Consistency of impact assessment protocols for non-native speciesPablo González-Moreno
, Lorenzo Lazzaro
, Montserrat Vila
, Cristina Preda
, Tim Adriaens
, Sven Bacher
, Giuseppe Brundu
, Gordon H. Copp
, Franz Essl
, Nikica Ogris
Abstract: Standardized tools are needed to identify and prioritize the most harmful non-native species (NNS). A plethora of assessment protocols have been developed to evaluate the current and potential impacts of non-native species, but consistency among them has received limited attention. To estimate the consistency across impact assessment protocols, 89 specialists in biological invasions used 11 protocols to screen 57 NNS (2614 assessments). We tested if the consistency in the impact scoring across assessors, quantified as the coefficient of variation (CV), was dependent on the characteristics of the protocol, the taxonomic group and the expertise of the assessor. Mean CV across assessors was 40%, with a maximum of 223%. CV was lower for protocols with a low number of score levels, which demanded high levels of expertise, and when the assessors had greater expertise on the assessed species. The similarity among protocols with respect to the final scores was higher when the protocols considered the same impact types. We conclude that all protocols led to considerable inconsistency among assessors. In order to improve consistency, we highlight the importance of selecting assessors with high expertise, providing clear guidelines and adequate training but also deriving final decisions collaboratively by consensus.
Keywords: environmental impact, expert judgement, invasive alien species policy, management prioritization, risk assessment, socio-economic impact
DiRROS - Published: 03.04.2019; Views: 1636; Downloads: 578
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Patterns of tree microhabitats across a gradient of managed to old-growth conditions : a case study from beech dominated forests of South-Eastern SloveniaKristina Sever
, Thomas Andrew Nagel
Abstract: An inventory of tree microhabitats was done in two unmanaged forests (Kobile and Ravna gora forest reserves) and one managed beech forest in SE Slovenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of forest management, natural disturbances, and tree characteristics on microhabitat patterns. Forest structure and microhabitats were recorded in systematically placed plots (500 m2 in size) across each area. In total, we inventoried 849 trees on 54 plots and 1833 tree microhabitats. The results showed that forest management had no significant influence on the abundance of microhabitats per tree, but there were differences regarding microhabitat type between managed and unmanaged sites. There were substantially more microhabitats related to standing dead and live habitat trees in unmanaged forest (e.g. woodpecker cavities, insect galleries and bore holes, branch holes, dead branches and fruiting bodies of fungi), whereas in managed forests there were more tree microhabitats related to management (e.g. exposed heartwood, coarse bark, and epiphytic plants). The results also indicate that disturbance, tree diameter, vitality, and species influence the density, diversity, and occurrence of tree microhabitats.
Keywords: forest management, biodiversity, tree microhabitats, beech forests, old-growth, veteran tree, natural disturbance, dead wood
DiRROS - Published: 08.07.2019; Views: 3486; Downloads: 1859
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Public preferences for the management of different invasive alien forest taxaAnže Japelj
, Jana Kus Veenvliet
, Judita Malovrh
, Andrej Verlič
, Maarten De Groot
Abstract: Invasive alien species (IAS) require management to mitigate their impact on ecosystems. The success of management decisions often depends on whether they are socially acceptable and to what extent people are willing to be actively involved in an early warning and rapid response system (EWRR). We administered a nation-wide public poll to assess people%s knowledge on plant, insect and fungal IAS; their perception of IAS as an environmental problem; and their support for different IAS management measures. Most respondents (76%) knew the term IAS, and more than half (62%) provided a correct definition. Species with more media attention and those that are easily visible are more frequently identified correctly. Almost all respondents (97%) support an EWRR system; however, there is heterogeneity in terms of the types of actions people approve of. Non-lethal measures garner more support than lethal ones. Gender and previous knowledge also affect the level of agreement. The willingness-to-pay question largely confirmed this, as people were divided into four classes according to their preferences for either biological, mechanical or chemical measures to control IAS; completeness and location of removal; and having an EWRR established. Mechanical removal is the most preferred treatment in two of the four classes, and complete removal is preferred over partial removal in one of the four classes. Having an EWRR is consistently supported in all classes, and removal in urban areas is preferred over removal in forestland in only one class.
Keywords: Early warning and rapid response system, public attitudes, management measures, alien insects, alien plants, alien fungi
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2019; Views: 1876; Downloads: 919
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Suggested approach to the financial controlling in wood enterprisesMariana Sedliačikova
, Denis Jelačić
, Josef Drábek
, Leon Oblak
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse theoretical and practical approaches to the fundamentals, place, roles, functions and contents of the financial controlling in wood enterprises. After analysing various works by domestic andforeign authors, we designed our own approach to the problem of financial controlling, which is integrated into the subsystem of operative controlling and emphasises the relations between single subsystems of controlling. Financial controlling is a relatively independent part of enterprise controlling, whose main objective is to provide for liquidity in a company at all times and to ensure that the prime target of profitability is achieved at the same time.
Keywords: wood enterprise, financial controlling, management, financial stability
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 2538; Downloads: 880
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Structure, development and growth of selection forests at the Granata research siteMatej Reščič
, Andrej Bončina
Abstract: The Granata research site was established for the study of structure, growth and regeneration of silver fir-European beech single stem selection forest. Three phytocoenological relevés were carried out, all trees ?5 cm diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) were measured by full callipering, tree growth was analysed for sample trees, regeneration of tree species was registered on 63 sampling plots. In addition, historical data from past forest inventories werestudied. In the period from 1952 to 2003, the share of silver fir has decreased from 86% to 26%, the share of Norway spruce increased significantly,whereas the share of beech and sycamore has slightly increased. The current growing stock amounts to 350 m3 ha-1, with large-size diameter trees (d.b.h. ?50 cm) representing 51% of total growing stock. The site is divided into 16 stand patches with significant differences in tree species composition and diameter distribution. Regeneration is sufficient with silver fir prevailing in total number of seedlings (42%). 23% of all seedlings are damaged as a result of game browsing.
Keywords: selection forest, plenterwald, selection system management, stand structure, tree species composition, regeneration, diameter distribution
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 2970; Downloads: 1018
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Inclusion of consumers in the forming of wood fuel trade market on the pattern of questionnaired householdsBenjamin Leskovec
, Iztok Winkler
Abstract: The research of wood fuel trade is market management oriented at household level. We devoted our attention to determine the key questions, market segmentation and market potentials. 909 households, which took part in the questionnaire and received financial support to purchase a wood biomass boilerfrom 2003 until 2006, represented our data source. The analysed pattern of questionnaired households indicates a vast unrealized developmental potential at placing additional quantities of chunkwood and forest chips on the market. Own forests still represent the most important heating source in households. Switching to wood biomass heating is practiced particularly by fuel oil consumers. Since the consumer has been placed into the centre of our research, we present some fundamental findings on product making and product development, its price, sale, promotion and management control. Our findings indicate that right business decisions and the ability to adjust to the marketfluctuation enable us good developmental possibilities.
Keywords: wood biomass, wood fuel trade, households, market management, chunkwood, forest chips, pellets, Slovenia
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 2556; Downloads: 972
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Occurrence of invasive alien plant species in the floodplain forests along the Mura River in SloveniaLado Kutnar
, Aleksander Marinšek
Abstract: Background and purpose: The objectives of our study were to identify invasive alien plant species (IAS) in the main Natura 2000 forest habitat types (FHT) along the Mura River in Slovenia, and to estimate their abundance and cover. The aim of our study was to find out a) Which IAS appear in the research forests? b) What is their frequency and cover percentage? c) Whether individual IAS prosper better in some FHT than others? d) What is the correlation between the cover of IAS and the tree layer cover? Materials and methods: We analysed the fidelity of invasive plant species to individual FHT. The studied FHTs along the Mura River were the following: 91E0* (Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior), 91F0 (Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers) and 91L0 (Illyrian oak-hornbeam forests). Two forest areas of about 600 ha were studied in total. With the intention to calculate number and cover of IAS some statistical analysis was made. In addition, correlations between the abundances of the most present IAS and cover of upper tree layer were carried out. Results: In total, 15 IAS were recorded in studied FHTs. Some species, like Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Fallopia japonica (incl. F. x bohemica), Erigeron annuus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Conyza canadensis and Juncus tenuis occur only in one or two FHTs, while some species can be found in all studied FHTs (e.g. Solidago sp.). We found out that the most threatened forests are those with prevailing Salix alba, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus laevis tree species. Those are the forests of FHT 91E0 which have less dense tree canopies, grow closest to the river and on the wettest sites. We found a statistically significant higher number and cover of IAS in the FHT 91E0 and the lowest number and cover in FHT 91L0. Conclusions: Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (FHT 91E0) along the Mura River are most prone to invasion of IAS. The increasing presence of IAS in the study areas seriously affects natural regeneration, stability, and continuity of floodplain forests in all other FHTs in the study area. At the same time the amount of IAS in these forests also depends on management measures and their intensities which accelerate light availability. Some measures and guidelines for managing of these forests with the purpose of reducing IAS impacts are suggested in this study.
Keywords: non-native plants, riparian vegetation, habitat types, conservation management, forest management
DiRROS - Published: 16.04.2018; Views: 2222; Downloads: 1020
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Early responses of biodiversity indicators to various thinning treatments in mountain beech forestsValeria Altieri
, Roberto Tognetti
, Lado Kutnar
, Bruno Lasserre
, Marco Marchetti
, Carmen Giancola
, Simone Di Benedetto
, Stefania Di Lella
, Fabio Lombardi
Abstract: In recent decades, the conservation of biodiversity has become one of the main areas under consideration in managing forests in an ecologically sustainable way. Forest management practices are primary drivers of diversity and may enhance or decrease forest biodiversity, according to the measures applied (thinning options). We have focused on three beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests across a latitudinal gradient in Italy, characterised by different structures resulting from dissimilar management. We tested the short-term effects of differently-based silvicultural intervention vs. stands where no silvicultural practices were applied on biodiversity indicators and related proxies: deadwood amounts, microhabitat density, floristic richness and life form abundance. In each study area, the occurrence of the above indicators and proxies was evaluated before and after the implementation of crop tree thinning (CTT) and thinning from below (LT) methods, comparing them with control areas where no interventions were performed. After two years, the management options resulted in different responses of the investigated parameters. The CTT increased deadwood amounts in comparison with the LT ones, while stumps increased significantly after the LT thinning. Microhabitats increased significantly where intervention was not undertaken. On the contrary, they remained unaltered after the LT treatments. CTT thinning created favourable conditions for the development of microhabitats and their proliferation in the long term. Two years after the application of the CTT thinning treatment, all forest stands demonstrated a significant increase in their floristic richness and herb layer cover. Significant differences were also found in both the frequency and cover of life forms in relation to silvicultural treatment. These findings provide a better understanding of short-term effects of silvicultural treatment useful for maintaining biodiversity in mountain beech forests.
Keywords: deadwood, microhabitats, understory vegetation, mountain forests, sustainable forest management, Italian forests
DiRROS - Published: 04.10.2018; Views: 1929; Downloads: 1287
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Documenting metrological traceability as intended by ISO 15189:2012 : a consensus statement about the practice of the implementation and auditing of this norm elementMaria Lohmander
, Christos Kroupis
, Edward Barrett
, Guilaine Boursier
, Bernard Gouget
, Pika Meško-Brguljan
, Florent Vanstapel
, Marc H. M. Thelen
, Luděk Šprongl
, Tatjana Vodnik
Abstract: ISO15189:2012 requires medical laboratories to document metrological traceability of their results. While the ISO17511:2003 standard on metrological traceability in laboratory medicine requires the use of the highest available level in the traceability chain, it recognizes that for many measurands there is no reference above the manufacturer's selected measurement procedure and the manufacturer's working calibrator. Some immunoassays, although they intend to measure the same quantity and may even refer to the same reference material, unfortunately produce different results because of differences in analytical selectivity as manufacturers select different epitopes and antibodies for the same analyte. In other cases, the cause is the use of reference materials, which are not commutable. The uncertainty associated with the result is another important aspect in metrological traceability implementation. As the measurement uncertainty on the clinical samples is influenced by the uncertainty of all steps higher in the traceability chain, laboratories should be provided with adequate and appropriate information on the uncertainty of the value assignment to the commercial calibrators that they use. Although the between-lot variation in value assignment will manifest itself as part of the long-term imprecision as estimated by the end-user, information on worst-case to be expected lot-lot variation has to be communicated to the end-user by the IVD provider. When laboratories use ancillary equipment that potentially could have a critical contribution to the reported results, such equipment needs verification of its proper calibration and criticality to the result uncertainty could be assessed by an approach based on risk analysis, which is a key element of ISO15189:2012 anyway. This paper discusses how the requirement for metrological traceability as stated in ISO15189 should be met by the medical laboratory and how this should be assessed by accreditation bodies.
Keywords: laboratories, medical laboratory science, risk management, quality control, quality improvement, health care quality assurance, metrological traceability
DiRROS - Published: 22.10.2020; Views: 663; Downloads: 119