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Query: "author" (Andreja Pondelak) .

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Improving the flame retardancy of wood using an eco-friendly mineralisation process
Andreja Pondelak, Andrijana Sever Škapin, Nataša Knez, Friderik Knez, Tomaž Pazlar, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: A novel environmentally friendly method for in situ formation of CaCO3 deep inside a wood’s structure is presented. The method is based on vacuum-pressure impregnation using a one-component treatment medium – a water solution of calcium acetoacetate - and a single stage process to significantly improve the fire retardancy of the treated material.
Keywords: mineralisation, flame retardancy, calcium acetoacetate, calcium carbonate, wood
Published in DiRROS: 31.07.2023; Views: 79; Downloads: 56
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Environmentally friendly protection of European beech against fire and fungal decay using a combination of thermal modification and mineralisation
Rožle Repič, Andreja Pondelak, Davor Kržišnik, Miha Humar, Nataša Knez, Friderik Knez, Andrijana Sever Škapin, 2023, original scientific article

Abstract: The demand for construction timber is continuously increasing, due to its favourable characteristics. However, the adequate protection of wood is key to its successful use, as it is flammable and susceptible to biodegradation. Given that thermal modification enhances the durability of wood, and mineralisation with CaCO3 considerably improves its fire properties, it is worth considering the combined effects of the two methods. European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was selected to determine the effects of a) thermal modification, b) mineralisation through the in-situ formation of CaCO3, and c) a combination of the two procedures, on resistance to decay fungi, reaction to fire and the mechanical properties of the wood. Microscopic analysis and comparisons of the samples before and after exposure to fungi were also conducted. Mineralised wood generally had a slightly alkaline pH value and higher equilibrium moisture content, while thermal modification lowered the equilibrium moisture content. The present study demonstrated the combined effect of thermal modification and mineralisation: the best response to fire as well as resistance to fungi was achieved when the two treatments were combined. Results from the Brinell hardness and three-point bending tests indicate that both modification procedures can slightly impair the mechanical properties of the wood.
Keywords: wood, protection, durability, mechanical properties
Published in DiRROS: 12.07.2023; Views: 95; Downloads: 46
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Combining mineralisation and thermal modification to improve the fungal durability of selected wood species
Rožle Repič, Andreja Pondelak, Davor Kržišnik, Miha Humar, Andrijana Sever Škapin, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The development of non-biocidal and environmentally friendly systems to protect wood against biological decay has become a high priority in recent years. In the present study the impact of an innovative modification procedure, combining two environmentally friendly modification methods: thermal modification and mineralisation, using an aqueous solution of calcium acetoacetate as a precursor, on the fungal durability of wood was evaluated. European beechwood (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway sprucewood (Picea abies) were selected as model wood species. Wood samples were treated using either a single or combination of both methods and exposed to four different fungi: Gloeophyllum trabeum, Rhodonia placenta, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus. The effect of the different modifications on moisture content, dynamic vapour sorption, contact angle and pH value was also evaluated. Overall, the highest durability against Rhodonia placenta, Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus was achieved through thermal modification in both wood species, while the combination of mineralisation and thermal modification has a synergistic effect against degradation by Gloeophyllum trabeum. In the case of beechwood the mass loss decreased from 41% for native to 6% for combined modified samples. We proved that the effectiveness of different treatment against fungal decay of wood were in strong dependence of their moisture content, dynamic vapour sorption, contact angle and pH values. The role of fungi on the morphology of the wood and on crystal structure of formed carbonate was investigated using SEM-EDS analysis.
Keywords: thermal modification, wood mineralization, fungal durability, environmentally friendly modification methods
Published in DiRROS: 20.06.2023; Views: 103; Downloads: 79
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Innovative calcium carbonate-based products to repair cracked cement mortars
Martina Zuena, Andreja Pondelak, Enrico Garbin, Matteo Panizza, Luca Nodari, Andrijana Sever Škapin, Luka Škrlep, Gilberto Artioli, Patrizia Tomasin, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The durability of Portland cement mortars is often affected by environmental factors, which can cause physicochemical and mechanical degradation processes. In this study, the performance of three products, calcium acetoacetate and calcium tetrahydrofurfuryloxide dissolved in two different solvents developed and tested as stone consolidants, was evaluated in terms of crack filling or sealing and consolidation. Realistic cracks were induced in quasibrittle cement mortar prisms using a custom-designed test rig. The effectiveness and the performance of the considered treatments, investigated on specimens, were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy, colourimetry, water absorption rate, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and surface hardness measurements. Results revealed that, in the examined conditions, the products were more suitable as surface consolidants than as crack fillers.
Keywords: cement mortars, 20th century architecture conservation, calcium acetoacetate, calcium alkoxide, concrete repair, open access
Published in DiRROS: 04.05.2023; Views: 147; Downloads: 68
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Mode I fracture of beech-adhesive bondline at three different temperatures
Jaka Gašper Pečnik, Andreja Pondelak, Michael David Burnard, Václav Sebera, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Single edge-notched three-point bending tests (SEN-TPB) for mode I were utilized to experimentallyevaluate fracture properties of adhesive bondlines in European beech (Fagus SylvaticaL.). Thebondline was examined at two anatomical planes with TR and RT orientation and at control andtwo elevated temperatures (70°C and 140°C). Among epoxy (EPI), melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF), and polyurethane (PUR) adhesives, the highest average critical energyGcwith 0.80 N/mmand fracture energyGfwith 1079.4 N/mm were obtained for EPI in the TR plane and understandard climate conditions (20°C/65% relative humidity), followed by MUF (Gc= 0.50 N/mm andGf= 620 N/mm) and PUR (Gc= 0.25 N/mm andGf= 290.9 N/mm), respectively. PUR was leasteffected by elevated temperature, and no significant differences forGcandGfbetween TR and RTbondline orientations were found for MUF and PUR treated at 20°C/65% relative humidity whilecomparisons between other factors varied significantly. Treatment of specimens at elevatedtemperatures resulted in reduced fracture performance regardless of wood grain orientation orthe adhesive system.
Keywords: crack, fracture, grain orientation, temperature, European Beech, odprti dostop
Published in DiRROS: 03.05.2023; Views: 144; Downloads: 85
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Improved synthetic route of incorporation of nanosilicon species into phenol-formaldehyde resin and preparation of novel ZnAl-layered double-hydroxide hybrid phenol-formaldehyde resin
Ana Dremelj, Romana Cerc Korošec, Andreja Pondelak, Branka Mušič, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: Hybrid phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins represent one of the most important niche groups of binding systems for composites. New industrial needs, environmental requirements, and price fluctuations have led to further research on materials with enhanced mechanical and thermal properties. The preparation of novel hybrid materials can be achieved by inclusion of various elements or functional groups in the organic polymer phenolic framework. Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of a PF-based hybrid material with different nanoscale silicone species and ZnAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH). The main goals of this study were to improve the synthetic pathways of hybrid resin, as well as to prepare granulated composite materials and test samples and determine their characterization. Added inorganic species increased the glass-transition temperature by a minimum of 8 °C, which was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Rheological properties (melting viscosity and flow distance) of the hybrid resin were measured. The homogeneity of distribution of added species across the organic matrix was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With synthesized new hybrid-binding systems, we prepared different granulated composite materials and evaluated them with the measurements of rheological properties (flow curing characteristics). Tensile strength of samples, prepared from granulated composite material, improved by more than 5%.
Keywords: phenol-formaldehyde hybrid resins, nano-SiO2, ZnAl-LDH, composites, glass-transition temperature, mechanical properties
Published in DiRROS: 03.05.2023; Views: 182; Downloads: 57
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