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Query: "author" (Kristina Gruden) .

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Candidate pathogenicity factor/effector proteins of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ modulate plant carbohydrate metabolism, accelerate the ascorbate–glutathione cycle, and induce autophagosomes
Marina Dermastia, Špela Tomaž, Rebeka Strah, Tjaša Lukan, Anna Coll Rius, Barbara Dušak, Timotej Čepin, Aleš Kladnik, Maja Zagorščak, Kristina Gruden, Maruša Pompe Novak, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The pathogenicity of intracellular plant pathogenic bacteria is associated with the action of pathogenicity factors/effectors, but their physiological roles for most phytoplasma species, including ‘Candidiatus Phytoplasma solani’ are unknown. Six putative pathogenicity factors/effectors from six different strains of ‘Ca. P. solani’ were selected by bioinformatic analysis. The way in which they manipulate the host cellular machinery was elucidated by analyzing Nicotiana benthamiana leaves after Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation with the pathogenicity factor/effector constructs using confocal microscopy, pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation, and enzyme assays. Candidate pathogenicity factors/effectors were shown to modulate plant carbohydrate metabolism and the ascorbate–glutathione cycle and to induce autophagosomes. PoStoSP06, PoStoSP13, and PoStoSP28 were localized in the nucleus and cytosol. The most active effector in the processes studied was PoStoSP06. PoStoSP18 was associated with an increase in phosphoglucomutase activity, whereas PoStoSP28, previously annotated as an antigenic membrane protein StAMP, specifically interacted with phosphoglucomutase. PoStoSP04 induced only the ascorbate–glutathione cycle along with other pathogenicity factors/effectors. Candidate pathogenicity factors/effectors were involved in reprogramming host carbohydrate metabolism in favor of phytoplasma own growth and infection. They were specifically associated with three distinct metabolic pathways leading to fructose-6-phosphate as an input substrate for glycolysis. The possible significance of autophagosome induction by PoStoSP28 is discussed.
Keywords: autophagosome, effector, glycolysis, pathogenicity factor, StAMP
Published in DiRROS: 24.08.2023; Views: 361; Downloads: 162
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Chloroplast redox state changes mark cell-to-cell signaling in the hypersensitive response
Tjaša Lukan, Anže Županič, Tjaša Mahkovec Povalej, Jacob O. Brunkard, Mirjam Kmetič, Mojca Juteršek, Špela Baebler, Kristina Gruden, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most commonly used substances in the manufacture ofvarious everyday products. Growing concerns about its hazardous properties, including endocrinedisruption and genotoxicity, have led to its gradual replacement by presumably safer analogues inmanufacturing plastics. The widespread use of BPA and, more recently, its analogues has increasedtheir residues in the environment. However, our knowledge of their toxicological profiles is limitedand their combined effects are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effectscaused by single bisphenols and by the combined exposure of BPA and its two analogues, BPAP andBPC, after short (24-h) and prolonged (96-h) exposure in HepG2 spheroids. The results showed thatBPA did not reduce cell viability in HepG2 spheroids after 24-h exposure. In contrast, BPAP andBPC affected cell viability in HepG2 spheroids. Both binary mixtures (BPA/BPAP and BPA/BPC)decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but the significant difference was only observedfor the combination of BPA/BPC (both at 40μM). After 96-h exposure, none of the BPs studiedaffected cell viability in HepG2 spheroids. Only the combination of BPA/BPAP decreased cellviability in a dose-dependent manner that was significant for the combination of 4μM BPA and 4μMBPAP. None of the BPs and their binary mixtures studied affected the surface area and growth ofspheroids as measured by planimetry. In addition, all BPs and their binary mixtures studied triggeredoxidative stress, as measured by the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde,at both exposure times. Overall, the results suggest that it is important to study the effects of BPsas single compounds. It is even more important to study the effects of combined exposures, as thecombined effects may differ from those induced by single compounds.
Keywords: chloroplast redox state, hypersensitive response (HR)-conferred resistance, immune signaling, live cell imaging, Solanum tuberosum (potato), spatiotemporal analysis, stromules, virus resistance
Published in DiRROS: 13.04.2023; Views: 301; Downloads: 104
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Roles of small RNAs in the establishment of tolerant interaction between plants and viruses
Maja Križnik, Špela Baebler, Kristina Gruden, 2020, review article

Published in DiRROS: 10.08.2020; Views: 2061; Downloads: 740
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