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Low but significant evolutionary potential for growth, phenology and reproduction traits in European beech
Marjana Westergren, Juliette Archambeau, Marko Bajc, Rok Damjanić, Adélaïde Theraroz, Hojka Kraigher, Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio, Santiago C. González-Martínez, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Local survival of forest tree populations under climate change depends on existing genetic variation and their adaptability to changing environments. Responses to selection were studied in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) under field conditions. A total of 1087 adult trees, seeds, 1-year-old seedlings and established multiyear saplings were genotyped with 16 nuSSRs. Adult trees were assessed for phenotypic traits related to growth, phenology and reproduction. Parentage and paternity analyses were used to estimate effective female and male fecundity as a proxy of fitness and showed that few parents contributed to successful regeneration. Selection gradients were estimated from the relationship between traits and fecundity, while heritability and evolvability were estimated using mixed models and the breeder's equation. Larger trees bearing more fruit and early male flowering had higher total fecundity, while trees with longer growth season had lower total fecundity (directional selection). Stabilizing selection on spring phenology was found for female fecundity, highlighting the role of late frosts as a selection driver. Selection gradients for other traits varied between measurement years and the offspring cohort used to estimate parental fecundity. Compared to other studies in natural populations, we found low to moderate heritability and evolvability for most traits. Response to selection was higher for growth than for budburst, leaf senescence or reproduction traits, reflecting more consistent selection gradients across years and sex functions, and higher phenotypic variability in the population. Our study provides empirical evidence suggesting that populations of long-lived organisms such as forest trees can adapt locally, even at short-time scales.
Keywords: climate change, Fagus sylvatica, heritability, in situ adaptation, response to selection, selection gradients
Published in DiRROS: 12.12.2023; Views: 190; Downloads: 86
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Poročilo o preskusu št.: LVG 2023-044 : vzorec št. 2023/00230
Nikica Ogris, 2023, expertise, arbitration decision

Keywords: varstvo gozdov, morfološke analize, bukev, Fagus sylvatica, Apiognomonia errabunda, rjavenje bukovih listov
Published in DiRROS: 29.06.2023; Views: 304; Downloads: 78
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Poročilo o preskusu št.: LVG 2023-033 : vzorec št. 2023/00133
Nikica Ogris, 2023, expertise, arbitration decision

Keywords: varstvo gozdov, morfološke analize, navadna bukev, Fagus sylvatica, sadike, gozdni reprodukcijski material, sušni stres
Published in DiRROS: 12.06.2023; Views: 311; Downloads: 77
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Modelling dominant tree heights of Fagus sylvatica L. using function-on-scalar regression based on forest inventory data
Markus Engel, Tobias Mette, Wolfgang Falk, Werner Poschenrieder, Jonas Fridman, Mitja Skudnik, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is an important tree species throughout Europe but shifts in its suitable habitats are expected in the future due to climate change. Finding provenances that are still economically viable and ecologically resilient is an ongoing field of research. We modelled the dominant tree heights of European beech as a trait reflecting growth performance dependent on provenance, climate and soil conditions. We derived dominant tree heights from national forest inventory (NFI) data from six European countries spanning over large ecological gradients. We performed function-on-scalar regression using hierarchical generalized additive models (HGAM) to model both the global effects shared among all provenances and the effects specific to a particular provenance. By comparing predictions for a reference period of 1981–2010 and 2071–2100 in a RCP 8.5 scenario, we showed that changes in growth performance can be expected in the future. Dominant tree heights decreased in Southern and Central Europe but increased in Northern Europe by more than 10 m. Changes in growth performance were always accompanied by a change in beech provenances, assuming assisted migration without dispersal limitations. Our results support the concept of assisted migration for the building of resilient future forests and emphasize the use of genetic data for future growth predictions.
Keywords: hierarchical GAMs, functional regression, Fagus sylvatica, provenance, assisted migration
Published in DiRROS: 21.03.2023; Views: 442; Downloads: 187
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Pomen analize dominantnih dreves za gozdnogospodarsko načrtovanje na primeru kisloljubnega bukovja z rebrenjačo
Andrej Bončina, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Poznavanje razvoja dominantnega drevja je pomembno za spremljavo razvoja enomernih sestojev, določanje režima redčenj, ciljnih premerov drevesnih vrst in optimalnega razmerja razvojnih faz ter ocenjevanje produkcijske sposobnosti gozdnih rastišč. S podatki stalnih vzorčnih ploskev smo analizirali debelinsko in višinsko rast dominantnih dreves petih drevesnih vrst kisloljubnega bukovja z rebrenjačo (smreka, bukev, graden, rdeči bor in kostanj). Za vrste smo ocenili rastiščni produkcijski indeks (SPI), ki je dominanta višina drevja pri prsnem premeru 45 cm, rastiščni indeks (SI) in prikazali postopek določanja optimalnega razmerja razvojnih faz glede na drevesno sestavo sestojev ter odločitev o ciljnih premerih drevja in pomlajevanju sestojev. Vrednosti SPI za bukev, smreko, graden, rdeči bor in kostanj so 28,4; 31,1; 25,1; 26,1 in 23,2, vrednosti SI pa 27,9; 32,5; 20,9; 22,9 in 21,7. Optimalni deleži razvojnih faz so odvisni od izbrane drevesne sestave gozdov ter odločitev glede ciljnih premerov in pomlajevanja sestojev. Model debelinskega priraščanja bukve kaže, da na njeno debelinsko rast pozitivno vplivajo prsni premer, produktivnost rastišča in raznomernost sestojev, negativno pa delež bukve v sestoju, sestojna temeljnica in naklon terena.
Keywords: višinska rast, debelinska rast, rastiščni indeks, rastiščni produkcijski indeks, Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies, Quercus petraea, Pinus sylvestris, Castanea sativa
Published in DiRROS: 11.08.2022; Views: 781; Downloads: 206
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Different wood anatomical and growth responses in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) at three forest sites in Slovenia
Domen Arnič, Jožica Gričar, Jernej Jevšenak, Gregor Božič, Georg von Arx, Peter Prislan, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) adapts to local growing conditions to enhance its performance. In response to variations in climatic conditions, beech trees adjust leaf phenology, cambial phenology, and wood formation patterns, which result in different treering widths (TRWs) and wood anatomy. Chronologies of tree ring width and vessel features [i.e., mean vessel area (MVA), vessel density (VD), and relative conductive area (RCTA)] were produced for the 1960%2016 period for three sites that differ in climatic regimes and spring leaf phenology (two early- and one late-flushing populations). These data were used to investigate long-term relationships between climatic conditions and anatomical features of four quarters of tree-rings at annual and intra-annual scales. In addition, we investigated how TRW and vessel features adjust in response to extreme weather events (i.e., summer drought). We found significant differences in TRW, VD, and RCTA among the selected sites. Precipitation and maximum temperature before and during the growing season were the most important climatic factors affecting TRW and vessel characteristics. We confirmed differences in climate-growth relationships between the selected sites, late flushing beech population at Idrija showing the least pronounced response to climate. MVA was the only vessel trait that showed no relationship with TRW or other vessel features. The relationship between MVA and climatic factors evaluated at intra-annual scale indicated that vessel area in the first quarter of tree-ring were mainly influenced by climatic conditions in the previous growing season, while vessel area in the second to fourth quarters of tree ring width was mainly influenced by maximum temperature and precipitation in the current growing season. When comparing wet and dry years, beech from all sites showed a similar response, with reduced TRW and changes in intra-annual variation in vessel area. Our findings suggest that changes in temperature and precipitation regimes as predicted by most climate change scenarios will affect tree-ring increments and wood structure in beech, yet the response between sites or populations may differ.
Keywords: Fagus sylvatica, wood anatomy, tracheograms, dendrochronology, intra specific plasticity
Published in DiRROS: 22.07.2022; Views: 504; Downloads: 359
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