolomom leta 2014 so osutost bukove krošnje najbolje pojasnjevale poškodbe zaradi žuželk. Po žledolomu leta 2014 so se povečale poškodbe bukve zaradi žleda, gliv, neposrednih človekovih vplivov (obsežne sanacije žledoloma) in drugih dejavnikov. Žledolom je na bukovih gozdovih pustil trajne posledice, saj so poškodbe zaradi žleda in posledično sanacije vidne še dandanes, kar je razvidno tudi iz popisa povzročiteljev poškodb bukve. V zadnjih dveh letih, 2019%2020, so glive najpomembnejše povzročiteljice poškodb bukve. Po letu 2014 pa se je zmanjšala poškodovanost bukve zaradi žuželk. Natančnih vzrokov za splošno slabšanje zdravstvenega stanja bukve po vsej Sloveniji še ne poznamo.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, bukev, osutost krošnje, poškodovanost, podnebne spremembe, žledolom, suša
Published in DiRROS: 02.08.2021; Views: 864; Downloads: 262
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9.
Contrasting resource dynamics in mast years for European Beech and Oak - a continental scale analysis
Anita Nussbaumer, Arthur Gessler, Sue Benham, B. De Cinti, Sophia Etzold, Morten Ingerslev, Frank Jacob, François Lebourgeois, Tom Levanič, Hrvoje Marjanović, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Resource allocation to different plant tissues is likely to be affected by high investment into fruit production during mast years. However, there is a large knowledge gap concerning species-specific differences in resource dynamics. We investigated the influence of mast years on stem growth, leaf production, and leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) concentrations and contents in Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, and Q. robur at continental and climate region scales using long-term data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and similar datasets. We discussed the results in the light of opposing resource dynamics hypotheses: (i) resource accumulation before mast years and exhaustion after mast years (resource storage hypothesis), (ii) shifting resources from vegetative to generative compartments (resource switching hypothesis), and (iii) investing resources concurrently in both vegetative and generative compartments (resource matching hypothesis). Linear mixed-effects modelling (LMM) showed that both stem growth and leaf production were negatively influenced by weather conditions which simultaneously lead to high fruit production. Thus, the impact of generative on vegetative growth is intermixed with effects of environmental factors. Superposed epoch analyses and LMM showed that for mast behaviour in F. sylvatica, there are indicators supporting the resource storage and the resource switching hypotheses. Before mast years, resources were accumulated, while during mast years resources switched from vegetative to generative tissues with reduced stem and leaf growth. For the Quercus species, stem growth was reduced after mast years, which supports the resource storage hypothesis. LMM showed that leaf C concentrations did not change with increasing fruit production in neither species. Leaf N and P concentrations increased in F. sylvatica, but not in Quercus species. Leaf N and P contents decreased with increasing fruit production in all species, as did leaf C content in F. sylvatica. Overall, our findings suggest different resource dynamics strategies in F. sylvatica and Quercus species, which might lead to differences in their adaptive capacity to a changing climate.
Keywords: climate change, Fagus sylvatica, long-term monitoring, mast fruiting, Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, resource dynamics
Published in DiRROS: 15.07.2021; Views: 527; Downloads: 379
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