Measuring techniques for concentration and stable isotopologues of CO2 in a terrestrial ecosystem : a reviewGrega E. Voglar
, Saša Zavadlav
, Tom Levanič
, Mitja Ferlan
Povzetek: Measurements of carbon dioxide and their stable isotopes are propulsive research tool in ecology and environmental science as they can give us insight into carbon cycle. They are widely used to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere, as well as the exchange between these reservoirs. In this paper, we provide a basic overview of two different analytical measurement techniques, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and laser-absorption spectroscopy (LAS) which have been developed and utilized for monitoring of CO2 isotopologues in ecosystem. We present the basics for each technique, however with the emphasis on LAS measurement technique we are targeting readers who are not familiar with this topic. A major objective of this paper is to illustrate the current value and future potential of various analytical instruments in a wide range of applications deployed in the terrestrial ecosystem. Finally, we draw a conclusion from recent research campaigns by presenting a decision tree to better understand and choose a correct application combination for a selected scale of ecosystem.
Ključne besede: Isotope ratio mass spectrometry, laser-absorption spectroscopy, CO2 isotopologues, terrestrial ecosystem, decision tree, spectroscopic databases
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.02.2020; Ogledov: 112; Prenosov: 59
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Environmental and climate change impacts of eighteen biomass-based plants in the Alpine region : a comparative analysisElisa Pieratti
, Alessandro Paletto
, Andrea Atena
, Silvia Bernardini
, Mathi Palm
, Dominik Patzelt
, Manuela Romagnoli
, Francesca Teston
, Grega E. Voglar
, Tine Grebenc
, Nike Krajnc
, Thomas Schnabel
Povzetek: In the energy and climate policy commitments of the European Union, the following targets have been foreseen up to 2030: reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of 40%, improving the energy conversion efficiency of 27%, and producing 27% of the energy from renewable energy sources. Nowadays, thanks to the development of reliable and efficient technologies, several possibilities exist to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources, such as wind power, solar, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass. In the Alpine region, biomass can play a key role for achieving the objectives foreseen by the EU policy strategy. In the last few years, due to the high available potentials of residues from forestry operations and sawmill processing, the Alpine region witnessed the development of centralized biomass district heating plants. The aim of the present study is to assess the environmental impacts of 18 biomass-based plants located in the Alpine region using a Life Cycle Assessment approach and to analyse the current market destination of the wood residues. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the stakeholders of the forest-wood supply chain (managers of biomass-based plant, sawmills, forest owners and enterprises). From the environmental point of view, the results of the Life Cycle Assessment (global climate change impact: 5-90 gCO2 MJ-1) show that the 'critical points' in the forest-wood supply chain are: the transport phase (1-54 gCO2 MJ-1) and the wood processing phase (6-36 gCO2 MJ-1). The results provided by Life Cycle Assessment can be used to increase the scientific knowledge of the environmental impacts related to the biomass conversion technology and to underline the weak points of the forest-wood supply chain. Furthermore, these results can support the decision makers in defining climate change mitigation strategies at regional and local level.
Ključne besede: environmental impacts, renewable energy policy, forest-wood chain, Life Cycle Assessment, Alpine region, climate change, mitigation
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 103; Prenosov: 58
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Effect of contaminated soil on multitrophic interactions in a terrestrial systemGrega E. Voglar
, Tanja Mrak
, Mitja Križman
, Anamarija Jagodič
, Stanislav Trdan
, Žiga Laznik
Povzetek: Background and aims The effect of contaminated soil on multitrophic interactions in a terrestrial system was studied in a mesocosm experiment with European beech, larvae of summer chafer, and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Methods Beech seedlings were grown in non-contaminated forest and garden soil contaminated with potential toxic elements Cd, Pb and Zn, and in the absence/presence of summer chafer larvae. Root morphology and ectomycorrhizal communities were analysed. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from beech roots were investigated by GC-MS. Humulene, %-caryophyllene, borneol and camphor were selected for chemotaxis assay with EPN Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Results Increased root tip density was observed as a response to soil contamination and root herbivory. Soil contamination decreased ectomycorrhizal species richness. Analyses of VOC yielded 14 different compounds. Results showed that the least mobile nematode species towards the VOC tested was S. feltiae. %-caryophyllene was an attractant for S. carpocapsae and humulene a weak attractant for H. bacteriophora. Conclusions Beech roots emitted VOC that affected movement of EPN. %-caryophyllene was detected in beech roots regardless of treatment, indicating that VOC that affect movement of EPN are emitted even in the absence of direct root herbivore attack.
Ključne besede: contaminated soil, beech seedlings, summer chafer, ectomycorrhizal communities, root volatile organic compounds, entomopathogenic nematodes
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.02.2020; Ogledov: 97; Prenosov: 70
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Poškodbe v krajini - primer sanacije kamnolomov v SlovenijiGrega E. Voglar
Povzetek: Ljudje smo zaradi vse opaznejših posegov v prostor bolj kot doslej občutljivi za razvrednotenje videza okolja % poškodb v krajini. Razvrednotenje videza je vedno povezano z drugimi vrstami razvrednotenja, kot so razvrednotenje tal, gozda, rastlinstva, reliefa ipd. Zato je razumljiv negativen odnos ljudi do opaznih posegov v prostor (površinskih kopov), ki s seboj prinašajo tudi negativne vplive. Med take posege vsekakor sodijo tudi kamnolomi za pridobivanje različnih mineralnih surovin. Posebno izstopajoče razvrednotenje videza so opuščeni in delujoči nesanirani kamnolomi, kakršnih je v Sloveniji veliko. Kot rešitev za zunanji videz te nepovratne spremembe reliefa zaradi izkoriščanja/eksploatacije mineralnih surovin % tehničnega kamna dolomita predstavljamo vzorčni primer postopka tehnične in biološke sanacije etaž/brežin kamnoloma Soteska, ki leži na Dolenjskem. Investitor z upoštevanjem zahtev slovenske zakonodaje postopoma sanira kamnolom in v sprejemljivih mejah sprotno preprečuje negativen vpliv na okolje. Namen strokovnega članka je poudariti, da lahko tudi po končanem izkoriščanju mineralnih surovin s pravilno načrtovano sanacijo degradiranega prostora že v nekaj letih uspešno blažimo poškodbe v krajini, ki jih predstavljajo kamnolomi.
Ključne besede: kamnolomi, sanacija, degradirana območja, poškodbe v krajini, gozdovi
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 02.05.2020; Ogledov: 63; Prenosov: 26
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