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ROBOMINERS - Developing a bio-inspired modular robot-miner for difficult to access mineral deposits
Luís Lopes, Balázs Bodó, Claudio Rossi, Stephen Henley, Gorazd Žibret, Alicja Kot-Niewiadomska, Vitor Correia, 2020

Abstract: Within the ROBOMINERS project an innovative technology for the future exploitation of small and difficult to access mineral deposits is being studied. The project has two main objectives. First, the development of a bioinspired reconfigurable robotic miner prototype, able to navigate, explore and mine selectively with a certain degree of autonomy. The robot-miner will be able to work under different conditions, making the exploitation of many mineral deposits economically feasible, while reducing social and environmental impacts associated with conventional mining methods. The second objective is the creation of a vision of a new mining ecosystem, its function, parts, research roadmaps and visions for years 2030 and 2050, including creation of novel ideas from other sectors, particularly robotics. The robotic ecosystem concept will be tested in representative sites across Europe with simulations, showcasing the different mining environments and conditions where it can be applied.
Keywords: avtonomni robot, rudniki, prospekcija, mineralne surovine
DiRROS - Published: 06.01.2021; Views: 922; Downloads: 353
.pdf Fulltext (2,56 MB)

UNEXUP: robot-based exploration technology for underground flooded mines
Norbert Zajzon, Balázs Bodó, Luís Lopes, Gorazd Žibret, Márcio Tameirão Pinto

Abstract: UNEXUP is a direct continuation of the UNEXMIN project. In UNEXMIN efforts were made towards the design, development and testing of a robotic exploration technology for underground flooded mines, with navigational and geoscientific instruments. In UNEXUP the main goal is to raise commercial interest and improve the system's hardware, software and capabilities. The UX-1 NEO, to be developed and tested in 2020, will address the limitations detected during UNEXMIN field missions, and will meet the needs and requirements from mining companies, geological surveys and other potential customers. In addition, a new robot will be built and added to the system, to be ready in 2021, which will open further mineral exploration possibilities.
DiRROS - Published: 07.01.2021; Views: 884; Downloads: 409
.pdf Fulltext (1,68 MB)

Distribution of Pb, Zn and Cd in stream and alluvial sediments in the area with past Zn smelting operations
Barbara Čeplak, Gorazd Žibret

Abstract: The sources of Zn, Pb and Cd in alluvial and stream sediments have been studied in the area of historical Zn smelting tradition. 30 samples of stream sediments and samples from 4 alluvial sediment profiles were collected. Fractions 0.125–0.063 and < 0.063 mm were analysed by the means of ICP-MS prior 4-acid digestion. The highest levels of Zn, Cd and Pb were detected in the alluvial sediments in the closest vicinity to the abandoned slag and ore roasting residue waste dumps, reaching 96 and 4520 mg/kg, 522 and 26,800 mg/kg and 3.7 and 31 mg/kg for Pb, Zn and Cd in stream and alluvial sediments, respectively. The Voglajna River then transports contamination particles into the Savinja River, which afterwards flows into the Sava River. Consequently, the anomaly can even be detected in the Sava River, more than 30 km downstream. Higher levels of Pb, Zn and Cd have been found in fraction < 0.063 mm compared to 0.125–0.063 mm fraction. Impacts of historically contaminated soil erosion and in particular the wash-out of Zn-smelting waste from the improperly managed waste dump were recognised as the dominant sources of Zn, Cd and Pb in the stream and alluvial sediments.
Keywords: onesnaženje okolja, rečni sedimenti, porazdelitev elementov, topilništvo
DiRROS - Published: 03.03.2022; Views: 96; Downloads: 32
.pdf Fulltext (1,76 MB)

Fluid therapy: double-edged sword during critical care?
Mitja Lainščak, Gorazd Voga, Jan Benes, Mikhail Kirov, Vsevolod Kuzkov, Zsolt Molnar, Xavier Monnet, 2015

Abstract: Fluid therapy is still the mainstay of acute care in patients with shock or cardiovascular compromise. However, our understanding of the critically ill pathophysiology has evolved significantly in recent years.The revelation of the glycocalyx layer and subsequent research has redefined the basics of fluids behavior in the circulation. Using less invasive hemodynamic monitoring tools enables us to assess the cardiovascular function in a dynamic perspective. This allows pinpointing even distinct changes induced by treatment, by postural changes, or by interorgan interactions in real time and enables individualized patient management. Regarding fluids as drugs of any other kind led to the need for precise indication, way of administration, and also assessment of side effects.We possess now the evidence that patient centered outcomes may be altered when incorrect time, dose, or type of fluids are administered. In this review, three major features of fluid therapy are discussed: the prediction of fluid responsiveness, potential harms induced by overzealous fluid administration, and finally the problem of protocol-led treatments and their timing.
DiRROS - Published: 21.03.2018; Views: 2854; Downloads: 703
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The clinical relevance of oliguria in the critically ill patient : analysis of a large observational database
Jean Louis Vincent, Andrew Ferguson, Peter Pickkers, Stephan M. Jakob, Ulrich Jaschinski, Ghaleb A. Almekhlafi, Marc Leone, Majid Mokhtari, Luis E. Fontes, Philippe R. Bauer, Yasser Sakr, 2020

Abstract: Background: Urine output is widely used as one of the criteria for the diagnosis and staging of acute renal failure, but few studies have specifically assessed the role of oliguria as a marker of acute renal failure or outcomes in general intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Using a large multinational database, we therefore evaluated the occurrence of oliguria (defined as a urine output < 0.5 ml/kg/h) in acutely ill patients and its association with the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and outcome. Methods: International observational study. All adult (> 16 years) patients in the ICON audit who had a urine output measurement on the day of admission were included. To investigate the association between oliguria and mortality, we used a multilevel analysis. Results: Of the 8292 patients included, 2050 (24.7%) were oliguric during the first 24 h of admission. Patients with oliguria on admission who had at least one additional 24-h urine output recorded during their ICU stay (n = 1349) were divided into three groups: transient-oliguria resolved within 48 h after the admission day (n = 390 [28.9%]), prolonged-oliguria resolved > 48 h after the admission day (n = 141 [10.5%]), and permanent-oliguria persisting for the whole ICU stay or again present at the end of the ICU stay (n = 818 [60.6%]). ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in patients with oliguria than in those without, except for patients with transient oliguria who had significantly lower mortality rates than non-oliguric patients. In multilevel analysis, the need for RRT was associated with a significantly higher risk of death (OR = 1.51 [95% CI 1.19%1.91], p = 0.001), but the presence of oliguria on admission was not (OR = 1.14 [95% CI 0.97%1.34], p = 0.103). Conclusions: Oliguria is common in ICU patients and may have a relatively benign nature if only transient. The duration of oliguria and need for RRT are associated with worse outcome.
Keywords: critical care, critical illness, urine, oliguria, kidney, renal insufficiency, kidney diseases, acute kidney failure, mortality, urine output, renal replacement therapy
DiRROS - Published: 18.11.2020; Views: 760; Downloads: 476
.pdf Fulltext (727,74 KB)

Comparison of European ICU patients in 2012 (ICON) versus 2002 (SOAP)
Jean Louis Vincent, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Katarzyna Kotfis, Rahul Nanchal, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Xavier Wittebole, Samir G. Sakka, Peter Pickkers, Rui P. Moreno, Yasser Sakr, 2018

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate differences in the characteristics and outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients over time. Methods: We reviewed all epidemiological data, including comorbidities, types and severity of organ failure, interventions, lengths of stay and outcome, for patients from the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (SOAP) study, an observational study conducted in European intensive care units in 2002, and the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit, a survey of intensive care unit patients conducted in 2012. Results: We compared the 3147 patients from the SOAP study with the 4852 patients from the ICON audit admitted to intensive care units in the same countries as those in the SOAP study. The ICON patients were older (62.5 +/- 17.0 vs. 60.6 +/- 17.4 years) and had higher severity scores than the SOAP patients. The proportion of patients with sepsis at any time during the intensive care unit stay was slightly higher in the ICON study (31.9 vs. 29.6%, p = 0.03). In multilevel analysis, the adjusted odds of ICU mortality were significantly lower for ICON patients than for SOAP patients, particularly in patients with sepsis [OR 0.45 (0.35-0.59), p < 0.001]. Conclusions: Over the 10-year period between 2002 and 2012, the proportion of patients with sepsis admitted to European ICUs remained relatively stable, but the severity of disease increased. In multilevel analysis, the odds of ICU mortality were lower in our 2012 cohort compared to our 2002 cohort, particularly in patients with sepsis.
Keywords: intensive care units -- analysis -- epidemiology -- mortality, sepsis, severity of disease
DiRROS - Published: 30.11.2020; Views: 864; Downloads: 489
.pdf Fulltext (867,51 KB)

Temporal changes in the epidemiology, management, and outcome from acute respiratory distress syndrome in European intensive care units : a comparison of two large cohorts
Yasser Sakr, Bruno François, Jordi Solé-Violan, Katarzyna Kotfis, Ulrich Jaschinski, Angel Estella, Marc Leone, Stephan M. Jakob, Xavier Wittebole, Luis E. Fontes, Viktorija Tomič, 2021

Abstract: Background. Mortality rates for patients with ARDS remain high. We assessed temporal changes in the epidemiology and management of ARDS patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in European ICUs. We also investigated the association between ventilatory settings and outcome in these patients. Methods. This was a post hoc analysis of two cohorts of adult ICU patients admitted between May 1–15, 2002 (SOAP study, n = 3147), and May 8–18, 2012 (ICON audit, n = 4601 admitted to ICUs in the same 24 countries as the SOAP study). ARDS was defined retrospectively using the Berlin definitions. Values of tidal volume, PEEP, plateau pressure, and FiO2 corresponding to the most abnormal value of arterial PO2 were recorded prospectively every 24 h. In both studies, patients were followed for outcome until death, hospital discharge or for 60 days. Results. The frequency of ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation during the ICU stay was similar in SOAP and ICON (327[10.4%] vs. 494[10.7%], p = 0.793). The diagnosis of ARDS was established at a median of 3 (IQ: 1–7) days after admission in SOAP and 2 (1–6) days in ICON. Within 24 h of diagnosis, ARDS was mild in 244 (29.7%), moderate in 388 (47.3%), and severe in 189 (23.0%) patients. In patients with ARDS, tidal volumes were lower in the later (ICON) than in the earlier (SOAP) cohort. Plateau and driving pressures were also lower in ICON than in SOAP. ICU (134[41.1%] vs 179[36.9%]) and hospital (151[46.2%] vs 212[44.4%]) mortality rates in patients with ARDS were similar in SOAP and ICON. High plateau pressure (> 29 cmH2O) and driving pressure (> 14 cmH2O) on the first day of mechanical ventilation but not tidal volume (> 8 ml/kg predicted body weight [PBW]) were independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital death. Conclusion. The frequency of and outcome from ARDS remained relatively stable between 2002 and 2012. Plateau pressure > 29 cmH2O and driving pressure > 14 cmH2O on the first day of mechanical ventilation but not tidal volume > 8 ml/kg PBW were independently associated with a higher risk of death. These data highlight the continued burden of ARDS and provide hypothesis-generating data for the design of future studies.
Keywords: respiratory insufficiency, artificial respiration, tidal volume, airway pressures, driving pressure
DiRROS - Published: 16.06.2021; Views: 539; Downloads: 188

Bolečina varuje organizem
Gorazd Požlep, 2006

DiRROS - Published: 17.05.2016; Views: 2273; Downloads: 406
URL Fulltext (0,00 KB)

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