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Iskalni niz: "vrsta gradiva" (1) AND "polno besedilo" AND "organizacija" (Znanstveno-raziskovalno središče Koper / Centro di Ricerche Scientifiche Capodistria) .

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Lower-limb muscle contractile properties, explosive power and the subjective response of elite soccer players to the Covid-19 lockdown
Armin Paravlić, Boštjan Šimunič, Saša Pišot, Matej Kleva, Kaja Teraž, Matjaž Vogrin, Uroš Marušič, Rado Pišot, 2022

Povzetek: The present study examined the effects of the lockdown period on basic anthropometric measures, countermovement jumping performance, skeletal muscle contractile properties derived from tensiomyography (TMG), injury incidence, and self-assessed general well-being in elite soccer players. A total of 266 players were assessed before (PRE) and 32 players were reassessed 11 days after (POST) the COVID-19 period. Significant changes in the TMG parameters were observed POST compared to PRE: contraction time (Tc) increased from 6% to 50% in vastus lateralis [VL] (p = 0.009) and biceps femoris [BF] (p < 0.001), respectively; whereas radial displacement (Dm) increased for 19% in BF (p = 0.036) and 17% in VL (p < 0.001), respectively. Jumping performance remained unchanged from PRE to POST In addition, athletes rated the lockdown period as a positive event and felt psychologically better during the lockdown, primarily because they spent more time with family members and friends. Although there were no differences in any of the variables describing lower limb muscle power following the two-month lockdown, the altered contractile properties of the assessed muscles suggest suboptimal conditioning of the football players.
Ključne besede: football, male football, power, explosive power, tensiomyography, coronavirus, covid-19, pandemics, lockdown
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 06.01.2022; Ogledov: 51; Prenosov: 39
.pdf Celotno besedilo (672,26 KB)

"Kosovo, My Land"? : Slovenians, Albanians, and the Limits of Yugoslav Social Cohesion
Jure Ramšak, 2021

Povzetek: The author examines the Kosovo crisis in the context of the pluralisation and democratisation of Slovenian society in the 1980s and early 1990s. This issue became a catalyst not only for the repositioning of structures of party leadership in relation to Belgrade, but also with respect to general public debates. By charting individual stages of the critical decade of 1981%1991, the author presents Slovenian perceptions of Kosovo%s political, economic, and social issues, first through the works of neo-Marxist critics and later through the activism of a group of left-liberal intellectuals, which included the provision of legal support and a high-profile social action related to the violations of Kosovar Albanian human rights. The author discusses the constraints encountered by this brief attempt to establish a pan-Yugoslav civil society initiative. At the same time, he shows how the complexities of the Kosovo crisis were used to coalesce the Slovenian nation into flight from Yugoslavia.
Ključne besede: self-management socialism, human rights, social cohesion, dissolution of Yugoslavia, Kosovo, Slovenia
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.12.2021; Ogledov: 81; Prenosov: 56
.pdf Celotno besedilo (501,99 KB)

Stand up to excite the spine : neuromuscular, autonomic, and cardiometabolic responses during motor imagery in standing vs. sitting posture
Sidney Grosprêtre, Uroš Marušič, Philippe Gimenez, Gael Ennequin, Laurent Mourot, Laurie Isacco, 2021

Povzetek: Motor imagery (MI) for health and performance strategies has gained interest in recent decades. Nevertheless, there are still no studies that have comprehensively investigated the physiological responses during MI, and no one questions the influence of low-level contraction on these responses. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the neuromuscular, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and cardiometabolic changes associated with an acute bout of MI practice in sitting and standing condition. Twelve young healthy males (26.3 % 4.4 years) participated in two experimental sessions (control vs. MI) consisting of two postural conditions (sitting vs. standing). ANS, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, body sway parameters, and electromyography activity were continuously recorded, while neuromuscular parameters were recorded on the right triceps surae muscles before and after performing the postural conditions. While MI showed no effect on ANS, the standing posture increased the indices of sympathetic system activity and decreased those of the parasympathetic system (p < 0.05). Moreover, MI during standing induced greater spinal excitability compared to sitting posture (p < 0.05), which was accompanied with greater oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, ventilation, and lower cardiac output (p < 0.05). Asking individuals to perform MI of an isometric contraction while standing allows them to mentally focus on the motor command, not challenge balance, and produce specific cardiometabolic responses. Therefore, these results provide further evidence of posture and MI-related modulation of spinal excitability with additional autonomic and cardiometabolic responses in healthy young men.
Ključne besede: heart rate, oxygen uptake, VO2, H-reflex, elektromyography
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 29.11.2021; Ogledov: 117; Prenosov: 85
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,82 MB)

Dual-task performance in hearing-impaired older adults : study protocol for a cross-sectional mobile brain/body imaging study
Anna Wunderlich, Oliver Vogel, Maja Maša Šömen, Manca Peskar, Madeleine Fricke, Klaus Gramann, Janna Protzak, Uroš Marušič, Bettina Wollesen, 2021

Povzetek: Background: Hearing impairments are associated with reduced walking performance under Dual-task (DT) conditions. Little is known about the neural representation of DT performance while walking in this target group compared to healthy controls or younger adults. Therefore, utilizing the Mobile Brain/Body Imaging approach (MoBI), we aim at gaining deeper insights into the brain dynamics underlying the interaction of cognitive and motor processes during different DT conditions (visual and auditory) controlling for age and the potential performance decrements of older adults with hearing impairments. Methods: The cross-sectional study integrates a multifactorial mixed-measure design. Between-subject factors grouping the sample will be age (younger vs. older adults) and hearing impairment (mild vs. not hearing impaired). The within-subject factors will be the task complexity (single- vs. DT) and cognitive task modality (visual vs. auditory). Stimuli of the cognitive task will vary according to the stimulus modality (visual vs. auditory), presentation side (left vs. right), and presentation-response compatibility (ipsilateral vs. contralateral). Analyses of DT costs and underlying neuronal correlates focus either on gait or cognitive performance. Based on an a priori sample size calculation 96 (48 healthy and 48 mildly hearing impaired) community-dwelling older adults (50%70 years) and 48 younger adults (20%30 years) will be recruited. Gait parameters of speed and rhythm will be captured. EEG activity will be recorded using 64 active electrodes. Discussion: The study evaluates cognitive-motor interference (CMI) in groups of young and older adults as well as older adults with hearing impairment. The underlying processes of the interaction between motor and cognitive tasks will be identified at a behavioral and neurophysiological level comparing an auditory or a visual secondary task. We assume that performance differences are linked to different cognitive-motor processes, i.e., stimulus input, resource allocation, and movement execution. Moreover, for the different DT conditions (auditory vs. visual) we assume performance decrements within the auditory condition, especially for older, hearing-impaired adults. Findings will provide evidence of general mechanisms of CMI (ST vs. DT walking) as well as task-specific effects in dual-task performance while over ground walking.
Ključne besede: older adults, overground walking, dual-tasks, MoBi, hearing impairments
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 23.11.2021; Ogledov: 109; Prenosov: 69
.pdf Celotno besedilo (362,73 KB)

Reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from exercise in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
Jessica Van Oosterwijck, Uroš Marušič, Inge De Wandele, Mira Meeus, Lorna Paul, Luc Lambrecht, Greta Moorkens, Lieven Danneels, Jo Nijs, 2021

Povzetek: Although autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) has been proposed, conflicting evidence makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions regarding ANS activity at rest in ME/CFS patients. Although severe exercise intolerance is one of the core features of ME/CFS, little attempts have been made to study ANS responses to physical exercise. Therefore, impairments in ANS activation at rest and following exercise were examined using a case-control study in 20 ME/CFS patients and 20 healthy people. Different autonomous variables, including cardiac, respiratory, and electrodermal responses were assessed at rest and following an acute exercise bout. At rest, parameters in the time-domain represented normal autonomic function in ME/CFS, while frequency-domain parameters indicated the possible presence of diminished (para)sympathetic activation. Reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from exercise was observed in ME/CFS. This is the first study showing reduced parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from physical exercise in ME/CFS. Delayed HR recovery and/or a reduced HRV as seen in ME/CFS have been associated with poor disease prognosis, high risk for adverse cardiac events, and morbidity in other pathologies, implying that future studies should examine whether this is also the case in ME/CFS and how to safely improve HR recovery in this population.
Ključne besede: autonomic nervous system, autonomic function, electrodermal activity, electrocardiogram, heart rate, physical activity
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 20.10.2021; Ogledov: 187; Prenosov: 136
.pdf Celotno besedilo (4,50 MB)

Quantification of the link between timed up-and-go test subtasks and contractile muscle properties
Andreas Ziegl, Dieter Hayn, Peter Kastner, Ester Fabiani, Boštjan Šimunič, Kerstin Löffler, Lisa Weidinger, Bianca Brix, Nandu Goswami, Günter Schreier, 2021

Povzetek: Frailty and falls are a major public health problem in older adults. Muscle weakness of the lower and upper extremities are risk factors for any, as well as recurrent falls including injuries and fractures. While the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test is often used to identify frail members and fallers, tensiomyography (TMG) can be used as a non-invasive tool to assess the function of skeletal muscles. In a clinical study, we evaluated the correlation between the TMG parameters of the skeletal muscle contraction of 23 elderly participants (22 f, age 86.74 % 7.88) and distance-based TUG test subtask times. TUG tests were recorded with an ultrasonic-based device. The sit-up and walking phases were significantly correlated to the contraction and delay time of the muscle vastus medialis (% = 0.55%0.80, p < 0.01). In addition, the delay time of the muscles vastus medialis (% = 0.45, p = 0.03) and gastrocnemius medialis (% = %0.44, p = 0.04) correlated to the sit-down phase. The maximal radial displacements of the biceps femoris showed significant correlations with the walk-forward times (% = %0.47, p = 0.021) and back (% = %0.43, p = 0.04). The association of TUG subtasks to muscle contractile parameters, therefore, could be utilized as a measure to improve the monitoring of elderly people%s physical ability in general and during rehabilitation after a fall in particular. TUG test subtask measurements may be used as a proxy to monitor muscle properties in rehabilitation after long hospital stays and injuries or for fall prevention.
Ključne besede: timed up-and-go test, tensiomyography, biomedical engineering, biomedical sensors, health
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 18.10.2021; Ogledov: 164; Prenosov: 125
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,34 MB)

The aging muscle in experimental bed rest : ǂa ǂsystematic review and meta-analysis
Filippo Giorgio Di Girolamo, Nicola Fiotti, Zoran Milanović, Roberta Situlin, Filippo Mearelli, Pierandrea Vinci, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Marco Vincenzo Narici, Gianni Biolo, 2021

Povzetek: Background: Maintaining skeletal muscle mass and function in aging is crucial for preserving the quality of life and health. An experimental bed rest (BR) protocol is a suitable model to explore muscle decline on aging during inactivity. Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was, therefore, to carry out an up-to-date evaluation of bed rest, with a specific focus on the magnitude of effects on muscle mass, strength, power, and functional capacity changes as well as the mechanisms, molecules, and pathways involved in muscle decay. Design: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis study. Data sources: We used PubMed, Medline; Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library, all of which were searched prior to April 23, 2020. A manual search was performed to cover bed rest experimental protocols using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: %Elderly Bed rest,% %Older Bed rest,% %Old Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Aging Bed rest,% %Bed-rest,% and %Bedrest%. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, participants, interventions, and outcome measures. The primary outcome measures were: body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, leg lean mass, cross-sectional area, knee extension power, cytokine pattern, IGF signaling biomarkers, FOXO signaling biomarkers, mitochondrial modulation biomarkers, and muscle protein kinetics biomarkers. Results: A total of 25 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, while 17 of them were included in the meta-analysis. In total, 118 healthy elderly volunteers underwent 5-, 7-, 10-, or 14-days of BR and provided a brief sketch on the possible mechanisms involved. In the very early phase of BR, important changes occurred in the skeletal muscle, with significant loss of performance associated with a lesser grade reduction of the total body and muscle mass. Meta-analysis of the effect of bed rest on total body mass was determined to be small but statistically significant (ES = %0.45, 95% CI: %0.72 to %0.19, P < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant effects were observed for total lean body mass (ES = %0.67, 95% CI: %0.95 to %0.40, P < 0.001) after bed rest intervention. Overall, total lean body mass was decreased by 1.5 kg, while there was no relationship between bed rest duration and outcomes (Z = 0.423, p = 672). The meta-analyzed effect showed that bed rest produced large, statistically significant, effects (ES = %1.06, 95% CI: %1.37 to %0.75, P < 0.001) in terms of the knee extension power. Knee extension power was decreased by 14.65 N/s. In contrast, to other measures, meta-regression showed a significant relationship between bed rest duration and knee extension power (Z = 4.219, p < 0.001). Moderate, statistically significant, effects were observed after bed rest intervention for leg muscle mass in both old (ES = %0.68, 95% CI: %0.96 to %0.40, P < 0.001) and young (ES = %0.51, 95% CI: %0.80 to %0.22, P < 0.001) adults. However, the magnitude of change was higher in older (MD = %0.86 kg) compared to younger (MD = %0.24 kg) adults. Conclusion: Experimental BR is a suitable model to explore the detrimental effects of inactivity in young adults, old adults, and hospitalized people. Changes in muscle mass and function are the two most investigated variables, and they allow for a consistent trend in the BR-induced changes. Mechanisms underlying the greater loss of muscle mass and function in aging, following inactivity, need to be thoroughly investigated.
Ključne besede: bed rest, aging, muscles, muscle physiopathology, muscle function
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 26.08.2021; Ogledov: 275; Prenosov: 164
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,32 MB)

The crumbling touchstone of the Vatican's ostpolitik : relations between the Holy see and Yugoslavia, 1970-1989
Jure Ramšak, 2021

Povzetek: Based on Yugoslav archival sources, the paper analyses the relationship between the Holy See and Yugoslavia as the only Eastern European socialist state with which the former had official diplomatic relations. The relationship between the Holy See and socialist Yugoslavia provides insight into the precarious position of the Catholic Church in Yugoslavia, but also into the issues and dilemmas that the Holy See faced in terms of its Ostpolitik towards Eastern European socialist regimes. The article initially centres on the parallels between the Holy See and the foreign policy agenda of non-aligned Yugoslavia, especially during the papacy of Paul VI, when both actors shared an understanding of the acute problems of the Global South. It then analyses the stance of the Holy See towards the Yugoslav domestic policy of self-management that claimed that this system could present a viable environment for the life of believers in modern socialist society. The analysis closes with an in-depth examination of the role of the Holy See in the process of convergence between religion and nationalism during the 1980s, in which the Vatican did not play as clear-cut a role as it has generally been ascribed and proved unable to tackle this formidable phenomenon.
Ključne besede: Yugoslavia, Vatican, Roman catholic church, church and state, relations
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 19.07.2021; Ogledov: 286; Prenosov: 209
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,58 MB)

A randomized crossover trial on the acute cardiovascular demands during flywheel exercise
Damir Zubac, Vladimir Ivančev, Zoran Valić, Rado Pišot, Cécil J. W. Meulenberg, Irhad Trozic, Nandu Goswami, Boštjan Šimunič, 2021

Povzetek: In a randomized crossover trial, we examined whether age plays a role in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) response during a vigorous flywheel exercise of varying load. We hypothesized that the magnitude of increase in the MAP during the flywheel exercise would increase in proportion to advancing age, thereby imposing a significant challenge to the cardiovascular system. A total of 30 participants of both sexes (age range from 20%55 y, 37% women) underwent a detailed medical examination, and their maximal oxygen uptake was determined. They performed a squat exercise (2 sets % 7 repetitions) on a flywheel ergometer at three randomly assigned moments of inertia set at 0.025, 0.05, and 0.075 kg m2, while the cardiovascular response was continuously recorded via a Task force monitor. Compared to the resting values, robust rises in the MAP were observed during all three flywheel loads, reaching the highest value of 179 % 4 mmHg (p = 0.001) during the highest load. In parallel, the cardiac index (cardiac output normalized by the body surface area) was two-fold greater during all the flywheel loads compared to rest, and at a high load, exclusively, the total peripheral resistance increased by 11% (p = 0.001). The rise in heart rate compensated for a load-dependent drop in the stroke index (stroke volume normalized by the body surface area). In our study population, no correlations were observed between the relative increase in the MAP and the participants% age for the three flywheel loads. The present findings suggest that the larger moments of inertia impose a substantial burden to the cardiovascular system, without apparent associated age-differences of the relative magnitude of MAP rise throughout the exercise.
Ključne besede: yo-yo exercise, oxygen uptake, muscles loading, blood pressure, krvni tlak, flow mediate dilation
DiRROS - Objavljeno: 05.07.2021; Ogledov: 376; Prenosov: 226
.pdf Celotno besedilo (1,85 MB)

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