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1.
Kirurško zdravljenje raka dojk pri starejših od 80 let : koliko je dovolj?
Nikola Bešić, Hana Bešič, Barbara Perić, Gašper Pilko, Rok Petrič, Jan Žmuc, Andraž Perhavec, 2013

Povzetek: Populacija starejših ljudi se veča, zato se povečuje tudi število bolnic z rakom dojke, ki so starejše od 80 let. Žal ni enotnega mnenja oziroma strokovnih priporočil o tem, kako zdraviti starejše bolnice z rakom dojk. Namen naše retrospektivneštudije je bil ugotoviti, kako kirurško zdravimo raka dojk pri bolnicah, starih 80 let ali več in kakšno je njihovo preživetje.Pregledali smo popise bolezni 154 bolnic z začetnim rakom dojke (povprečna starost 83 let; razpon od 80 do 90 let), ki so bile na Onkološkem inštitutu Ljubljana operirane vobdobju od leta 2000 do leta 2008 in so bile ob operaciji stare 80 let ali več. Zbrali smo podatke o obsegu bolezni, patomorfoloških značilnostih tumorja, načinu zdravljenja,obsegu operacije dojke in pazdušnih bezgavk, ponovitvi bolezni, vzroku smrti, dolžini preživetja in dolžini preživetjaglede raka dojk. Z univariatno in mutivariatno analizo smo ugotavljali povezavo med prognostičnimi dejavniki, vrsto zdravljenja in preživetjem glede raka dojk. Rak dojke je bilomejen na dojko v 28 %, v 47% so bili prisotni regionalni zasevki, obseg bolezni pa ni bil znan v 25 %. Tumorski stadij pT1/pT2 je imelo 75 % bolnic, pT3/pT4 pa je imelo 25 %bolnic. Kirurško zdravljenje je obsegalo: kvadrantektomijov 27 %, mastektomijo v 73 %, izpraznitev pazduhe v 57 %,biopsijo varovalne bezgavke v 18 %, brez posega v pazduho pa je bilo 25 % bolnic. Adjuvantno hormonsko zdravljenje je imelo 88 % bolnic (tamoxifen 53, aromatazni inhibitor 45,kombinacija obeh 37 bolnic), zdravljenje s citostatiki je imelo1,3 % bolnic, obsevanih pa je bilo 16 % bolnic. Ponovitev bolezni smo dokazali v 23 %, v času sledenja od 0,1 do 11 let(mediana 4,45 leta). Lokalno ponovitev bolezni smo dokazali v 10 %, reginalno v 6 % in oddaljene zasevke v 23 %. Petletno preživetje glede raka dojk je bilo pri lokalno omejenem raku 90 %, pri regionalno razširjenem pa 62 %. Ena od bolnicje umrla prvi dan po operativnem posegu zaradi srčnega infarkta. Zaradi raka dojk je umrlo 19 % bolnic, zaradi drugih vzrokov pa 12 % bolnic. Univariatna analiza je pokazala, da so bili z dolžino preživetja zaradi raka dojk povezani naslednji dejavniki: zdravljenje s hormoni pred operacijo, patološki Tstadij, patološki N stadij, operacija dojke, odstranitev vsehpazdušnih bezgavk, operacija bezgavk, estrogenski receptorji,stopnja diferenciacije tumorja, radikalnost kirurškega posega in kirurško zdravljenje v skladu s smernicami. Z multivariatnostatistično analizo smo ugotovili, da so bili patološki T stadij, patološki N stadij in estrogenski receptorji neodvisni prognostični dejavniki za dolžino preživetja zaradi raka dojk. Rezultati naše multivariatne analize kažejo, da so kirurgi ustrezno prilagodili obseg operativnega zdravljenja stadiju bolezni in splošnemu stanju bolnice. Kratko preživetje glede raka dojk je pokazatelj tega, da je rak dojke z zasevki v pazdušnih bezgavkah pri bolnicah, starih 80 let ali več, lahko agresivna bolezen.
Ključne besede: rak dojke, kirurško zdravljenje, bolnice, starostniki
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 31.08.2018; Ogledov: 2470; Prenosov: 603
.pdf Celotno besedilo (425,83 KB)

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Trained facilitators' experiences with structured advance care planning conversations in oncology : an international focus group study within the ACTION trial
Marieke Zwakman, K. Pollock, Francesco Bulli, Glenys Caswell, Branka Červ, Johannes JM van Delden, Luc Deliens, Agnes van der Heide, Lea J. Jabbarian, Hana Kodba Čeh, Urška Lunder, Anja Simonič, 2019

Povzetek: Background: In oncology, health care professionals often experience conducting advance care planning (ACP) conversations as difficult and are hesitant to start them. A structured approach could help to overcome this. In the ACTION trial, a Phase III multi-center cluster-randomized clinical trial in six European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, United Kingdom), patients with advanced lung or colorectal cancer are invited to have one or two structured ACP conversations with a trained facilitator. It is unclear how trained facilitators experience conducting structured ACP conversations. This study aims to understand how facilitators experience delivering the ACTION Respecting Choices (RC) ACP conversation. Methods: A qualitative study involving focus groups with RC facilitators. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed, anonymized, translated into English, and thematically analysed, supported by NVivo 11. The international research team was involved in data analysis from initial coding and discussion towards final themes. Results: Seven focus groups were conducted, involving 28 of in total 39 trained facilitators, with different professional backgrounds from all participating countries. Alongside some cultural differences, six themes were identified. These reflect that most facilitators welcomed the opportunity to participate in the ACTION trial, seeing it as a means of learning new skills in an important area. The RC script was seen as supportive to ask questions, including those perceived as difficult to ask, but was also experienced as a barrier to a spontaneous conversation. Facilitators noticed that most patients were positive about their ACTION RC ACP conversation, which had prompted them to become aware of their wishes and to share these with others. The facilitators observed that it took patients substantial effort to have these conversations. In response, facilitators took responsibility for enabling patients to experience a conversation from which they could benefit. Facilitators emphasized the need for training, support and advanced communication skills to be able to work with the script. Conclusions: Facilitators experienced benefits and challenges in conducting scripted ACP conversations. They mentioned the importance of being skilled and experienced in carrying out ACP conversations in order to be able to explore the patients' preferences while staying attuned to patients' needs.
Ključne besede: ACTION study, cancer, facilitator, patients, respecting choices, experience
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.09.2020; Ogledov: 766; Prenosov: 468
.pdf Celotno besedilo (748,78 KB)

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Advance care planning in patients with advanced cancer : a 6-country, cluster-randomised clinical trial
Ida Joanna Korfage, Giulia Carreras, Caroline M. Arnfeldt Christiansen, Pascalle Billekens, Louise Bramley, Linda Briggs, Francesco Bulli, Glenys Caswell, Branka Červ, Johannes JM van Delden, Hana Kodba Čeh, Urška Lunder, Alenka Mimič, Polona Ozbič, Anja Simonič, 2020

Povzetek: Background. Advance care planning (ACP) supports individuals to define, discuss, and record goals and preferences for future medical treatment and care. Despite being internationally recommended, randomised clinical trials of ACP in patients with advanced cancer are scarce. Methods and findings. To test the implementation of ACP in patients with advanced cancer, we conducted a cluster-randomised trial in 23 hospitals across Belgium, Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, Slovenia, and United Kingdom in 2015–2018. Patients with advanced lung (stage III/IV) or colorectal (stage IV) cancer, WHO performance status 0–3, and at least 3 months life expectancy were eligible. The ACTION Respecting Choices ACP intervention as offered to patients in the intervention arm included scripted ACP conversations between patients, family members, and certified facilitators; standardised leaflets; and standardised advance directives. Control patients received care as usual. Main outcome measures were quality of life (operationalised as European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] emotional functioning) and symptoms. Secondary outcomes were coping, patient satisfaction, shared decision-making, patient involvement in decision-making, inclusion of advance directives (ADs) in hospital files, and use of hospital care. In all, 1,117 patients were included (442 intervention; 675 control), and 809 (72%) completed the 12-week questionnaire. Patients’ age ranged from 18 to 91 years, with a mean of 66; 39% were female. The mean number of ACP conversations per patient was 1.3. Fidelity was 86%. Sixteen percent of patients found ACP conversations distressing. Mean change in patients’ quality of life did not differ between intervention and control groups (T-score −1.8 versus −0.8, p = 0.59), nor did changes in symptoms, coping, patient satisfaction, and shared decision-making. Specialist palliative care (37% versus 27%, p = 0.002) and AD inclusion in hospital files (10% versus 3%, p < 0.001) were more likely in the intervention group. A key limitation of the study is that recruitment rates were lower in intervention than in control hospitals. Conclusions. Our results show that quality of life effects were not different between patients who had ACP conversations and those who received usual care. The increased use of specialist palliative care and AD inclusion in hospital files of intervention patients is meaningful and requires further study. Our findings suggest that alternative approaches to support patient-centred end-of-life care in this population are needed.
Ključne besede: advanced care planning, medical treatment, advanced cancer, palliative care
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 14.12.2020; Ogledov: 759; Prenosov: 636
.pdf Celotno besedilo (986,49 KB)

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Development of an international Core Outcome Set (COS) for best care for the dying person : study protocol
Sofia C. Zambrano, Dagny Renata Faksvåg Haugen, Agnes van der Heide, Vilma A. Tripodoro, John Ellershaw, Carl-Johan Fürst, Raymond Voltz, Stephen Mason, María L. Daud, Gustavo De Simone, Urška Lunder, Hana Kodba Čeh, Miša Bakan, 2020

Povzetek: Background: In contrast to typical measures employed to assess outcomes in healthcare such as mortality or recovery rates, it is difficult to define which specific outcomes of care are the most important in caring for dying individuals. Despite a variety of tools employed to assess different dimensions of palliative care, there is no consensus on a set of core outcomes to be measured in the last days of life. In order to optimise decision making in clinical practice and comparability of interventional studies, we aim to identify and propose a set of core outcomes for the care of the dying person. Methods: Following the COMET initiative approach, the proposed study will proceed through four stages to develop a set of core outcomes: In stage 1, a systematic review of the literature will identify outcomes measured in existing peer reviewed literature, as well as outcomes derived through qualitative studies. Grey literature, will also be included. Stage 2 will allow for the identification and determination of patient and proxy defined outcomes of care at the end of life via quantitative and qualitative methods at an international level. In stage 3, from a list of salient outcomes identified through stages 1 and 2, international experts, family members, patients, and patient advocates will be asked to score the importance of the preselected outcomes through a Delphi process. Stage 4 consists of a face-to-face consensus meeting of international experts and patient/family representatives in order to define, endorse, and propose the final Core Outcomes Set. Discussion: Core Outcome Sets aim at promoting uniform assessment of care outcomes in clinical practice as well as research. If consistently employed, a robust set of core outcomes for the end of life, and specifically for the dying phase, defined by relevant stakeholders, can ultimately be translated into best care for the dying person. Patient care will be improved by allowing clinicians to choose effective and meaningful treatments, and research impact will be improved by employing internationally agreed clinically relevant endpoints and enabling accurate comparison between studies in systematic reviews and/or in meta-analyses.
Ključne besede: palliative care, palliative medicine, Delphi technique, dying persons, Outcome research, last days of life, end of life
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 02.02.2021; Ogledov: 667; Prenosov: 343
.pdf Celotno besedilo (792,31 KB)

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Content analysis of Advance Directives completed by patients with advanced cancer as part of an Advance Care Planning intervention : insights gained from the ACTION trial
Marieke Zwakman, Johannes JM van Delden, Glenys Caswell, Luc Deliens, F. Ingravallo, Lea J. Jabbarian, Anna Thit Johnsen, Ida Joanna Korfage, Alenka Mimič, C. Møller Arnfeldt, Urška Lunder, Branka Červ, Anja Simonič, Hana Kodba Čeh, Polona Ozbič, 2019

Povzetek: Purpose. Writing an Advance Directive (AD) is often seen as a part of Advance Care Planning (ACP). ADs may include specific preferences regarding future care and treatment and information that provides a context for healthcare professionals and relatives in case they have to make decisions for the patient. The aim of this study was to get insight into the content of ADs as completed by patients with advanced cancer who participated in ACP conversations. Methods. A mixed methods study involving content analysis and descriptive statistics was used to describe the content of completed My Preferences forms, an AD used in the intervention arm of the ACTION trial, testing the effectiveness of the ACTION Respecting Choices ACP intervention. Results. In total, 33% of 442 patients who received the ACTION RC ACP intervention completed a My Preferences form. Document completion varied per country: 10.4% (United Kingdom), 20.6% (Denmark), 29.2% (Belgium), 41.7% (the Netherlands), 61.3% (Italy) and 63.9% (Slovenia). Content analysis showed that 'maintaining normal life' and 'experiencing meaningful relationships' were important for patients to live well. Fears and worries mainly concerned disease progression, pain or becoming dependent. Patients hoped for prolongation of life and to be looked after by healthcare professionals. Most patients preferred to be resuscitated and 44% of the patients expressed maximizing comfort as their goal of future care. Most patients preferred 'home' as final place of care. Conclusions. My Preferences forms provide some insights into patients' perspectives and preferences. However, understanding the reasoning behind preferences requires conversations with patients.
Ključne besede: advance care planning, psycho-oncology, medical oncology, ACTION study, cancer, end of life, dying persons
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 15.02.2021; Ogledov: 666; Prenosov: 374
.pdf Celotno besedilo (351,21 KB)

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Detection of EGFR variants in plasma : a multilaboratory comparison of a real-time PCR EGFR mutation test in Europe
Cleo Keppens, John Palma, Partha Das, Sidney Scudder, Wei Wen, Nicola Normanno, Han J. J. M. van Krieken, Alessandra Sacco, Francesca Fenizia, David Gonzalez de Castro, Selma Hönigschnabl, Izidor Kern, Fernando Lopez-Rios, Maria D. Lozano, Antonio Marchetti, Philippe Halfon, Ed Schuuring, Ulrike Setinek, Boe Sorensen, Phillipe Taniere, Markus Tiemann, Hana Vosmikova, Elisabeth Dequeker, 2018

Povzetek: Molecular testing of EGFR is required to predict the response likelihood to targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA in plasma may complement limitations of tumor tissue. This study evaluated the interlaboratory performance and reproducibility of a real-time PCR EGFR mutation test (cobas EGFR Mutation Test v2) to detect EGFR variants in plasma. Fourteen laboratories received two identical panels of 27 single-blinded plasma samples. Samples were wild type or spiked with plasmid DNA to contain seven common EGFR variants at six predefined concentrations from 50 to 5000 copies per milliliter. The circulating tumor DNA was extracted by a cell-free circulating DNA sample preparation kit (cobas cfDNA Sample Preparation Kit), followed by duplicate analysis with the real-time PCR EGFR mutation test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA). Lowest sensitivities were obtained for the c.2156G>C p.(Gly719Ala) and c.2573T>G p.(Leu858Arg) variants for the lowest target copies. For all other variants, sensitivities varied between 96.3% and 100.0%. All specificities were 98.8% to 100.0%. Coefficients of variation indicated good intralaboratory and interlaboratory repeatability and reproducibility but increased for decreasing concentrations. Prediction models revealed a significant correlation for all variants between the predefined copy number and the observed semiquantitative index values, which reflect the samples' plasma mutation load. This study demonstrates an overall robust performance of the real-time PCR EGFR mutation test kit in plasma. Prediction models may be applied to estimate the plasma mutation load for diagnostic or research purposes.
Ključne besede: non-small cell lung cancer, plasma, EGFR, molecular testing
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.11.2020; Ogledov: 718; Prenosov: 100

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Ecodemocracy in practice : exploration of debates on limits and possibilities of addressing environmental challenges within democratic systems
Helen Kopnina, Reingard Spannring, Shé Mackenzie Hawke, Colin D. Robertson, Alessio Thomasberger, Michelle Maloney, Marco Morini, William Lynn, Naziru Zakari Muhammad, Francisco J. Santiago-Ávila, Hana Begovic, Mariusz Baranowski, 2021

Povzetek: This article examines the practical implications of ecological democracy or ecodemocracy, inquiring how capable democratic societies are of addressing environmental challenges. It asks: What is needed to secure democratic legitimacy for policy measures to benefit nonhuman species? What would ecodemocracy look like in practice? Different types of existing and possible types of representation are discussed, including the expansion of the precautionary principle, the Council of All Beings or Parliament of Things, and representation through the Parties for Animals. A possible approach in the form of a mandate for proxy ecorepresentation similar to civil rights through continuous affirmative action is investigated. Limitations and possibilities of each approach for nature representation are weighed.
Ključne besede: anthropocentrism, democracy, ecocentrism, ecological democracy, ecodemocracy, ecological justice, environmental justice, multispecies justice, rights of nature
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 22.06.2021; Ogledov: 508; Prenosov: 232
.pdf Celotno besedilo (338,91 KB)

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Debelinska rast in odziv duglazije (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in smreke (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) na podnebje na produktivnem rastišču Pečovnika pri Celju
Hana Štraus, Tom Levanič, 2021

Povzetek: Analizirali smo rast duglazije (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in smreke (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) na produktivnem rastišču na Pečovniku pri Celju. Analizirane duglazije so bile nekoliko mlajše od smrek (67 proti 71 let) in so nekoliko bolje priraščale (4,57 mm proti 3,26 mm na leto). Podnebni odziv duglazije na produktivnem rastišču je bil zelo izrazit. Na debelinski prirastek so statistično značilno vplivale nadpovprečne temperature v februarju in marcu, ter nadpovprečne padavine v juliju. V primerjavi s smreko je podnebni odziv duglazije časovno stabilen in bistveno izrazitejši. Analiza značilnih let je pokazala, da so negativna značilna leta pri duglaziji vedno povezana z zelo hladnim vremenom v februarju in marcu, pozitivna pa z nadpovprečnimi temperaturami v istih dveh mesecih. Poletne padavine imajo pomembnejšo vlogo pri duglaziji le v zadnjih treh desetletjih, pred tem pa ne. To nakazuje, da na sicer zelo produktivnem rastišču nastaja potencialno pomanjkanje vode, kar lahko na dolgi rok, ob trendih podnebnih sprememb, vodi v sušni stres in slabšo rast duglazije.
Ključne besede: podnebne spremembe, odziv na klimo, suša, debelinski prirastek, dendrokronologija
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 29.10.2021; Ogledov: 318; Prenosov: 130
.pdf Celotno besedilo (537,74 KB)

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