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Transcription factors gene expression in chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps
Tanja Soklič, Matija Rijavec, Mira Šilar, Ana Koren, Izidor Kern, Irena Hočevar-Boltežar, Peter Korošec, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) current therapeutic approaches still fail in some patients with severe persistent symptoms and recurrences after surgery. We aimed to evaluate the master transcription factors gene expression levels of T cell subtypes in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) that could represent new, up-stream targets for topical DNAzyme treatment. Patients and methods. Twenty-two newly diagnosed CRS patients (14 CRSwNP and 8 CRSsNP) were prospectively biopsied and examined histopathologically. Gene expression levels of T-box transcription factor (T-bet, TBX21), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor C (RORC) and Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Results. Eosinophilic CRSwNP was characterized by higher level of GATA3 gene expression compared to noneosinophilic CRSwNP, whereas there was no difference in T-bet, RORC and FOXP3 between eosinophilic and noneosinophilic CRSwNP. In CRSsNP, we found simultaneous upregulation of T-bet, GATA3 and RORC gene expression levels in comparison to CRSwNP; meanwhile, there was no difference in FOXP3 gene expression between CRSwNP and CRSsNP. Conclusions. In eosinophilic CRSwNP, we confirmed the type 2 inflammation by elevated GATA3 gene expression level. In CRSsNP, we unexpectedly found simultaneous upregulation of T-bet and GATA3 that is currently unexplained; however, it might originate from activated CD8+ cells, abundant in nasal mucosa of CRSsNP patients. The elevated RORC in CRSsNP could be part of homeostatic nasal immune response that might be better preserved in CRSsNP patients compared to CRSwNP patients. Further data on transcription factors expression rates in CRS phenotypes are needed.
Keywords: chronic rhinosinusitis
Published in DiRROS: 05.07.2024; Views: 93; Downloads: 60
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PD-L1 expression in squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung
Urška Janžič, Izidor Kern, Andrej Janžič, Luka Čavka, Tanja Čufer, 2017, original scientific article

Abstract: With introduction of immunotherapy (IT) into the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a need for predictive biomarker became apparent. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein expression is most widely explored predictive marker for response to IT. We assessed PD-L1 expression in tumor cells (TC) and immune cells (IC) of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients. We obtained 54 surgically resected tumor specimens and assessed PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry after staining them with antibody SP142 (Ventana, USA). Clinicopathological characteristics were acquired from the hospital registry database. Results were analyzed according to cut-off values of % 5% and % 10% of PD-L1 expression on either TC or IC. 29 (54%) samples were AC and 25 (46%) were SCC. PD-L1 expression was significantly higher in TC of SCC compared to AC at both cut-off values (52% vs. 17%, p = 0.016 and 52% vs. 14%, p = 0.007, respectively) no difference in PD-L1 expression in IC of SCC and AC was found. In AC alone, PD-L1 expression was significantly higher in IC compared to TC at both cut-off values (72% vs. 17%, p < 0.001 and 41% vs. 14%, p = 0.008, respectively), while no significant difference between IC and TC PD-L1 expression was revealed in SCC. Our results suggest a significantly higher PD-L1 expression in TC of SCC compared to AC, regardless of the cut-off value. PD-L1 expression in IC is high in both histological subtypes of NSCLC, and adds significantly to the overall positivity of AC but not SCC.
Keywords: lung cancer, squamous-cell lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, tumor cells, immune cells, PD-L1 expression
Published in DiRROS: 31.05.2024; Views: 207; Downloads: 145
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Intercalated chemotherapy and erlotinib for advanced NSCLC : high proportion of complete remissions and prolonged progression-free survival among patients with EGFR activating mutations
Matjaž Zwitter, Karmen Stanič, Mirjana Rajer, Izidor Kern, Martina Vrankar, Natalija Edelbaher, Viljem Kovač, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. Pharmaco-dynamic separation of cytotoxic and targeted drugs might avoid their mutual antagonistic effect in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods. Eligible patients were treatment-naive with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. In addition, inclusion was limited to never-smokers or light smokers or, after 2010, to patients with activating epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Treatment started with 3-weekly cycles of gemcitabine and cisplatin on days 1, 2 and 4 and erlotinib on days 5 to 15. After 4 to 6 cycles, patients continued with erlotinib maintenance. Results. Fifty-three patients were recruited into the trial: 24 prior to 2010 (of whom 9 were later found to be positive for EGFR mutations), and 29 EGFR mutation-positive patients recruited later. Unfavourable prognostic factors included stage IV disease (51 patients - 96%), performance status 2%3 (11 patients - 21%) and brain metastases (15 patients - 28%). Grade 4 toxicity included 2 cases of neutropenia and 4 thrombo-embolic events. The 15 EGFR negative patients had 33% objective response rate, median progression-free survival (PFS) 6.0 months and median survival 7.6 months. Among 38 EGFR positive patients, complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) were seen in 16 (42.1%) and 17 (44.7%) cases, respectively. PET-CT scanning was performed in 30 patients and confirmed CR and PR in 16 (53.3%) and 9 (30.0%) cases, respectively. Median PFS for EGFR mutated patients was 21.2 months and median survival was 32.5 months. Conclusions. While patients with EGFR negative tumors do not benefit from addition of erlotinib, the intercalated schedule appears most promising for those with EGFR activating mutations.
Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, EGFR activating mutations, gemicitabine, erlotinib
Published in DiRROS: 11.04.2024; Views: 269; Downloads: 86
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Brain metastases in lung adenocarcinoma : impact of EGFR mutation status on incidence and survival
Karmen Stanič, Matjaž Zwitter, Nina Turnšek, Izidor Kern, Aleksander Sadikov, Tanja Čufer, 2014, original scientific article

Abstract: The brain represents a frequent progression site in lung adenocarcinoma. This study was designed to analyse the association between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status and the frequency of brain metastases (BM) and survival in routine clinical practice. Patients and methods. We retrospectively analysed the medical records of 629 patients with adenocarcinoma in Slovenia who were tested for EGFR mutations in order to analyse the cumulative incidence of BM, the time from the diagnosis to the development of BM (TDBM), the time from BM to death (TTD) and the median survival. Results. Out of 629 patients, 168 (27%) had BM, 90 patients already at the time of diagnosis. Additional 78 patients developed BM after a median interval of 14.3 months; 25.8 months in EGFR positive and 11.8 months in EGFR negative patients, respectively (p = 0.002). EGFR mutations were present in 47 (28%) patients with BM. The curves for cumulative incidence of BM in EGFR positive and negative patients demonstrate a trend for a higher incidence of BM in EGFR mutant patients at diagnosis (19% vs. 13%, p = 0.078), but no difference later during the course of the disease. The patients with BM at diagnosis had a statistically longer TTD (7.3 months) than patients who developed BM later (3.1 months). The TTD in EGFR positive patients with BM at diagnosis was longer than in EGFR negative patients (12.6 vs. 6.8, p = 0.005), while there was no impact of EGFR status on the TTD of patients who developed BM later. Conclusions. Except for a non-significant increase of frequency of BM at diagnosis in EGFR positive patients, EGFR status had no influence upon the cumulative incidence of BM. EGFR positive patients had a longer time to CNS progression. While EGFR positive patients with BM at diagnosis had a longer survival, EGFR status had no influence on TTD in patients who developed BM later during the course of disease.
Keywords: brain metastases, lung adenocarcinoma, EGFR mutations
Published in DiRROS: 11.04.2024; Views: 396; Downloads: 65
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Semirigid thoracoscopy : an effective method for diagnosing pleural malignancies
Aleš Rozman, Luka Camlek, Izidor Kern, Mateja Marc-Malovrh, 2014, original scientific article

Keywords: torakoskopija, plevra, diagnostika
Published in DiRROS: 04.04.2024; Views: 308; Downloads: 117
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Triple synchronous cancers : a medical and ethical problem
Lučka Debevec, Rok Cesar, Izidor Kern, 2007, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. In a patient with suspicious synchronous multiple tumours, there are limited possibilities for effective therapy. Therefore, the decision for invasive diagnostics and precise staging of tumours is questionable, especially in elderly patients suitable only for symptomatic therapy. Case report. A 78-year-old man with hypertension and angina pectoris was admitted to the hospital due to syncope. Two primary lung tumours and a kidney tumour were detected by imaging investigation. The patient refused invasive diagnostics and left the hospital. After 19 months he was readmitted in an impaired clinical condition and subsequently died of bronchopneumonia. The autopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the right upper lobe with metastases to regional lymph nodes and to the brain, small-cell carcinoma of the left upper lobe with metastases to regional lymph nodes and to the spleen,and clear-cell kidney carcinoma with multiple metastases to the lungs. All tumours were necrotizing, and therefore we assumed that any attempt at specific therapy would have been ineffective. Conclusions. In an elderly patient with advanced lung tumors and suspicious synchronous triple cancers, the "wait and see" option can be suitable.
Published in DiRROS: 22.02.2024; Views: 325; Downloads: 70
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Surgical treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma
Janez Eržen, Stanko Vidmar, Mihael Sok, Andrej Debeljak, Peter Kecelj, Viljem Kovač, Marjeta Stanovnik, Tomaž Rott, Izidor Kern, 2005, original scientific article

Abstract: Background. The aim of the study was to identify perioperative morbidity and mortality, the category and mode of adjuvant treatment, local recurrence and survival in patients treated by extrapleural pneumonectony (EPP) for malignantpleural mesothelioma (NLPM). Methods. From 2000 to 2003, 18 patients with MPM were referred to the Department of Thoracic Surgery in Ljubljana, and17 of them were operated on. Two patients underwent explorative thoracotomy, and 15 patients were evaluated. Five female and nine male patients (aged 52-68 years) were treated by EPP and one male patient by pleurectomy. Eight patients received both adjuvant chemotherapy (ChT) and radiotherapy (RT), with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 + mitomycin C 6-10 mg/m2 gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 and external beam radiation with 24 Gy - 58 Gy respectively, three patients received no adjuvant therapy, three patients weretreated by adjuvant ChT, two of them were given cisplatin 100 mg/m2 + mitomycin C 6-10 mg/m2, and one patient cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on the first day and gemcitabine 250 mg/rn2 in prolonged 6 hours infusion on the first and on the eighth day. One patient was treated only by adjuvant RT. Results. There were no perioperative deaths and the postoperative morbidity was 42%. Of the 15 evaluable patients, and in the median follow up of 40 months (28-64), we noticed nine (60.0%) recurrences, seven local and two abdominal. Eight (53.3%)patients died, all because of the local progress of disease. (Abstract truncated at 2000 characters)
Published in DiRROS: 14.02.2024; Views: 287; Downloads: 70
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