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1.
Assessment of natural zeolite clinoptilolite for remediation of mercury-contaminated environment
Ivona Nuić, Mateja Gosar, Marin Ugrina, Marina Trgo, 2022, original scientific article

Abstract: The soil at ancient roasting sites in the surroundings of the Idrija mine (Slovenia) is highly contaminated with mercury. To assess the impact of mercury on groundwater by infiltration and find an eco-friendly remediation method, the leaching of mercury from the soil containing 1347 mg Hg/kg, followed by sorption of the total leached mercury on cost-effective natural zeolite (NZ) clinoptilolite, was performed. The leaching of soil in ultrapure water of pHo = 3.00–11.46 after 24 h resulted in the total leached mercury concentration in the range 0.33–17.43 µg/L. Much higher concentrations (136.9–488.0 µg/L) were determined after the first few hours of leaching and were high above the maximum permissible level in water for human consumption. The NZ showed very good sorption of the total leached mercury, with a maximum removal efficiency of 94.2%. The leaching of mercury in presence of the NZ resulted in a significant decrease of the total leached mercury (1.9–20.3 µg/L compared to 12.8–42.2 µg/L), with removal efficiencies up to 90.5%, indicating immobilization of mercury species. The NZ has a great potential for economically viable remediation of mercury-contaminated environment. However, efforts should be made in the further study of mercury leachability to reduce the mercury concentration in water to acceptable levels.
Keywords: Idrija mine, mercury-contaminated soil and water, leaching, natural zeolite clinoptilolite, remediation
Published in DiRROS: 23.06.2022; Views: 95; Downloads: 40
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2.
Global homogenization of the structure and function in the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, David J. Eldridge, Yu-Rong Liu, Blessing Sokoya, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He, Felipe Bastida, José L. Moreno, Adebola R. Bamigboye, Tine Grebenc, Tina Unuk, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The structure and function of the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces remain largely undetermined. We conducted a global field survey in urban greenspaces and neighboring natural ecosystems across 56 cities from six continents, and found that urban soils are important hotspots for soil bacterial, protist and functional gene diversity, but support highly homogenized microbial communities worldwide. Urban greenspaces had a greater proportion of fast-growing bacteria, algae, amoebae, and fungal pathogens, but a lower proportion of ectomycorrhizal fungi than natural ecosystems. These urban ecosystems also showed higher proportions of genes associated with human pathogens, greenhouse gas emissions, faster nutrient cycling, and more intense abiotic stress than natural environments. City affluence, management practices, and climate were fundamental drivers of urban soil communities. Our work paves the way toward a more comprehensive global-scale perspective on urban greenspaces, which is integral to managing the health of these ecosystems and the well-being of human populations.
Keywords: soil biodiversity, structural diversity, functional diversity, urban soils
Published in DiRROS: 15.07.2021; Views: 504; Downloads: 358
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3.
Short-term impacts of harvesting intensity on the upper soil layers in high karst Dinaric fir-beech forests
Emira Hukić, Matjaž Čater, Aleksander Marinšek, Mitja Ferlan, Milan Kobal, Daniel Žlindra, Hamid Čustović, Primož Simončič, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: The present study addresses the short-term effects of different harvest intensities under close-to-nature selective management on the upper soil layers in Slovenian and Bosnian Dinaric karst fir-beech forests. The different harvest intensities coincided with the single-tree and irregular shelterwood management, common in the region. The effect of harvesting intensity on the upper soil layers (Ol, Of, Ol and 0%10 cm mineral soil) was investigated by a repeated measurements experiment in Slovenia on 27 research plots in close-to nature managed forests. The properties of the upper layers (concentration of SOC and TN, C/N ratio, weights, BD and SOC stocks) were analyzed twice, before (2011) and after (2014) treatment of 50% and 100% harvest intensity in relation to the total standing growing stock of trees. As a control, we used no-treatment <20% harvesting intensity plots. To extend this experiment, we added three comparable plots from the Bosnian site: one in an old-growth forest with 0% harvest intensity and two in the managed forest with <20% harvest intensity. The results of the assessment of mean differences indicated a significant influence of harvesting intensity on the decrease in SOC, TN concentrations, weights and SOC stocks in the organic layers and the increase in BD and SOC stocks in the 0%10 cm mineral soil. The highest relative decreases in Ol, Of and Oh SOC stocks occurred in 50% (%10 and %38%) and 100% (%16 and %49%) harvest intensities. Negligible relative differences in both organic and 0%10 cm mineral layers were found for the <20% harvest intensity in the region. The change in forest light conditions resulting from differences in canopy openness as a function of applied harvest intensity explained the significant difference in the properties of the upper soil layers. The impact of the short-term losses in SOC stocks, in terms of overall soil productivity, may depend on the regeneration dynamics and melioration methods.
Keywords: close-to-nature forest management, harvest intensity, Calcic Cambisol, forest soil, soil organic carbon
Published in DiRROS: 10.05.2021; Views: 587; Downloads: 355
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4.
Harvesting intensity and tree species affect soil respiration in uneven-aged Dinaric forest stands
Matjaž Čater, Eva Dařenová, Primož Simončič, 2021, original scientific article

Abstract: Forest management, especially thinning and harvesting measures, has a significant impact on the forest carbon balance especially in the forests with long-term continuous cover history. We measured soil CO2 efflux (Rs) in three forest complexes of mixed, uneven-aged Dinaric forests with predominating silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). Rs was measured after removal of mature forest stands with 50% and 100% intensity of living stock and compared with Rs on the control plots without any applied silvicultural measures. Rs was measured monthly in three consecutive 2012, 2013 and 2014 growing periods. Soil CO2 efflux increased after harvest of both intensities in all studied forest stands. The biggest increase was measured in beech stands and amounted up to 47 and 69% for 50% and 100% harvest intensities, respectively. The effect of harvest on Rs in spruce and fir stands was similar - up to 26% for 50% harvest intensity and 48% for 100% harvest intensity. Despite the biggest increase after harvest, Rs in beech stands returned the fastest to the level of the uncut forest and this levelling period (LP) took 14-17 months with a little delay of the stands with 100% harvest intensity. The LP for all fir stands, for spruce stands with 50% harvest intensity and for one spruce stand with 100% harvest intensity, was 26-29 months. At two spruce stands with 100% harvest intensity we did not record Rs levelling during our three-year study. This study involved forest stands of three predominating tree species growing under the same conditions, which allowed us to determine the species-specific sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux to the different harvesting intensities.
Keywords: harvesting intensity, soil CO2 efflux, silviculture, carbon release, silver fir forests, Beech forestrs, Norway spruce forests
Published in DiRROS: 08.10.2020; Views: 838; Downloads: 302
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5.
KEYLINK : towards a more integrative soil representation for inclusion in ecosystem scale models : I. : review and model concept
Gabrielle I. Deckmyn, Omar Flores, Mathias Mayer, Xavier Domene, Andrea Schnepf, Katrin Kuka, Kris van Looy, Daniel P. Rasse, Maria J.I. Briones, Sébastien Barot, Matty Berg, E. I. Vanguelova, Ivika Ostonen, Harry Vereecken, Laura Martinez Suz, Beat Frey, Aline Frossard, Alexei Tiunov, Jan Frouz, Tine Grebenc, Maarja Öpik, Mathieu Javaux, Alexei Uvarov, Olga Vindušková, Paul Henning Krogh, Oskar Franklin, Juan Jiménez, Jorge Curiel Yuste, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: The relatively poor simulation of the below-ground processes is a severe drawback for many ecosystem models, especially when predicting responses to climate change and management. For a meaningful estimation of ecosystem production and the cycling of water, energy, nutrients and carbon, the integration of soil processes and the exchanges at the surface is crucial. It is increasingly recognized that soil biota play an important role in soil organic carbon and nutrient cycling, shaping soil structure and hydrological properties through their activity, and in water and nutrient uptake by plants through mycorrhizal processes. In this article, we review the main soil biological actors (microbiota, fauna and roots) and their effects on soil functioning. We review to what extent they have been included in soil models and propose which of them could be included in ecosystem models. We show that the model representation of the soil food web, the impact of soil ecosystem engineers on soil structure and the related effects on hydrology and soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization are key issues in improving ecosystem-scale soil representation in models. Finally, we describe a new core model concept (KEYLINK) that integrates insights from SOM models, structural models and food web models to simulate the living soil at an ecosystem scale.
Keywords: soil fauna, model, Soil Organic Matter, SOM, hydrology, pore size distribution, PSD, soil biota, ecosystem
Published in DiRROS: 23.09.2020; Views: 935; Downloads: 744
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6.
Blind spots in global soil biodiversity and ecosystem function research
Carlos A. Guerra, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Johannes Sikorski, Antonis Chatzinotas, Nathaly Guerrero-Ramírez, Simone Cesarz, Léa Beaumelle, Matthias C. Rillig, Fernando T. Maestre, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Tine Grebenc, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Soils harbor a substantial fraction of the world's biodiversity, contributing to many crucial ecosystem functions. It is thus essential to identify general macroecological patterns related to the distribution and functioning of soil organisms to support their conservation and consideration by governance. These macroecological analyses need to represent the diversity of environmental conditions that can be found worldwide. Here we identify and characterize existing environmental gaps in soil taxa and ecosystem functioning data across soil macroecological studies and 17,186 sampling sites across the globe. These data gaps include important spatial, environmental, taxonomic, and functional gaps, and an almost complete absence of temporally explicit data. We also identify the limitations of soil macroecological studies to explore general patterns in soil biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, with only 0.3% of all sampling sites having both information about biodiversity and function, although with different taxonomic groups and functions at each site. Based on this information, we provide clear priorities to support and expand soil macroecological research.
Keywords: soil, biodiversity, ecosystem services, blind spots, macroecological research
Published in DiRROS: 27.08.2020; Views: 979; Downloads: 1079
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7.
8.
Hyperspectral remote sensing of grapevine drought stress
Monika Zovko, Uroš Žibrat, Matej Knapič, Marina Bubalo, Davor Romić, 2019, original scientific article

Keywords: vineyard, soil, precision, irrigation, water stress, hyperspectral imagery
Published in DiRROS: 14.05.2020; Views: 1720; Downloads: 778
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9.
Cultural ecosystem services provided by the biodiversity of forest soils : a European review
Jurga Motiejunaite, Isabella Børja, Ivika Ostonen, Mark Bakker, Brynhildur Bjarnadottir, Ivano Brunner, Reda Iršenaite, Tanja Mrak, Edda Oddsdottir, Tarja Lehto, 2019, original scientific article

Abstract: Soil is one of the most species-rich habitats and plays a crucial role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. It is acknowledged that soils and their biota deliver many ecosystem services. However, up to now, cultural ecosystem services (CES) provided by soil biodiversity remained virtually unknown. Here we present a multilingual and multisubject literature review on cultural benefits provided by belowground biota in European forests. We found 226 papers mentioning impact of soil biota on the cultural aspects of human life. According to the reviewed literature, soil organisms contribute to all CES. Impact on CES, as reflected in literature, was highest for fungi and lowest for microorganisms and mesofauna. Cultural benefits provided by soil biota clearly prevailed in the total of the reviewed references, but there were also negative effects mentioned in six CES. The same organism groups or even individual species may have negative impacts within one CES and at the same time act as an ecosystem service provider for another CES. The CES were found to be supported at several levels of ecosystem service provision: from single species to two or more functional/taxonomical groups and in some cases morphological diversity acted as a surrogate for species diversity. Impact of soil biota on CES may be both direct % by providing the benefits (or dis-benefits) and indirect through the use of the products or services obtained from these benefits. The CES from soil biota interacted among themselves and with other ES, but more than often, they did not create bundles, because there exist temporal fluctuations in value of CES and a time lag between direct and indirect benefits. Strong regionality was noted for most of CES underpinned by soil biota: the same organism group or species may have strong impact on CES (positive, negative or both) in some regions while no, minor or opposite effects in others. Contrarily to the CES based on landscapes, in the CES provided by soil biota distance between the ecosystem and its CES benefiting area is shorter (CES based on landscapes are used less by local people and more by visitors, meanwhile CES based on species or organism groups are used mainly by local people). Our review revealed the existence of a considerable amount of spatially fragmented and semantically rich information highlighting cultural values provided by forest soil biota in Europe.
Keywords: soil biota, forests, soil ecosystem services, Europe
Published in DiRROS: 20.02.2020; Views: 1217; Downloads: 608
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10.
Effect of spatial scale and harvest on heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux in a sessile oak forest
Eva Dařenová, Matjaž Čater, 2020, original scientific article

Abstract: Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and it is substantially sensitive to climate change. Monitoring CO2 efflux and its upscaling from field measurements to the ecosystem level is a complex task, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of the fluxes. Human intervention, e.g. through forest harvest, may change both CO2 efflux and its spatial heterogeneity. The objective of our study was to quantify spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux within and among plots distributed within a topographically variable sessile oak forest stand before and after harvesting. Forest floor CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil water content were measured monthly in a sessile oak forest during two growing seasons: one before and one after harvesting. Stand structure characteristics (gap fraction, leaf area index, tree number and size) and the amount of understory also were determined. Relationships between individual variables and spatial heterogeneity were analyzed. The small-scale spatial heterogeneity (expresses as the coefficient of variation) of forest floor CO2 efflux and soil water content (SWC) in the undisturbed forest was low, at maximum 0.22 and 0.13, respectively. Studied variables had no effect on spatial heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux except for the amount of understorey vegetation which positively correlated with forest floor CO2 efflux. Although the studied forest was situated in topographically variable terrain, we observed that inter-plot heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux was lower than that within plots. Stand harvest increased the intra-plot heterogeneity of forest floor CO2 efflux but did not affect the inter-plot heterogeneity. This leads to the conclusion that the number of positions within an individual plot should increase after harvest but the number of plots may remain unchanged to determine adequately ecosystem forest floor CO2 efflux.
Keywords: gap fraction, LAI, Quercus petraea, soil respiration, soil water content
Published in DiRROS: 20.02.2020; Views: 1299; Downloads: 207

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