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1.
Patterns of tree microhabitats across a gradient of managed to old-growth conditions : a case study from beech dominated forests of South-Eastern Slovenia
Kristina Sever, Thomas Andrew Nagel, 2019

Abstract: An inventory of tree microhabitats was done in two unmanaged forests (Kobile and Ravna gora forest reserves) and one managed beech forest in SE Slovenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of forest management, natural disturbances, and tree characteristics on microhabitat patterns. Forest structure and microhabitats were recorded in systematically placed plots (500 m2 in size) across each area. In total, we inventoried 849 trees on 54 plots and 1833 tree microhabitats. The results showed that forest management had no significant influence on the abundance of microhabitats per tree, but there were differences regarding microhabitat type between managed and unmanaged sites. There were substantially more microhabitats related to standing dead and live habitat trees in unmanaged forest (e.g. woodpecker cavities, insect galleries and bore holes, branch holes, dead branches and fruiting bodies of fungi), whereas in managed forests there were more tree microhabitats related to management (e.g. exposed heartwood, coarse bark, and epiphytic plants). The results also indicate that disturbance, tree diameter, vitality, and species influence the density, diversity, and occurrence of tree microhabitats.
Keywords: forest management, biodiversity, tree microhabitats, beech forests, old-growth, veteran tree, natural disturbance, dead wood
DiRROS - Published: 08.07.2019; Views: 2416; Downloads: 1523
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2.
Plant diversity of selected Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. forests in Slovenia
Lado Kutnar, 2006

Abstract: In Slovenia, the plant species diversity on 225 research plots dominated by pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and by sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) has been analysed. Plots of Q. robur are located in five, andplots of Q. petraea in four semi-natural managed forest complexes. In the tree layer, 28 species were found beside the dominant two oak species, with Carpinus betulus L., Picea abies (L.) Karst., Quercus cerris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. having significant shares of growing stock. Based on the understorey vegetation (shrub and herb layer, terricolous mosses), the Ddetrended Correspondence Analysis (DdCA) made a clear distinction between plots with dominant Q. robur and those with Q. petraea. The understorey vegetation also proved to be a valuable indicator of the site conditions and of forest management in the past. Based on ordination, lowland pedunculate oak forests of relatively long standing near to natural management have been separated from the pedunculate oak forests where spruce was favoured by the forest management, and from the man-made pedunculate oak stands on primary sites of Q. petraea. DCA clearly differentiated the sessile oak forests in warmer climate of Sub-Mediterranean region, and in warmer meso-sites of Pre-Pannonian region from other sessile oak forests. The main gradients of vegetation structure and of species diversity, as well main ecological gradients in different oak forests were obtained by ordination technique.
Keywords: floristic composition, vegetation structure, biodiversity, growing stock
DiRROS - Published: 12.07.2017; Views: 1934; Downloads: 638
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Blind spots in global soil biodiversity and ecosystem function research
Tine Grebenc, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Fernando T. Maestre, Matthias C. Rillig, Léa Beaumelle, Simone Cesarz, Nathaly Guerrero-Ramírez, Antonis Chatzinotas, Johannes Sikorski, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Carlos A. Guerra, 2020

Abstract: Soils harbor a substantial fraction of the world's biodiversity, contributing to many crucial ecosystem functions. It is thus essential to identify general macroecological patterns related to the distribution and functioning of soil organisms to support their conservation and consideration by governance. These macroecological analyses need to represent the diversity of environmental conditions that can be found worldwide. Here we identify and characterize existing environmental gaps in soil taxa and ecosystem functioning data across soil macroecological studies and 17,186 sampling sites across the globe. These data gaps include important spatial, environmental, taxonomic, and functional gaps, and an almost complete absence of temporally explicit data. We also identify the limitations of soil macroecological studies to explore general patterns in soil biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, with only 0.3% of all sampling sites having both information about biodiversity and function, although with different taxonomic groups and functions at each site. Based on this information, we provide clear priorities to support and expand soil macroecological research.
Keywords: soil, biodiversity, ecosystem services, blind spots, macroecological research
DiRROS - Published: 27.08.2020; Views: 657; Downloads: 650
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5.
Ectomycorrhizal community composition of organic and mineral soil horizons in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) stands
Tanja Mrak, Emira Hukić, Ines Štraus, Tina Unuk, Hojka Kraigher, 2020

Abstract: Vertical ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community composition was assessed on silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in beech-silver fir forests in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Organic and upper mineral horizons were described by pedological analyses. Silver fir root tips were divided into vital ECM, old and non-mycorrhizal for each horizon separately. Morpho-anatomical classification of vital ECM root tips with an assessment of abundance was followed by ITS-based molecular characterization and classification into exploration types. The percentage of vital ECM root tips was not affected by the soil horizon. Altogether, 40 ECM taxa were recorded. Several taxa have not previously been reported for silver fir: Hebeloma laterinum, Inocybe fuscidula, I. glabripes, Lactarius acris, L. albocarneus, L. blennius, L. fluens, Ramaria bataillei, Russula badia, R. lutea, R. mairei, Sistotrema sp., Tarzetta catinus, Tomentella atroarenicolor, T. badia, T. cinerascens, T. bryophylla, and T. ramosissima, indicating high potential for diversity of ECM fungi in silver fir stands. No significant differences in community composition, species richness and diversity were detected between mineral and organic horizons. Community composition was affected by CaCO3, organic carbon, organic carbon stock, total nitrogen stock, C:N ratio and soil density. No significant effects of soil parameters were detected for exploration types. The contact exploration type was dominant in both soil horizons. Significantly different relative abundances of dominant taxa Tomentella stuposa, Cenococcum geophilum and Piloderma sp. 1 were detected in the two horizons. Twelve taxa were limited to the organic horizon and eight to the mineral horizon.
Keywords: biodiversity, ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM), beech-silver fir forest, ECM depth profile, Balkan 30 Peninsula, ectomycorrhizal exploration types
DiRROS - Published: 17.06.2020; Views: 1063; Downloads: 346
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6.
The lichens of the Ždrocle forest reserve
Johannes Prügger, Boštjan Surina, Helmut Mayrhofer, 2000

Abstract: 88 lichenized and 2 lichenicolous fungi are reported from the @drocle Forest Reserve. The association Ranunculo platanifolii-Fagetum var. geogr. Calaminthagrandiflora hosts the greatest biodiversity of lichens. One species (Biatora flavopunctata) is new for the flora of Slovenia, two species (Collemafurfuraceum and Lecanora subintricata) and one variety (Cladonia macilenta ssp. floerkeana) are new for the dinaric phytogeographical region.
Keywords: flora, lichens, lichenicolus fungi, distribution, biodiversity, forest reserve
DiRROS - Published: 17.11.2020; Views: 419; Downloads: 143
.pdf Fulltext (1,14 MB)

7.
Global homogenization of the structure and function in the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, David J. Eldridge, Yu-Rong Liu, Blessing Sokoya, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He, Felipe Bastida, José L. Moreno, Adebola R. Bamigboye, Tine Grebenc, Tina Unuk, 2021

Abstract: The structure and function of the soil microbiome of urban greenspaces remain largely undetermined. We conducted a global field survey in urban greenspaces and neighboring natural ecosystems across 56 cities from six continents, and found that urban soils are important hotspots for soil bacterial, protist and functional gene diversity, but support highly homogenized microbial communities worldwide. Urban greenspaces had a greater proportion of fast-growing bacteria, algae, amoebae, and fungal pathogens, but a lower proportion of ectomycorrhizal fungi than natural ecosystems. These urban ecosystems also showed higher proportions of genes associated with human pathogens, greenhouse gas emissions, faster nutrient cycling, and more intense abiotic stress than natural environments. City affluence, management practices, and climate were fundamental drivers of urban soil communities. Our work paves the way toward a more comprehensive global-scale perspective on urban greenspaces, which is integral to managing the health of these ecosystems and the well-being of human populations.
Keywords: soil biodiversity, structural diversity, functional diversity, urban soils
DiRROS - Published: 15.07.2021; Views: 162; Downloads: 111
.pdf Fulltext (4,34 MB)

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