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11.
Challenges and solutions in early detection, rapid response and communication about potential invasive alien species in forests
Jana Kus Veenvliet, Simon Zidar, David Williams, Laura Verbrugge, Elena Tricarico, Jon Sweeney, Craig Shuttleworth, Nikki Robinson, Aleksander Marinšek, Márton Korda, Natalia Kirichenko, Eugenio Gervasini, Massimo Faccoli, Ágnes Csíszár, György Csóka, Erin Bullas-Appleton, Richard O'Hanlon, Maarten De Groot, 2020

Povzetek: Invasive alien species (IAS) are an important threat to forests. One of the best ways to manage potential IAS is through early detection and rapid response (EDRR) strategies. However, when dealing with IAS in forests, EU regulations are divided between phytosanitary regulations and IAS regulations. A version of EDRR for the former has been in place in the EU for more than 15 years while the latter is still in the process of being implemented. During 2019, a workshop was held to gather international experts on different plant health pests and IAS. The purpose of this workshop was to identify the opportunities and difficulties in applying the EDRR system in the EU phytosanitary and IAS legislation to four species for providing suggestions to improve the EDRR system. The model species are well known and come from different trophic levels. These species were the American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana), the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis); and the plant health pests Geosmithia morbida and Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis). We identified the similarities in the challenges of early detection, rapid response and communication of these species. For all species, difficulties in species identification, knowledge gaps on the pathways of spread, a lack of resources and uncertainty over which national government service was the competent authority were identified as the main challenges. Other challenges like public perception for the grey squirrel or methodological problems were species-specific. Regarding the rapid response: public perception, determination of the eradication area, sufficient scientific capacity and the lack of resources were common challenges for all species. Therefore, collaboration between institutes dealing with plant health pests and IAS can lead to better control of both groups of unwanted %organisms in forests.
Ključne besede: early warning system, plant health legislation, EU IAS legislation, alien species, Geosmithia morbida, Emerald ash borer, American pokeweed, Grey squirrel, rapid response system
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 11.12.2020; Ogledov: 895; Prenosov: 315
.pdf Celotno besedilo (995,71 KB)

12.
Species interactions : next-level citizen science
Quentin Groom, Nadja Pernat, Tim Adriaens, Maarten De Groot, Sven D. Jelaska, Diana Marčiulyniene, Angeliki F. Martinou, Jiří Skuhrovec, Elena Tricarico, Ernst C. Wit, Helen E. Roy, 2021

Povzetek: We envisage a future research environment where digital data on species interactions are easily accessible and comprehensively cover all species, life stages and habitats. To achieve this goal, we need data from many sources, including the largely untapped potential of citizen science for mobilising and utilising existing information on species interactions. Traditionally volunteers contributing information on the occurrence of species have focused on single-species observations from within one target taxon. We make recommendations on how to improve the gathering of species interaction data through citizen science, which data should be collected and how it can be motivated. These recommendations include providing feedback in the form of network visualisations, leveraging a wide variety of other data sources and eliciting an emotional connection to the species in question. There are many uses for these data, but in the context of biological invasions, information on species interactions will increase understanding of the effects of invasive alien species on recipient communities and ecosystems. We believe that the inclusion of ecological networks as a concept within citizen science, not only for initiatives focussed on biological invasions but also across other ecological themes, will not only enrich scientific knowledge on species interactions but also deepen the experience and enjoyment of citizens themselves.
Ključne besede: alien species, biological invasions, citizen science
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 29.10.2021; Ogledov: 403; Prenosov: 257
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,03 MB)

13.
Mercury in the unconfined aquifer of the Isonzo/Soča River alluvial plain downstream from the Idrija mining area
Andrea Cerovac, Stefano Covelli, Andrea Emili, Elena Pavoni, Elisa Petranich, Asta Gregorič, Janko Urbanc, Enrico Zavagno, Luca Zini, 2018

Povzetek: This work aims at evaluating mercury (Hg) occurrence, spatial distribution and speciation in groundwater of the Isonzo/Soča River upper alluvial plain downstream from the Idrija Hg mine (Western Slovenia). Several wells and piezometers were sampled both in static and dynamic mode. On the basis of hydrochemistry and isotopic composition, the main sources of groundwater were established. Hg concentrations in the Slovenian sector, supplied by local rainfall, are comparable to values measured close to the Isonzo River. Possible further Hg local sources have been suggested. Stability field analysis for the aqueous Hg species revealed that in the presence of chloride Hg solubility may be increased by the formation of chlorocomplexes. Mercury that rarely enters reduced surrounding conditions can be bound to sulphur to form polysulphide species depending on the pH of water. Since Hg-contaminated alluvial sediments of the Isonzo River may act as a secondary Hg source in groundwater, a borehole was dug down to the water table. Mercury content and speciation revealed that cinnabar (HgS) is the prevalent form followed by the matrix-bound Hg (Hgbound). Variations of the physico-chemical boundary conditions, as well as the raising/lowering of the water table, may be locally responsible for the slight variability of Hg concentrations in the aquifer.
Ključne besede: aquifers, groundwater, mercury
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.06.2022; Ogledov: 76; Prenosov: 46
URL Celotno besedilo (0,00 KB)

14.
Neuromuscular junction instability and altered intracellular calcium handling as early determinants of force loss during unloading in humans
Elena Monti, Carlo Reggiani, Martino V. Franchi, Luana Toniolo, Marco Sandri, Andrea Armani, Sandra Zampieri, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Marco Vincenzo Narici, 2021

Povzetek: Unloading induces rapid skeletal muscle atrophy and functional decline. Importantly, force is lost at a much higher rate than muscle mass. We aimed to investigate the early determinants of the disproportionate loss of force compared to that of muscle mass in response to unloading. Ten young participants underwent 10 days of bed rest (BR). At baseline (BR0) and at 10 days (BR10), quadriceps femoris (QF) volume (VOL) and isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were assessed. At BR0 and BR10 blood samples and biopsies of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle were collected. Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability and myofibre innervation status were assessed, together with single fibre mechanical properties and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium handling. From BR0 to BR10, QFVOL and MVC decreased by 5.2% (P = 0.003) and 14.3% (P < 0.001), respectively. Initial and partial denervation was detected from increased neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive myofibres at BR10 compared with BR0 (+3.4%, P = 0.016). NMJ instability was further inferred from increased C-terminal agrin fragment concentration in serum (+19.2% at BR10, P = 0.031). Fast fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) showed a trend to decrease by 15% (P = 0.055) at BR10, while single fibre maximal tension (force/CSA) was unchanged. However, at BR10 SR Ca2+ release in response to caffeine decreased by 35.1% (P < 0.002) and 30.2% (P < 0.001) in fast and slow fibres, respectively, pointing to an impaired excitation%contraction coupling. These findings support the view that the early onset of NMJ instability and impairment in SR function are eligible mechanisms contributing to the greater decline in muscle force than in muscle size during unloading.
Ključne besede: Ca2+ dynamics, muscle atrophy, neuromuscular junction instability, sarcoplasmic reticulum, single fibre atrophy, single fibre contractile impairment, unloading
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 16.06.2021; Ogledov: 548; Prenosov: 519
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,39 MB)

15.
Assessment of the condition of Balsam poplar trees (Populus balsamifera L.) in a residental area of Bratsk
Elena Runova, Vasilij Verkhoturov, Lyudmila Anoshkina, Ivan Garus, 2021

Povzetek: In this study, we investigated the health status of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.) trees in a residential area of the city of Bratsk (Irkutsk Oblast, Russia). Visual and instrumental assessment of the health status of pruned and unpruned trees was performed. The identified internal defects in the tree were analyzed with a Resistograph device, which enabled the extent of decayed wood to be determined. Visual analysis revealed various types of damage: dried branches, brittle crowns, frost cracks, mechanical damage, curvature of trunks, decay and inclusions of foreign bodies. We compared trees with and without canopy pruning. We found that pruned trees were significantly more damaged than non-pruned trees. Decomposing wood at different stages of development was found in all the trees studied. A tree passport combining the visual and instrumental assessment data was compiled for each tree. The results of the research were used to formulate conclusions and recommendations for improving the management of urban trees in order to restore their ecological and aesthetic functions.
Ključne besede: Populus balsamifera L., visual analysis, Resistograph, urban area, wood, decay
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 01.12.2021; Ogledov: 1173; Prenosov: 839
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,84 MB)

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Pan-European phylogeography of the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)
Kamila Plis, Magdalena Niedziałkowska, Tomasz Borowik, Johannes Lang, Mike Heddergott, Juha Tiainen, Aleksey Bunevich, Nikica Šprem, Ladislav Paule, Aleksey A. Danilkin, Marina Kholodova, Elena Zvychaynaya, Nadezhda Kashinina, Boštjan Pokorny, Katarina Flajšman, 2022

Povzetek: To provide the most comprehensive picture of species phylogeny and phylogeography of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), we analyzed mtDNA control region (610 bp) of 1469 samples of roe deer from Central and Eastern Europe and included into the analyses additional 1541 mtDNA sequences from GenBank from other regions of the continent. We detected two mtDNA lineages of the species: European and Siberian (an introgression of C. pygargus mtDNA into C. capreolus). The Siberian lineage was most frequent in the eastern part of the continent and declined toward Central Europe. The European lineage contained three clades (Central, Eastern, and Western) composed of several haplogroups, many of which were separated in space. The Western clade appeared to have a discontinuous range from Portugal to Russia. Most of the haplogroups in the Central and the Eastern clades were under expansion during the Weichselian glacial period before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), while the expansion time of the Western clade overlapped with the Eemian interglacial. The high genetic diversity of extant roe deer is the result of their survival during the LGM probably in a large, contiguous range spanning from the Iberian Peninsula to the Caucasus Mts and in two northern refugia.
Ključne besede: Capreolus capreolus, expansion, mitochondrial DNA, the Last Glacial Maximum refugia, the Quaternary history, Phylogenetics
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.05.2022; Ogledov: 107; Prenosov: 80
.pdf Celotno besedilo (3,91 MB)

18.
Terminologies and characteristics of natural mineral and thermal waters in selected European countries
Nina Rman, Gerhard Hobiger, Gerhard Schubert, Eline Malcuit, José Angel Díaz-Muñoz, Elena Giménez-Forcada, Lucio Martarelli, Julie Lions, Jörg Schullehner, Denitza D. Voutchkova, Birgitte Hansen, Nóra Gál, Teodóra Szőcs, Daniel Elster, 2022

Povzetek: This study discusses 1) the national legislative frameworks, terminologies, and criteria for the recognition of natural mineral waters and thermal waters in selected European countries (Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Denmark, France, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Spain), and 2) it provides a first extensive multi-national overview of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characteristics of numerous water sources from those regions.
Ključne besede: hydrogeology, regulatory framework, hydrogeochemical composition, natural mineral water, thermal water, Europe
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.07.2022; Ogledov: 46; Prenosov: 14
.pdf Celotno besedilo (10,31 MB)

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